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Physio-Ex #37 Resp. System Mechanics: Computer Simulation
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Pulmonary Function Tests Respiratory System Mechanics: Computer Simulation 37B
The following questions refer to Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes.
1. What activity are you simulating when you click the ERV button?
•   The maximum exhalation following tidal volume (TV).
What additional muscles are used in this activity?
•   Abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
2. What was the MRV calculated in Activity 1?
•   7500
3. What does the pump rate simulate?
•   Respiratory rate
The following questions refer to Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory Volumes.
4. How did changing the radius effect FEV1 (%)?
•   With each successive 0.50 mm decrement; FEV1; decreased by 10%.
Radius mm   FEV1 (%)
5.00                    74%
4.50                    73%
4.00                    72%
3.50                    71%
3.00                    0%



5. What was the FEV1 at a radius of 5.00 mm?
•   74%
6. Do the results suggest that there is an obstructive or restrictive problem? Explain.
•   No.  The airway = normal radius.
The following questions refer to Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant.
7. What effect does the addition of surfactant have on the airflow?
•   The addition of surfactant caused an increase in airflow.
8. Why does surfactant affect airflow?
•   It reduces surface tension in the alveoli; thus, the alveoli are more capable of further expansion.
9. Why do premature infants have difficulty breathing?
•   Preemies lack a sufficient amount of surfactant.
The following questions refer to Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure.

10. What effect does opening the valve have on the left lung? Why does this happen?
•   The left lung collapses because interpleural and atmospheric pressure are not equal.
11. What condition does opening the valve simulate?
•   Pneumothorax
12. What is the value of the pressure in the left lung when the valve is opened?
•   0.00





13. What happened to the total flow when the valve was opened?
•   The total flow = half the amount recorded when both lungs were fully functional.
14. In the last part of this activity, when the reset button was clicked, what procedure would be used with real lungs?
•   A chest tube would be inserted to remove air from the pleural cavity.
The following questions refer to Activity 5: Exploring Various Breathing Patterns.
15. What was the value of the PCO2 with rapid breathing?
•   -39.74
How does this compare to the value with normal breathing? Explain any differences.
•   PCO2 is lower than in rapid breathing because in normal breathing; more CO2 is expelled than is produced via cellular respiration.
16. What was the value of the PCO2 with rebreathing?
•   -53.35
Explain any difference.
•   Air that is high in CO2 is being inhaled.





17. What happened to the rate of respirations with rebreathing?
•   They are somewhat faster than normal breathing.
Why do you think this happened? (Hint: Think about the effects of chemoreceptors in the body).     
•   Increased CO2 stimulates the breathing center to increase the breathing rate.
18. What was the value of the PCO2 with breath holding? Explain any difference.
•   PCO2 = -49.10, PCO2 increased during breath-holding, and decreased upon normal breathing resumption.
19. Was there a change in the rate of respirations when the breathing was resumed?
•   The rate of respirations increased when breathing resumed.
The following questions refer to Activity 6: Comparative Spirometry.
20. What was the value obtained for the (FEV1/FVC) 100% with “normal breathing”?
•   80%
21. What effect did “emphysema breathing” have on FVC and FEV1?
•   Both FVC and FEV1 were reduced.
22. In “emphysema breathing” which of the two values, FVC and FEV1 changed the most?    FEV1 changed the most.
23. What effect did “acute asthma attack breathing” have on FVC and FEV1?
•   Both FVC and FEV1 were reduced.
24. In “acute asthma attack breathing” which of the two values, FVC and FEV1 changed the most?
•   FEV1 changed the most.



5. Describe the effect that the inhaler medication had on the FVC and FEV1.
•   Inhaler medication caused an increase of FVC and FEV1 return to relatively near normal values.
26. Did the values return to “normal”? Explain.
•   Neither value returned to normal; the smooth muscles in the bronchioles did not relax.
27. During “moderate exercise breathing,” which volumes changed the most?
•   Tidal Volume changed the most.

28. During “heavy exercise breathing,” which volumes changed the most?
•   Tidal volume increased, while ERV and IRV reduced.


Extra informationHuman A&P, Lab Manual, Marieb- 8th edition.
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