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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
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siick11
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Question 1 of 10
Most sharp force injuries are produced by objects that are NOT commonly designed for the purpose of inflicting injury?
 A. True
 B. False

Question 2 of 10

Stab wounds are usually inflicted with little nor cutting taking place?

A. True
 B. False

Question 3 of 10

A characteristic of sharp force injuries is which of the following?

 
 A. Profuse internal bleeding, often with little external bleeding. 
 
 B. Profuse external bleeding, often with little internal bleeding. 
 
 C. Profuse external bleeding. 
 
 D. Little bleeding because it is a clean cut with no tissue damage. 

Question 4 of 10 10.0 Points

Tardieu's spots are usually associated with what mode or type of asphyxia?
 
 A. Strangulation 
 
 B. Hanging 
 
 C. Mechanical asphyxia 
 
 D. Chemical asphyxia

Question 5 of 10 10.0 Points

What type of burn situation results in patchy charring of the body?
 
 A. Scalding 
 
 B. Explosion 
 
 C. Electrocution 
 
 D. Flammable Liquid 

Question 6 of 10 10.0 Points

Three elements are required for an electrocution to occur. ONE of the following is NOT correct.

 
 A. A high chemical imbalance in the body that promotes the electrical path. 
 
 B. A charged electrical source 
 
 C. A current pathway through the victim 
 
 D. A ground

Question 7 of 10 10.0 Points

When might a sharp force injury mimic a gunshot wound?
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Question 8 of 10 10.0 Points

What are defense wounds and where are they most likely to be found?
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Question 9 of 10 15.0 Points

Define asphyxia and what happens to a body that is suffering from asphyxia? Which organ in the body is most sensitive to oxygen deprivation in all types of asphyxia?
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of 1 - 

Question 10 of 10 20.0 Points

Discuss the differential findings between fresh and saltwater drownings. Include in your answer specific indications that an investigator would look for in a drowning to help determine the cause of death.
Click "Browse" to locate your file and then click "Upload" to upload your file.
 

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Reply# 1
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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 6, 2011

What are defense wounds and where are they most likely to be found?
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Defense wounds are suffered by victims attempting to protect themselves from an assault, often by a knife or club. These wounds are commonly found on the palms of the hands, the fingers, or the forearms. In the most aggravated form, the defense wound may sever one or
more fingers.

best if you posted one question per topic...



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Reply# 2
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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 7, 2011

Thank you!!!  Wink



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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 7, 2011

I got cha hang tight



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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 7, 2011

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They are not in the same order but here is Quiz 3 Hope this helps  Wink

Part 1 of 1 -  100.0 Points

Question 1 of 10 5.0 Points

Most sharp force injuries are produced by objects that are NOT commonly designed for the purpose of inflicting injury?
 
  A. True
 B. False
 



Answer Key: True
Question 2 of 10 5.0 Points

Stab wounds are usually inflicted with little nor cutting taking place?
 
  A. True
 B. False
 



Answer Key: False
Question 3 of 10 5.0 Points

A characteristic of sharp force injuries is which of the following? 
 A. Profuse internal bleeding, often with little external bleeding. 
 
 B. Profuse external bleeding, often with little internal bleeding. 
 
 C. Profuse external bleeding. 
 
 D. Little bleeding because it is a clean cut with no tissue damage. 



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 10 10.0 Points

Tardieu's spots are usually associated with what mode or type of asphyxia? 
 A. Strangulation 
 
 B. Hanging 
 
 C. Mechanical asphyxia 
 
 D. Chemical asphyxia 



Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 10 10.0 Points

What type of burn situation results in patchy charring of the body? 
 A. Scalding 
 
 B. Explosion 
 
 C. Electrocution 
 
 D. Flammable Liquid 



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 10 10.0 Points

Three elements are required for an electrocution to occur. ONE of the following is NOT correct. 
 A. A high chemical imbalance in the body that promotes the electrical path. 
 
 B. A charged electrical source 
 
 C. A current pathway through the victim 
 
 D. A ground 



Answer Key: A
Question 7 of 10 10.0 Points

When might a sharp force injury mimic a gunshot wound?
According to our text ice picks produce puncture wounds resembling small caliber bullet wounds. When situated under one or both collarbones, such injuries may resemble hospital placed hypodermic needle marks. A small pocketknife may cause similar injuries. An exit bullet wound may resemble a knife wound if the bullet is fragmented or flattened by prior impact on bone. Fragments of bone shattered by a bullet may also leave the body, producing wounds that suggest stabbing. According to Medscape Reference, Sharp Force Injuries http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1680082-overview#aw2aab6b6 Objects with a cylindrical shape cause round stab wounds, which may mimic gunshot wounds. Reference: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition. Medscape Reference, Sharp Force Injuries http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1680082-overview#aw2aab6b6

 
Question 8 of 10 10.0 Points

What are defense wounds and where are they most likely to be found?
The Free Dictionary By Farlex (2011) http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Defense+Wound, A defense wound is a wound sustained when a victim places a hand (often the palms), arm (lateral forearms) or other body part in harm's way to prevent or minimise the impact of a blow or slashing by a sharp weapon. Our text states such defense wounds must be distinguished from offensive cuts of the assailant's hand sustained when the hand holding the knife slips off the bloodied handle onto the blade. Depending on how the knife was being held, such cuts occur predominately on the under side of the index finger. Wooden handles of old kitchen knives and one piece all metal knives are particularly conductive to this type of injury. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition. The Free Dictionary By Farlex (2011) http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Defense+Wound

 
Question 9 of 10 15.0 Points

Define asphyxia and what happens to a body that is suffering from asphyxia? Which organ in the body is most sensitive to oxygen deprivation in all types of asphyxia?
According to Merriam Webster Encyclopedia Britannica Company (2011) , Asphyxia http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/medical/asphyxia, Asphyxia is a lack of oxygen or excess of carbon dioxide in the body that results in unconsciousness and often death and is usually caused by interruption of breathing or inadequate oxygen supply. According to our text asphyxia is a broad term encompassing a variety of conditions that result in interference with the uptake or utilization of oxygen. Oxygen is essential to sustain life. A reduced concentration of oxygen in the blood which reaches the brain causes rapid loss of consciousness. The brain constitutes approximately 2% of body weight, but utilizes 20% of the total available oxygen. Because it is the most sensitive to oxygen deprivation, the brain is the organ most affected in all types of asphyxial death. Our text says, for practical purposes, asphyxia falls into one of the following categories Compression of the neck, with or without blockage of the airway, as in: Hanging and Strangulation Obstruction of the airway, as in: Smothering, Aspiration of foreign material, Swelling of the lining membranes of the throat, as in some allergic and inflammatory reactions, inhalation of superheated air or following a blow to the neck, Postural asphyxia, also known as positional asphyxia or traumatic asphyxia Compression of the chest interfering with respiratory movements Exclusion of oxygen due to depletion and replacement by another gas or as a result of chemical interference with its uptake and utilization. Reference: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

 
Question 10 of 10 20.0 Points

Discuss the differential findings between fresh and saltwater drownings. Include in your answer specific indications that an investigator would look for in a drowning to help determine the cause of death.
According to our text, a body in fresh or brackish water will typically sink unless trapped air in the clothing keeps it afloat. In salt water, a body is more likely to remain on the surface or, depending on fat content, float at variable levels beneath the surface. Because of this, bodies in the ocean are often recovered by the use of aircraft. A body that sinks will resurface when gas is formed as part of the decomposition process and even a body weighted down will eventually rise as more and more putrefactive gases are produced. The longer a body is under water the more it is vulnerable to postmortem animal activity. The time needed until a body resurfaces usually depends on the temperature of the water. In warm water it may take two or three days while in cold water a body may not resurface for weeks or months. In very cold deep waters, decomposition occurs very slowly and in these conditions a body may never resurface. Fresh Brackish water has a low salt content, water is absorbed into circulation system resulting in hypervolemia and hemolysis. Sufactant destruction leads to alveolar shunting. In fresh water a human will die within 3-5 minutes following submersion cardiac arrhythmia. While in sea water the salt content is generally greater than 3%. Fluid from the blood enters lungs creating severe pulmonary edema. Sea water contains a relatively small volume shift. There is not as much effect on electrolyte concentration but do get profound hypoxemia. It also takes longer to drown than in fresh water. Autopsy findings associated with drowning can be seen both externally and internally. Body surface findings are associated with a body in water whether or not the cause of death is drowning. External findings may include the presence of mud and aquatic debris within the mouth or in the nares and wrinkling of the skin on the hands and feet. Typically skin wrinkling is seen if the body has been in the water for one or more hours, however, in warm water wrinkling can begin in less than 20 minutes. With continued immersion and depending on the temperature of the water, the epidermis peels off like a glove including the toenails and fingernails. In many cases ink can be applied to the fingertips to obtain fingerprints for the purpose of identification. In cold water, several days may pass before the epidermis separates from the underlying tissues, whereas in warm water, such as a bathtub, this may occur after several hours. Reference: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

 
 





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Reply# 5
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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 7, 2011

THANK YOU SOOO MUCH!!! I hate to ask but do you happen to have the week 5 discussion board post also?



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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Dec 7, 2011

My week 5 post was different than yours is. Sorry! But honestly looking at the picture it does not look like a suicide. If you look at the picture closely it shows an open water bottle indicating that someone (obviously the women) drank it. Since her husband was out of town. I would say the victim had a guest over possibly a man she may have been having an affair with. Prior to going over the womans house he may have found out she was married and got angry causing him to want to kill her.  The woman unaware of the mans knowledge goes to the rest room, and the man slips poison in the womans water bottle. She comes back to the living room drinks the water and when the man realizes she is dying he leaves the womans home. Staging it so that the husband and authorities think it is a suicide!



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Does anyone have Quiz 3 for AMU/APU Pathology of Death Investigations
Apr 21, 2012

Question 1 of 10
Most sharp force injuries are produced by objects that are NOT commonly designed for the purpose of inflicting injury?
A. True
B. False

Answer:  A
Question 2 of 10

Stab wounds are usually inflicted with little nor cutting taking place?
A. True
B. False

Answer:  B
Question 3 of 10

A characteristic of sharp force injuries is which of the following?

A. Profuse internal bleeding, often with little external bleeding.

B. Profuse external bleeding, often with little internal bleeding.

C. Profuse external bleeding.

D. Little bleeding because it is a clean cut with no tissue damage.

Answer:  is NOT C
Question 4 of 10 10.0 Points

Tardieu's spots are usually associated with what mode or type of asphyxia?

A. Strangulation

B. Hanging

C. Mechanical asphyxia

D. Chemical asphyxia

Question 5 of 10 10.0 Points

Answer:  B

What type of burn situation results in patchy charring of the body?

A. Scalding

B. Explosion

C. Electrocution

D. Flammable Liquid

Answer:  D

Question 6 of 10 10.0 Points

Three elements are required for an electrocution to occur. ONE of the following is NOT correct.

A. A high chemical imbalance in the body that promotes the electrical path.

B. A charged electrical source

C. A current pathway through the victim

D. A ground

Answer:  A
Question 7 of 10 10.0 Points

When might a sharp force injury mimic a gunshot wound?
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Gunshot wounds typically resemble a small hole at the entrance and may have an exit wound which is usually larger.  A pointed target arrow will produce an entrance wound virtually indistinguishable from a gunshot wound (Spitz, 2006, p 574), at least as it applies to a typical gunshot entrance wound.  A homicidal stabbing with an ice pick or stab wounds from a small pocket knife can also be misconstrued as small caliber bullet holes (Spitz, 2006, pp 596-597).

Through closer examination, a gunshot wound can be distinguished from a pointed target arrow wound by the presence of soot and gunpowder which is discharged in smoke as the bullet leaves the barrel of a gun (Spitz, 2006, p 607).  The bullet may be found in the body as well, but not if it has exited the body.  Soot and gunpowder may also be difficult to locate in some circumstances, such as if it is hidden in clothing that was worn by the victim or in contact shots, the soot and gunpowder will usually be deposited internally and on the wound edges (Spitz, 2006, p 611).

Regardless of the difficulty in distinguishing between a pointed target arrow injury and a gunshot injury, closer examination will typically reveal evidence to differentiate between them.

Reference:

Spitz & Werner, U. (2006). Spitz and fisher's medicolegal investigation of death: Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime prevention (4th ed.).  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.

Question 8 of 10 10.0 Points

What are defense wounds and where are they most likely to be found?
Click "Browse" to locate your file and then click "Upload" to upload your file.

Defensive wounds occur on victims when they realize they are being attacked and maneuver in an effort to block or defend against a knife attack.  They are often sustained when the victim raises his or her arms or grabs a blade in an effort to protect their face or chest by warding off the attacker's weapon (Spitz, 2006, pp 540-541).  

Defensive wounds are often found on the hands, wrists or arms, but not exclusively.  Cuts or stab wounds might be found on lower extremities if the victim was laying down and using his or her legs for defense.  Lower extremity injury may are most common in females and may suggest sexual assault (Spitz, 2006, p541).  Defensive wounds may also be vertical, horizontal or circular patterned cuts on the abdomen, chest or face which may indicate the victim attempted to maneuver away from the attack (Spitz, 2006, p 541).

Reference:

Spitz & Werner, U. (2006). Spitz and fisher's medicolegal investigation of death: Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime prevention (4th ed.).  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.

Question 9 of 10 15.0 Points

Define asphyxia and what happens to a body that is suffering from asphyxia? Which organ in the body is most sensitive to oxygen deprivation in all types of asphyxia?
Click "Browse" to locate your file and then click "Upload" to upload your file.

Asphyxia encompasses a variety of conditions or situations that are induced by the interference with the uptake or utilization of oxygen (Spitz, 2006, p 783).  Oxygen is taken in through the mouth or nose through an airway to the lungs where it is transferred into the blood stream, then the heart pumps bloods through arteries to the various organs and tissues throughout the body.  Oxygen is a critical element in sustaining life and without it, the body dies through a systematic shut down.  Asphyxia interferes with that oxygen consumption and will cause death if not remedied very quickly.  

Asphyxia is best categorized as compression of the neck, compression of the chest, or airway obstruction which will prevent oxygen from entering the body; and may also be categorized as exclusion of oxygen due to depletion, replacement by other gases or chemical interference with its uptake and utilization (Spitz, 2006, p 783).  Neck compression is found in hangings and strangulations (Spitz, 2006, p 783).  Chest compression may be found when the chest is crushed or in a fashion where it is not feasible to take in breaths.  Airway obstruction may be found in smothering, aspiration from foreign objects or material, selling of the throat linings from allergies, inflammation, inhalation of extremely hot air or a blow to the neck (Spitz, 2006, p 783).  Poisoning from such things as cyanide, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide would characterize cases of exclusion of oxygen (Spitz, 2006, p 783).

All organs and tissues in the body require oxygen, but some are more critical or more sensitive than others.  The brain uses approximately twenty percent of a body's oxygen and is the most sensitive to oxygen deprivation and is most affected in all cases of asphyxial death (Spitz, 2006, p 783).  

Reference:

Spitz & Werner, U. (2006). Spitz and fisher's medicolegal investigation of death: Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime prevention (4th ed.).  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.

Question 10 of 10 20.0 Points

Discuss the differential findings between fresh and saltwater drownings. Include in your answer specific indications that an investigator would look for in a drowning to help determine the cause of death.
Click "Browse" to locate your file and then click "Upload" to upload your file.

In fresh or brackish water drownings, early studies found that hemodilution occurred due to increased intravascular volume, meaning that water easily crossed from the alveoli into the vasculature (Spitz, 2006, p 869).  That indicates that water passed into the bloodstream easily, which contributed to abnormal electrolyte balances causing hyponatremia and hypokalemia which were believed to induce fatal cardiac dysrhythmias, most commonly ventricular fibrillation (Spitz, 2006, p 869).  In saltwater, hypertonicity of the water caused hemoconcentration shifting water away from the intravascular space resulting in massive aspiration-induced pulmonary edema, physiologic shunting with subsequent hypoxia (Spitz, 2006, p 869).  During autopsies, medical examiners may notice a reddish-brown discoloration to the cerebral cortex in salt water drowning victims due to hemoconcentration (Spitz, 2006, p 865).  Also, dead bodies typically sink in fresh or brackish water and tend to float in saltwater (Spitz, 2006, p 853), most likely due to hemodilution and hemoconcentration respectively affecting the displacement of water in the vascular space and either weighing down a body or lightening it up.

In drowning deaths, investigators and medical examiners seek to answer why or how a victim got into a position to drown and why he or she could not survive or exit the water unharmed (Spitz, 2006, p 847).  Medical examiners would typically look at human factors during a complete autopsy to determine the victim's mental health and medical conditions, drug and alcohol use and swimming ability (Spitz, 2006, p 847).  An investigator may investigate environmental factors such as water current, temperature and depth, dangerous marine life, electrical hazards and equipment failures (Spitz, 2006, p 847).  The medical examiner should look for injuries such as burns, abrasions or contusions to indicate if the victim was injured prior to entering the water which might indicate foul play.  Consciousness, diseases, or physical disorders may impede a person from avoiding the drowning.  Drug and alcohol use can stunt the motor skills and cloud thinking contributing to an inability to focus and pull oneself out of a potential drowning predicament.  The medical examiner may likely look for signs of attack from dangerous marine life such as jelly fish, alligators or sharks which may have contributed to the death (Spitz, 2006, p 851), or may also look for deterioration of the body postmortem due to fish or other marine life feeding on the dead carcass of the victim.  

Regardless of the situation, deaths involving death are difficult to resolve and special considerations need to be taken in to account due potential events that led to the drowning.  It would be easy enough to label all dead bodies found in water or full of water as drowning victims, but the potential for a cover-up would be too easily exploited, so it is imperative that medical examiners do a detailed and thorough autopsy in the event of drowning victims or suspected drowning victims.

Reference:

Spitz & Werner, U. (2006). Spitz and fisher's medicolegal investigation of death: Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime prevention (4th ed.).  Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.



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