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3 years ago
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Respiratory Volumes
Activity 2:  Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes
1.  Minute respiratory volume:       ml
2.  Judging from the trace you generated, inspiration took place over how many seconds? 
3.  Expiration took place over how many seconds? 
4.  Does the duration of inspiration or expiration vary during ERV or FVC?

Activity 3:  Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes
5.  How does this set of data compare to the data you recorded for Activity 2? 
6.  Is the respiratory system functioning better or worse than it did in the previous activity?  Explain why. 
7.  What is the effect of reducing the radius of the air flow tube on respiratory volumes? 
8.  What does the air flow tube simulate in the human body?
9.  What could be some possible causes of reduction in air flow to the lungs? 

Factors Affecting Respiration
Activity 4:  Effect of Surfactant on Respiratory Volumes
10.  When surfactant is added, what happens to the tidal volume? 
11.  As a result of the tidal volume change, what happens to the flow into each lung and total air flow? 
12.  Why does this happen? 

Activity 5:  Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture
13.  What happened to the left lung when you clicked on the valve button? 
14.  Why? 
15.  What has happened to the “Total Flow” rate? 
16.  What is the pressure in the left lung? 
17.  Has the pressure in the right lung been affected? 
18.  If there was nothing separating the left lung from the right lung, what would have happened when you opened the valve for the left lung?  Why? 
19.  Now click the valve for the left lung again, closing it.  What happens?  Why? 
20.  Describe the relationship required between intrathoracic pressure and atmospheric pressure in order to draw air into the lungs. 
21.  Design your own experiment for testing the effect of opening the valve of the right lung.  Was there any difference from the effect of opening the valve of the left lung? 

Variations in Breathing
Activity 6:  Rapid Breathing
22.  What happens to the PCO2 level during rapid breathing? 
23.  Why? 

Activity 7:  Rebreathing
24.  What happens to the PCO2 level during rebreathing? 
25.  Why? 
26.  Did the total flow change? 
27.  Why? 
28.  How does the rebreathing trace compare to your baseline trace? 
29.  Why? 

Activity 8:  Breath Holding
30.  What happens to the PCO2 level during breath holding? 
31.  Why? 
32.  What change was seen when you returned to “Normal Breathing”? 

Activity 9:  Comparative Spirometry
   Normal Breathing:
33.  What do you think is the clinical importance of the FVC and FEV1 values? 
34.  Why do you think the ratio of these two values is important to the clinician when diagnosing respiratory diseases? 
Emphysema Breathing:
35.  Is the FVC reduced or increased? 
36.  Is the FEV1 reduced or increased? 
37.  Which of these two changed more? 
38.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram for this condition. 
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing:
39.  Is the FVC reduced or increased? 
40.  Is the FEV1 reduced or increased? 
41.  Which of these two changed more? 
42.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram for this condition. 
43.  How is this condition similar to having emphysema?  How is it different? 
44.  Emphysema and asthma are called obstructive lung diseases as they limit expiratory flow and volume.  How would a spirogram look for someone with a restrictive lung disease, such as pulmonary fibrosis? 
45.  What volumes and capacities would change in this case, and would these values be increased or decreased? 
46.  In an acute asthma attack, the compliance of the lung is decreased, not increased as it was for emphysema, and air flows freely through the bronchioles.  Therefore, will the FEV1/FVC percentage be less than normal, equal to normal, or higher than normal? 
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing with Inhaler Medication Applied:
47.  Has the FVC reduced or increased?  Is it “normal? 
48.  Has the FEV1 reduced or increased?  Is it “normal”? 
49.  Which of these two changed more? 
50.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram with the application of the medication.

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3 years ago
Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes (pp. 86–88)

.

Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory
Volumes (p. 88)


7. FEV1 (%) will decrease as the airway radius is decreased.
FEV1 (%) is .

Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant (pp. 89–90)

8. FEV1 (%) decreases as the radius of the airway is decreased.
Airflow increases when .

Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure (pp. 90–91)

8. The lung in the left side of the bell jar deflated.
The pressure in the left lung was zero and the pressure in the right lung changed constantly. pressure to increase and equal atmospheric pressure.
The total airflow was reduced by one half.
.

9. The lungs did not reinflate when the valve was closed.
In additon to closing off the opening to the atmosphere, the excess air in the intrapleural
space must be removed to before the lungs will reinflate.

14. After clicking Reset and running the experiment again, atmospheric pressure by clicking Reset.

.
- Master of Science in Biology
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wrote...
Posts: 2
Credits: 80
Rep:  +1  -1 
     
3 years ago
i agree
kpx311
wrote...
3 years ago
exercise 7 activity 6
How much of an increase in FEV1 do you think is required for it to be considered significantly improved by the medication? 
barrelracer497
wrote...
3 years ago
This post was very helpful - thanks!  Smile
quynhnguyen91
wrote...
3 years ago
Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes (pp. 86–88)

7. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) does not include tidal volume
Expiratory reserve volume is the amount of air that can be expelled after a normal tidal
exhalation. This means that tidal volume is not included in the ERV measurement.
Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory
Volumes (p. 88)

Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory
Volumes (p. 88)


7. FEV1 (%) will decrease as the airway radius is decreased.
FEV1 (%) is the amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs in one second during
forced expiration. If the airway becomes smaller, then the resistance to airflow will
increase and FEV1 (%) will become lower.
Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant (pp. 89–90)

Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant (pp. 89–90)

8. FEV1 (%) decreases as the radius of the airway is decreased.
Airflow increases when surfactant is applied because the resistance to lung inflation has
been reduced. Surfactant is not produced in premature infants. Because surfactant is necessary for the
lungs to inflate, it is not normally needed until birth.

Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure (pp. 90–91)

8. The lung in the left side of the bell jar deflated.
The pressure in the left lung was zero and the pressure in the right lung changed constantly.
Because there was an opening to the atmosphere in the left side of the bell jar, air
moved into the intrapleural space through the opening, which is the path of least resistance,
causing intrapleural pressure to increase and equal atmospheric pressure.
The total airflow was reduced by one half.
Both lungs would collapse when the thoracic wall was punctured if the two lungs were
in a single cavity instead of individual cavities.

9. The lungs did not reinflate when the valve was closed.
In additon to closing off the opening to the atmosphere, the excess air in the intrapleural
space must be removed to decrease intrapleural pressure below atmospheric pressure
before the lungs will reinflate.

14. After clicking Reset and running the experiment again, the function of the simulated
lungs returned to normal. This happened because the air was removed from the
intrapleural space, allowing the lungs to reinflate. Intrapleural pressure was decreased
below atmospheric pressure by clicking Reset.

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daina
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3 years ago
I try to do the register of this website but they alway say that I answer wrong the verification question. Can any one help me?Huh?
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3 years ago
I try to do the register of this website but they alway say that I answer wrong the verification question. Can any one help me?Huh?


You must be typing it in wrong. In the past hour, we have had 5 people sign-up, so I think it's your browser. Try another browser, i.e. Firefox or something.
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daina
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3 years ago
You must be typing it in wrong. In the past hour, we have had 5 people sign-up, so I think it's your browser. Try another browser, i.e. Firefox or something.
This still happen the same. I tried on firefox this time
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3 years ago
Answer 1: enohp

Answer 2: yes

Answer 3: biology

And then click the agree button Smile
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Kazer79
wrote...
3 years ago
Thanks for the help duddy!
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3 years ago
Thanks for the help duddy!

No worries, anytime.
- Master of Science in Biology
- Bachelor of Science (Biology)
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kandh2010
wrote...
3 years ago
why do premature infants have difficulty breathing?
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3 years ago
why do premature infants have difficulty breathing?

The ability of the lungs to reversibly change shape can be quantified using two parameters. One of these parameters is compliance, which is a measure of how easy it is to stretch the lung (during inhalation). The other measure is elastance, which is a measure of how readily the lung returns to its original shape (during exhalation). A highly compliant lung stretches more in response to a pressure change than does a less compliant lung. Compliance is a function of the change in lung volume divided by the change in transpulmonary pressure (delta_V / delta_P). Therefore, for a highly compliant lung, generating the same transpulmonary pressure upon inhalation will result in greater filling of the lung, which is desirable. A force that resists lung inflation (and thus reduces compliance) is surface tension of the thin layer of liquid that exists in the small airways and alveoli. Surface tension is generated mostly through hydrogen bonding, and causes two wet surfaces to stick together. This is detrimental to lung filling. For example, in premature human babies, surfactants are not present in the lungs in sufficient amounts to contribute to lung compliance, which makes breathing difficult. Surfactants, however, such as lipoprotein surfactants, reduce the surface tension of the fluid layer lining the lungs by disrupting the hydrogen bonds, increasing lung compliance and permitting lung inflation.
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