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5 years ago
Does anyone know where I can get answers for the worksheets regarding the iP. This is what I have, Interactive Physiology 10-System Suite. IP worksheets The nervous system: ion channels, membrane potential, action potential, nervous system II: ion channels, synaptic transmission, synaptic potentials and cellular integration. Any help is greatly appreciated!  Thanks
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27 Replies
5 years ago
Hey whitecaddy26, I don't understand quite what you mean? Grinning Face with Smiling Eyes What exactly do you need? Like the actual worksheets associated with the text? When I go to the website, it doesn't mention anything about worksheets...

- Master of Science in Biology
- Bachelor of Science (Biology)
- Bachelor of Education
5 years ago
I have the worksheets. When I watch the cd it is hard for me to follow along and answer the questions. Here are the worksheets..Maybe this will explain a little bit easier of what I am needing. I thought there was a link to the IP but am unsure now...Thanks so much for taking your time with me!!!
Endocrine System: Endocrine System Review

1.   Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain __________ specific for the hormones.
2.   Growth hormone, secreted by the _____  _______ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle by activating intermediary proteins called ________________.
3.   __________ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the ______  ________ (gland).  The anterior pituitary consists of _________ tissue.
4.   The parafollicular or C-cells of the ____________ gland produce __________, a peptide hormone that lowers plasma calcium levels.
5.   Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets of the pancreas include ___________ from the ? cells and _______________  from the ? cells.  Which of these hormones raise blood glucose levels?
6.   Specialized muscle cells in the heart produce _________ (hormone), which increases excretion of  _______ (electrolyte) by the kidneys.
7.   ___________ (hormone) promotes the final conversion of vitamin D to ___________ in the kidney.
8.   __________ (hormone) produced by G-cells in the pyloric antrum stimulates _____ secretion in the stomach.
9.   One ventral hypothalamic hormone (__________)  is essential for the stress response and another (___________) inhibits release of prolactin.
10.   ___________ (hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.
11.   ________, secreted by the pineal gland, helps regulate body activities with the light-dark cycle.
12.   The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex primarily produces the hormone ___________, which acts on the _________ (organ) to increase ___ (electrolyte) reabsorption.
13.   _______  ________ (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as _______________.  This category of amine hormones includes both __________ and ______________ (two hormones).
14.   The ___________ (organ) produces a steroid hormone called ____________ in the interstitial cells and a peptide hormone called ___________ that inhibits FSH.
15.   Large follicles in this gland (__________) contain a protein colloid called ______________ from which the hormones _______ and ______ are made.  These hormones regulate many metabolic functions and are important for nervous system development and growth.
16.   Nuclei in the ventral hypothalamus produce two hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary.  Name the two nuclei that produce these hormones and name the two hormones, one of which is important for water balance.

Endocrine System: The Hypothalamic–Pituitary Axis

1.   The anterior pituitary is composed of __________ tissue.  Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known.
2.   TRH, GNRH, CRH etc. are known as ____________ hypothalamic hormones which regulate the function of the _________ pituitary.  These hormones are released into capillary beds and carried directly to the pituitary by the __________ ________  ________ located in the __________________.
3.   _____________ and ________________, the posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the ____________ and _______________ nuclei of the hypothalamus.  They are stored in the axon terminals located in the __________ pituitary.  Similar to neurotransmitters, an ________ ________ in the neuron causes their release.
4.   In negative feedback, the target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior or hypothalamic hormones thus (increasing or decreasing) its own release.
5.   Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback mainly to the anterior pituitary.  __________
Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback to both the anterior pituitary and the ventral hypothalamus.  ____________
6.   Prolactin is unique in that the main ventral hypothalamic hormone regulating its secretion (___________), inhibits its release.
____________ (hormone) increases prolactin release.   Very high levels of this hormone during pregnancy actually block the effect of prolactin on milk production.
7.   _________ hormones are necessary for the release of __________ hormone.  This is an example of modulation of a hormone by a target hormone of another series.
8.   Suckling of an infant causes milk letdown by stimulating what hormone? ____________
   Changes in osmolarity detected by chemically sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus will alter what hormone’s level? ______________
9.   Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24 hour pattern of secretion known as a _____________ rhythm.  Levels are highest at what part of the day? ___________
10.   Besides controlling levels of T3 and T4, TSH also promotes __________ of the thyroid gland.  T3 and T4 are carried in the blood stream bound to _________ ________ because they are (hydrophilic or lipophilic).
11.   T3 and T4 enter the target cells by __________ and bind to receptors located ______________.  T3 and T4 are synthesized from ___________ and __________.
12.   Which of the following would be symptoms of hypothyroidism also known as ___________?
         lethargy    or    hyperexcitability
         high BMR    or    low BMR
         high heart rate or    low to normal heart rate
         feeling cold   or    sweating
         weight loss   or    weight gain   
13.   Lack of dietary iodine would cause (primary or secondary) hypothyroidism and the patient would probably get an iodine-deficient _________.
14.   Graves’ disease is the most common cause of primary ___________________.  The body secretes _________ __________ ____________, which mimics the action of TSH and thus may cause a ___________ as well as high levels of thyroid hormones.

The Nervous System: Ion Channels
1.   What structures in the cell membrane function as ion channels?

2.   Ion channels are selective for specific ions. What three characteristics of          the ions are important for this selectivity?
3.   Channels can be classified as either gated or nongated channels. A sodium channel that is always open would be classified as a/an __________channel.
4.   Would sodium ions move into or out of the neuron through these channels?
5.   Voltage-gated potassium channels open at what voltage? __________ mV
6.   Acetylcholine (ACh) and GABA are neurotransmitters that open chemically-gated channels. What ions pass into the cell when these channels are activated?
a. ACh: ________________________ ions
b. GABA: ________________________ ions
7.   Ion channels are regionally located and functionally unique.  List all the areas on the neuron and the type of potential dependent on the following types of ion channels:
Channels   Areas on the neuron   Type of potential

8.   From the quiz, place an “X” by the characteristics of voltage-gated sodium channels.
______     Always open
______     Found along the axon
______     Important for action potential
______     Opened and closed by gates
______     Found on the dendrites and cell bodies
______     Important for resting membrane potential
9.   Name two channels (gated or nongated) through which chloride ions could pass into the cell through.

10.   a. The Japanese puffer fish contains a deadly toxin (tetrodotoxin). What type
of channels does this toxin block? _____________________________ __
b.  What potential would this toxin block? ___________________________
c. What specifically would cause death? ____________________________

The Nervous System: Membrane Potential
1.   Record the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of the following ions (mM/L):

   Intracellular   Extracellular
Sodium (Na+)      
Potassium (K+)      
Chloride (Cl–)      
2.   Excitable cells, like neurons, are more permeable to ___________ than to ___________.
3.   How would the following alterations affect the membrane permeability to K+?       Use arrows to indicate the change in permeability.
a. An increase in the number of passive K+ channels ___________
b. Opening of voltage-gated K+ channels ___________
c. Closing of voltage-gated K+ channels ___________
4.   a. What acts as a chemical force that pushes K+ out of the cell? ___________
b. What force tends to pull K+ back into the cell? _____________________
5.   When the two forces listed above are equal and opposite in a cell permeable
only to K+, this is called the _________________________ potential for K+
which is ___________ mV.
6.   In an excitable cell, also permeable to Na+ and Cl–, the gradients mentioned
   in question 4 would both tend to move Na+ ___________ the cell.
7.   Would the gradients in question 4 promote or oppose the movement of Cl–       into the cell?
8.   Since the neuron is permeable to Na+ as well as K+, the resting membrane
potential is not equal to the equilibrium potential for K+, instead it is
___________ mV.
9.   What compensates for the movement (leakage) of Na+ and K+ ions? ______________
10.   What will happen to the resting membrane potential of an excitable cell if: (Write pos or neg to indicate which way the membrane potential would change.)
      a.    ? extracellular fluid concentration of K+ ___________
      b.    ? extracellular fluid concentration of K+ ___________
      c.    ? extracellular fluid concentration of Na+ ___________
      d.    ? number of passive Na+ channels ___________
      e.    open voltage-gated K+ channels ___________
      f.    open voltage-gated Na+ channels ___________

The Nervous System: The Action Potential
1.    a. The action potential changes the membrane potential from _______
mV (resting) to _______ mV and back again to the resting membrane
b. This results from a change in membrane permeability first to _______
then to _______ due to the opening of what type of ion channels?
_____________________________ ________
2.   a. Where is the density of voltage-gated Na+ channels the greatest?
b. What areas of the neuron generate signals that open these voltage-gated
channels? _____________________________ _____________
   c. Opening of these channels causes the membrane to
__________________ (voltage change).
3.   a. If the membrane reaches the trigger point, known as
__________________, what electrical potential will be generated?
_____________________________ _____________
b. During the depolarization phase, voltage-gated __________ channels open
and _______ enters the cell.
4.   What are the two processes that stop the potential from rising above +30 mV?
5.   a. The opening of voltage-gated K+ channels cause the membrane to
b. Does K+ move into or out of the cell? __________________
c. If the membrane potential becomes more negative than –70 mV, this is
called _________.
d. This potential is caused by what characteristic of K+ permeability?
6.   a. After an action potential, the neuron cannot generate another action
potential because _______ channels are inactived. This period is called the
_______________________ period.
b. During the ______________________ period, the cell can generate
another action potential but only if the membrane is ___________ (more or
less) depolarized.
7.   a. Conduction velocity along the axon is increased by what two characteristics?
      1. _____________________________ ___
      2. _____________________________ ___
b. Conduction along a myelinated axon is called
__________________________ conduction.
8.   a. Name the disease whose symptoms include loss of vision and increasing
muscle weakness:  __________________________(from the quiz section)
b. What does this disease destroy? _____________________________ ___
c. How does this stop an action potential?

The Nervous System II: Ion Channels
1.   List four neurotransmitters that bind to ion channels, these neurotransmitters
   are called ___________________________-acting neurotransmitters.
2.   a. The binding of ACh opens ion channels in the dendrites or cell body that
   permits both _______ and ____________ to move through them.
b. Which ion would move into the cell? ______________ out of the cell?
c. Which ion has the greatest electrochemical gradient? ______________
d. The net movement of these two ions would do what to the cell?
e. This would be called an _____________________________
postsynaptic potential, or ____________________.
3.   a. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) causes a neuron to
b. An example of a neurotransmitter that causes an IPSP is ______________.
c. What type of ions move into the cell in response to this neurotransmitter?
4.   a. Norepinephrine binds to a receptor that is separate from the ion channel.
   This is known as a/an _____________________________ _ - acting
b. Norepinephrine is known as the ___________________________ messenger.
c. The receptor is coupled to the ion channel by a ___________________.
5.   a. This activates an enzyme which induces the production of a
_____________ messenger.
b. An intracellular enzyme is activated and ____________________ the ion channel.
c. As a result of this sequence of events, what channels are closed?
d. What does this do to the neuron? _____________________________ _
6.   Name three neurotransmitters that can only act indirectly.
7.   Which of the four neurotransmitters mentioned in question 1 can also act indirectly?
8.   Which one of the four neurotransmitters mentioned in question 1 can
   only act directly? ______________________

The Nervous System II: Synaptic Transmission
1.   What channels in the presynaptic neuron open up in response to an action
   potential? ________________________
2.   The presence of what ion inside the cell causes the synaptic vesicles to
   fuse with the membrane? ________
3.   a. What is the name for the chemicals stored in the synaptic vesicles?
b. What do these chemicals diffuse across? _________________________
c. Where do these chemicals bind to receptors? ______________________
4.   What type of gated channels do these chemicals open? ________________
5.   Name two ways these chemicals can be removed from the synaptic cleft.
6.   The response on the postsynaptic cell depends on two factors:
7.   Name the two types of cholinergic receptors and indicate where these are found.
Type   Found

8.    Indicate where the following three adrenergic receptors are found:

9.   Autonomic nerves innervate what three things?

10.   The most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS is
11.   Two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS are:
12.   Name a drug that alters synaptic transmission in the following ways:
a. blocks the action of the neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane
b. blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter at the presynaptic membrane
c. blocks the release of the neurotransmitter ___________________ and

The Nervous System II: Synaptic Potentials and Cellular Integration
1.   Enhanced postsynaptic potentials are due to increased _______ entering the
   terminal as a result of _____________________________ _______.
2.   Presynaptic inhibition is due to decreased _______ entering the terminal as    
   a result of _____________________________ _______.
3.    a. Synaptic potentials are also known as ______________ potentials.
b. They _____________ as they travel away from the synapse.
4.   a. Increasing the number of action potentials on an axon in a given period
   of time would cause __________________________ summation.
b. Increasing the number of synapses from different neurons would cause
   __________________ summation.
5.   The magnitude of the EPSPs may be reduced (thus affecting their ability to
generate and their action potential) by adding _______________________
potentials, or ____________________s.
6.   Inhibitory synapses would have the maximum effect if located where?
7.   From the quiz, how many impulses did it take to cause an action potential:
a. From the axon the furthest away from the cell body? ___________
b. From the axon located on the cell body? ___________
8.   Pulses from how many neurons were required to stimulate the postsynaptic
   neuron? _________________
9.   Compare action potentials and synaptic potentials:
   Action Potential   Synaptic Potential

5 years ago
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This directory has them all:

- Master of Science in Biology
- Bachelor of Science (Biology)
- Bachelor of Education
5 years ago
I have all of the worksheets and have done mostly all of them. I am in needs of the answers to compare or check as I am not a strong student. I asked my instructer to go over them and she said she would check them as if I were handing it in. I dont really want to do that because I need all the points I can get!! Let me know if you come up with a answer key or anything like that!!! Thanks again!!!
5 years ago
I have all of the worksheets and have done mostly all of them. I am in needs of the answers to compare or check as I am not a strong student. I asked my instructer to go over them and she said she would check them as if I were handing it in. I dont really want to do that because I need all the points I can get!! Let me know if you come up with a answer key or anything like that!!! Thanks again!!!

My bad, didn't fully understand you the 2nd time haha. I'll see what I can find.
- Master of Science in Biology
- Bachelor of Science (Biology)
- Bachelor of Education
5 years ago
Grinning Face with Smiling Eyes!!!! Im sure I was unclear about this as I have been working on it all day!!!!
5 years ago
Grinning Face with Smiling Eyes!!!! Im sure I was unclear about this as I have been working on it all day!!!!
I can prolly get it for you, just find me the link of the actual textbook, similar to what duddy provided and I could prolly get'em
Answer accepted by topic starter
Posts: 121
Credits: 1573
5 years ago Edited: 5 years ago, Rit727
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I have  the answers to all the Interactive Physiology exercise sheets. They are included at the end of the instructor guide for the text: Human Anatomy and Physiology 8th edition, Marieb. You can check out my post in the testbank section if you are interested in purchasing the instructor guide. I will post some of the answers to the questions you have posted above.

Endocrine System:
Endocrine System Review
1. receptors
2. anterior pituitary, somatomedins or insulin-like
growth factors (IGFs)
3. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), adrenal
cortex, glandular
4. thyroid, calcitonin
5. glucagon, insulin, glucagon
6. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), sodium (Na+)
7. PTH (parathyroid hormone), calcitriol
8. Gastrin, HCl (hydrochloric acid)
9. CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone),
10. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
11. Melatonin
12. aldosterone, kidneys, sodium (Na+)
13. adrenal medulla, catecholamines, epinephrine,
14. testes, testosterone, inhibin
15. thyroid, thyroglobulin, T3 and T4 (triiodothyronine
and thyroxine)
16. supraoptic nucleus and the paraventricular
nucleus, oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic
hormone (ADH))
5 years ago
I will post some of exercise 1 below for you.

I love this forum <3
5 years ago
Biolove- I hope i did not step on your toes. If you were planning on offering this member the solutions I apologize. Let me know if you were planning on selling them to this person so I can step out of the way.
5 years ago Edited: 5 years ago, Rit727
I was also assuming that whitecaddy26 wanted ALL of the exercise sheet answers. I would be happy to post answers in a similar fasion to how we answer PhysioEx activities for him. With that said he will have to do ALOT of contributing to the forum to get ALL the answers. As Duddz would say " your activity meter is very low".
5 years ago
Thanks everyone!!! Im more than happy to contribute to the forum, just not sure how to since I am a new member. The exercise sheets that I have posted, most of which are done with the exception of a couple that arent done within the exercise. I can share my answer for the worksheets that I have done?
5 years ago
Biolove- I hope i did not step on your toes. If you were planning on offering this member the solutions I apologize. Let me know if you were planning on selling them to this person so I can step out of the way.
not at all, i meant that in a good way Rit727, like how every1 is so helpful
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