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Respiratory Volumes
Activity 2:  Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes
1.  Minute respiratory volume:       ml
2.  Judging from the trace you generated, inspiration took place over how many seconds? 
3.  Expiration took place over how many seconds? 
4.  Does the duration of inspiration or expiration vary during ERV or FVC?

Activity 3:  Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes
5.  How does this set of data compare to the data you recorded for Activity 2? 
6.  Is the respiratory system functioning better or worse than it did in the previous activity?  Explain why. 
7.  What is the effect of reducing the radius of the air flow tube on respiratory volumes? 
8.  What does the air flow tube simulate in the human body?
9.  What could be some possible causes of reduction in air flow to the lungs? 

Factors Affecting Respiration
Activity 4:  Effect of Surfactant on Respiratory Volumes
10.  When surfactant is added, what happens to the tidal volume? 
11.  As a result of the tidal volume change, what happens to the flow into each lung and total air flow? 
12.  Why does this happen? 

Activity 5:  Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture
13.  What happened to the left lung when you clicked on the valve button? 
14.  Why? 
15.  What has happened to the “Total Flow” rate? 
16.  What is the pressure in the left lung? 
17.  Has the pressure in the right lung been affected? 
18.  If there was nothing separating the left lung from the right lung, what would have happened when you opened the valve for the left lung?  Why? 
19.  Now click the valve for the left lung again, closing it.  What happens?  Why? 
20.  Describe the relationship required between intrathoracic pressure and atmospheric pressure in order to draw air into the lungs. 
21.  Design your own experiment for testing the effect of opening the valve of the right lung.  Was there any difference from the effect of opening the valve of the left lung? 

Variations in Breathing
Activity 6:  Rapid Breathing
22.  What happens to the PCO2 level during rapid breathing? 
23.  Why? 

Activity 7:  Rebreathing
24.  What happens to the PCO2 level during rebreathing? 
25.  Why? 
26.  Did the total flow change? 
27.  Why? 
28.  How does the rebreathing trace compare to your baseline trace? 
29.  Why? 

Activity 8:  Breath Holding
30.  What happens to the PCO2 level during breath holding? 
31.  Why? 
32.  What change was seen when you returned to “Normal Breathing”? 

Activity 9:  Comparative Spirometry
   Normal Breathing:
33.  What do you think is the clinical importance of the FVC and FEV1 values? 
34.  Why do you think the ratio of these two values is important to the clinician when diagnosing respiratory diseases? 
Emphysema Breathing:
35.  Is the FVC reduced or increased? 
36.  Is the FEV1 reduced or increased? 
37.  Which of these two changed more? 
38.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram for this condition. 
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing:
39.  Is the FVC reduced or increased? 
40.  Is the FEV1 reduced or increased? 
41.  Which of these two changed more? 
42.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram for this condition. 
43.  How is this condition similar to having emphysema?  How is it different? 
44.  Emphysema and asthma are called obstructive lung diseases as they limit expiratory flow and volume.  How would a spirogram look for someone with a restrictive lung disease, such as pulmonary fibrosis? 
45.  What volumes and capacities would change in this case, and would these values be increased or decreased? 
46.  In an acute asthma attack, the compliance of the lung is decreased, not increased as it was for emphysema, and air flows freely through the bronchioles.  Therefore, will the FEV1/FVC percentage be less than normal, equal to normal, or higher than normal? 
Acute Asthma Attack Breathing with Inhaler Medication Applied:
47.  Has the FVC reduced or increased?  Is it “normal? 
48.  Has the FEV1 reduced or increased?  Is it “normal”? 
49.  Which of these two changed more? 
50.  Explain the physiological reasons for the lung volumes and capacities that changed in the spirogram with the application of the medication.

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4 years ago
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Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes (pp. 86–88)

.

Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on Respiratory
Volumes (p. 88)


7. FEV1 (%) will decrease as the airway radius is decreased.
FEV1 (%) is .

Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant (pp. 89–90)

8. FEV1 (%) decreases as the radius of the airway is decreased.
Airflow increases when .

Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure (pp. 90–91)

8. The lung in the left side of the bell jar deflated.
The pressure in the left lung was zero and the pressure in the right lung changed constantly. pressure to increase and equal atmospheric pressure.
The total airflow was reduced by one half.
.

9. The lungs did not reinflate when the valve was closed.
In additon to closing off the opening to the atmosphere, the excess air in the intrapleural
space must be removed to before the lungs will reinflate.

14. After clicking Reset and running the experiment again, atmospheric pressure by clicking Reset.

.
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kpx311
wrote...
4 years ago
exercise 7 activity 6
How much of an increase in FEV1 do you think is required for it to be considered significantly improved by the medication? 
barrelracer497
wrote...
4 years ago
This post was very helpful - thanks!  Smile
Kazer79
wrote...
4 years ago
Thanks for the help duddy!
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4 years ago
Thanks for the help duddy!

No worries, anytime.
- Master of Science in Biology
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kandh2010
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4 years ago
why do premature infants have difficulty breathing?
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4 years ago
why do premature infants have difficulty breathing?

The ability of the lungs to reversibly change shape can be quantified using two parameters. One of these parameters is compliance, which is a measure of how easy it is to stretch the lung (during inhalation). The other measure is elastance, which is a measure of how readily the lung returns to its original shape (during exhalation). A highly compliant lung stretches more in response to a pressure change than does a less compliant lung. Compliance is a function of the change in lung volume divided by the change in transpulmonary pressure (delta_V / delta_P). Therefore, for a highly compliant lung, generating the same transpulmonary pressure upon inhalation will result in greater filling of the lung, which is desirable. A force that resists lung inflation (and thus reduces compliance) is surface tension of the thin layer of liquid that exists in the small airways and alveoli. Surface tension is generated mostly through hydrogen bonding, and causes two wet surfaces to stick together. This is detrimental to lung filling. For example, in premature human babies, surfactants are not present in the lungs in sufficient amounts to contribute to lung compliance, which makes breathing difficult. Surfactants, however, such as lipoprotein surfactants, reduce the surface tension of the fluid layer lining the lungs by disrupting the hydrogen bonds, increasing lung compliance and permitting lung inflation.
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4 years ago
It states that I must be a contributing member to obtain more help. I am unable to read any of the answers to Exercise 7
Bella4
wrote...
4 years ago
Does anyone have the answers for exercise 7? I couldn't see them on the first post. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
jwigginjr
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4 years ago
Hi, I made a small donation and I posted the full answer to Physioex 8 Exercise 3 Activities 1-8 post http://biology-forums.com/index.php/topic,2763.new.html#new Will this make me a contributing member so I can view the full answer on this post? I really just need the answer to Exercise7 activity 5 question 9.   Design your own experiment for testing the effect of opening the valve of the right lung.  Was there any difference from the effect of opening the valve of the left lung?  and The answers to activity 7. Thanks.
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4 years ago
There's a lot of people on here that can help answer this, wait till they log on Wink
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4 years ago
According the manual, for Exercise 7, activity 5 (Activity 5: Exploring Various Breathing Patterns (p. 92)), I don't have answers that reach to question question 9. Thinking
- Master of Science in Biology
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jwigginjr
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4 years ago
Thanks I was able to figure out the answers  Smile What do I need to do to be considered a contributing member? I already made a donation and answered someones post.
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