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How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy - Chapter 6 -TEST BANK
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Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell)
Chapter 6
How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy


Answers Attached

1) Which of the following statements regarding muscle fibers is false?
A) All human muscles contain fast and slow muscle fibers.
B) The proportion of fast and slow fibers is genetically determined.
C) Training usually converts one type of muscle fiber into another.
D) The percentage of each fiber type varies from person to person.
E) Fast fibers are better able to produce ATP anaerobically.

Answer:
Topic:  Opening Essay
Skill:  Factual Recall


2) The term anaerobic means
A) without bacteria.
B) without ATP.
C) without CO2.
D) with O2.
E) without O2.

Answer:
Topic:  Opening Essay
Skill:  Factual Recall

3) Which of the following statements regarding fast-twitch muscles is false?
A) Fast-twitch muscles are thicker than slow-twitch muscles.
B) Fast-twitch muscles have fewer mitochondria than slow-twitch muscles.
C) Fast-twitch muscles have less myoglobin than slow-twitch muscles.
D) Fast-twitch muscles are better at generating short bursts of power than slow-twitch muscles.
E) Fast-twitch muscles produce more ATP per glucose than slow-twitch muscles.

Answer:
Topic:  Opening Essay
Skill:  Factual Recall


4) Which of the following statements regarding photosynthesis and cellular respiration is true?
A) Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts, and cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria.
B) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria, and cellular respiration occurs in chloroplasts.
C) Photosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.
D) Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria and in chloroplasts.
E) Neither cellular respiration nor photosynthesis occurs in either mitochondria or chloroplasts.

Answer:
Topic:  6.1
Skill:  Factual Recall



5) How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?
A) They produce ATP.
B) They produce glucose.
C) They store it in molecules of carbon dioxide.
D) The energy is coupled to oxygen.
E) They store it as thermal energy.

Answer:
Topic:  6.1
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


6) The processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary. During these energy conversions, some energy is
A) lost in the form of heat.
B) created in the form of heat.
C) used to create light.
D) destroyed when the chemical bonds of glucose are made.
E) saved in the chemical bonds of water, CO2 and O2.

Answer:
Topic:  6.1
Skill:  Factual Recall


7) Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________.
A) produces ATP . . . is gas exchange
B) is gas exchange . . . produces ATP
C) produces glucose . . . produces oxygen
D) uses glucose . . . produces glucose
E) produces glucose . . . is gas exchange

Answer:
Topic:  6.2
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


8) Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?
A) oxygen and carbon dioxide
B) energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide
C) oxygen and glucose
D) oxygen and energy to make ATP
E) glucose and carbon dioxide


Answer:
Topic:  6.2
Skill:  Factual Recall


9) Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration is false?
A) Cellular respiration consumes glucose.
B) Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.
C) Cellular respiration produces water.
D) Cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide.
E) Cellular respiration releases heat.

Answer:
Topic:  6.3
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


10) The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
A) C5H12O6 + 6 O2 ? 5 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
B) 5 CO2 + 6 H2O ? C5H12O6 + 6 O2 + energy.
C) C6H12O12 + 3 O2 ? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
D) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ? 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
E) C6H12O6 + energy ? 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + 6 O2.

Answer:
Topic:  6.3
Skill:  Factual Recall

11) Which of the following statements about the energy yields from cellular respiration is true?
A) Cellular respiration is more efficient at harnessing energy from glucose than car engines are at harnessing energy from
      gasoline.
B) Cellular respiration converts all of the energy in glucose into high-energy ATP bonds.
C) Cellular respiration converts the kinetic energy of glucose into chemical energy.
D) The heat produced during cellular respiration is only a tiny fraction of the chemical energy available in a glucose
      molecule.
E) Most energy conversion systems are more efficient than cellular respiration.

Answer:
Topic:  6.3
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


12) Humans use the calories they obtain from ________ as their source of energy.
A) food
B) water
C) sunlight
D) minerals
E) carbon dioxide

Answer:
Topic:  6.4
Skill:  Factual Recall
13) Humans use about ________ of their daily calories for involuntary life-sustaining activities such as digestion, circulation, and breathing.
A) 10%
B) 25%
C) 50%
D) 75%
E) 90%

Answer:
Topic:  6.4
Skill:  Factual Recall


14) A kilocalorie is defined as
A) the quantity of glucose needed to increase the body temperature by 1°C.
B) the quantity of water heat needed to solubilize 1 g of glucose.
C) the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
D) the quantity of food used to maintain normal bodily functions.
E) the quantity of food consumed during a given type of exercise.

Answer:
Topic:  6.4
Skill:  Factual Recall


15) The label on the box of breakfast cereal lists one serving as containing 200 calories per serving. How many calories are actually in one serving?
A) 20
B) 2,000
C) 20,000
D) 200,000
E) 2,000,000

Answer:
Topic:  6.4
Skill:  Application

16) During cellular respiration, the energy in glucose
A) becomes stored in molecules of ammonia.
B) is used to manufacture glucose.
C) is released all at once.
D) is carried by electrons.
E) can be used to oxidize NADH.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


17) During redox reactions,
A) the loss of electrons from one substance is called reduction.
B) a substance that gains electrons is said to be oxidized.
C) electrons are lost from one substance and added to another substance.
D) protons from one molecule replace the electrons lost from another molecule.
E) the reduction of a substance does not need to be coupled to the oxidation of another substance.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


18) Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.
A) gain of electrons . . . loss of electrons
B) loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons
C) loss of oxygen . . . gain of oxygen
D) gain of oxygen . . . loss of oxygen
E) gain of protons . . . loss of protons

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


19) In biological systems, an important enzyme involved in the regulation of redox reactions is
A) glucose.
B) dehydrogenase.
C) oxygen.
D) water.
E) ATP.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


20) During cellular respiration, NADH
A) is converted to NAD+ by an enzyme called dehydrogenase.
B) is chemically converted into ATP.
C) is reduced to form NAD+.
D) delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule.
E) is the final electron acceptor.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding

21) During cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following statements about this process is true?
A) The electrons move from carriers that have more affinity for them to carriers that have less affinity for them.
B) Molecular oxygen is eventually oxidized by the electrons to form water.
C) The electrons release large amounts of energy each time they are transferred from one carrier to another.
D) The carrier molecules are found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
E) Molecular oxygen is reduced when it accepts electrons and forms water.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


22) The functioning of an electron transport chain is analogous to
A) a Slinky toy going down a flight of stairs.
B) a canoe going over a waterfall.
C) a person climbing a flight of stairs one step at a time.
D) a person leaping from the top to the bottom of a flight of stairs in one jump.
E) playing Ping-Pong.

Answer:
Topic:  6.5
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


23) Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?
A) glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
B) glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and the citric acid cycle
C) the citric acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and glycolysis
D) oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle
E) oxidative phosphorylation, the citric acid cycle, and glycolysis

Answer:
Topic:  6.6
Skill:  Factual Recall


24) A drug is tested in the laboratory and is found to create holes in both mitochondrial membranes. Scientists suspect that the drug will be harmful to human cells because it will inhibit
A) the citric acid cycle.
B) oxidative phosphorylation.
C) glycolysis.
D) the formation of alcohol.
E) the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

Answer:
Topic:  6.6
Skill:  Application


25) During which of the following phases of cellular respiration does substrate-level phosphorylation take place?
A) glycolysis
B) the citric acid cycle
C) "grooming" of pyruvate
D) oxidative phosphorylation
E) glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Answer:
Topic:  6.6
Skill:  Factual Recall



26) Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
A) the citric acid cycle
B) oxidative phosphorylation
C) chemiosmosis
D) glycolysis
E) electron transport chain

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


27) As a result of glycolysis there is a net gain of ________ ATPs.
A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 4
E) 36

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


28) How many molecules of NADH are produced during glycolysis?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 6
E) 8

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


29) Which of the following is a result of glycolysis?
A) conversion of FAD to FADH2
B) production of CO2
C) conversion of glucose to two three-carbon compounds
D) a net loss of two ATPs per glucose molecule
E) conversion of NADH to NAD+

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


30) A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. As the bacteria metabolize the glucose, radioactivity will appear first in
A) carbon dioxide.
B) NADH.
C) glucose-6-phosphate.
D) pyruvate.
E) ATP.

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


31) The end products of glycolysis include
A) FADH2.
B) NADH.
C) acetyl CoA.
D) citric acid.
E) O2.

Answer:
Topic:  6.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


32) Pyruvate
A) forms at the end of glycolysis.
B) is the molecule that starts the citric acid cycle.
C) is the end product of oxidative phosphorylation.
D) is the end product of chemiosmosis.
E) is a six-carbon molecule.

Answer:
Topic:  6.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


33) Between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle,
A) pyruvate is oxidized while a molecule of NAD+ is reduced to NADH.
B) a carbon atom is added to make a four-carbon compound.
C) coenzyme A is cleaved off the four-carbon compound.
D) coenzyme A is removed from pyruvate.
E) a CO2 molecule is added to pyruvate.

Answer:
Topic:  6.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


34) Which of the following statements regarding the chemical grooming of pyruvate is false?
A) Two molecules of pyruvate are each converted into two-carbon molecules joined to a coenzyme A molecule.
B) Each pyruvate loses a carbon atom, which is released as CO2.
C) Two pyruvate molecules together contain less chemical energy than was found in the original glucose molecule.
D) The pyruvate molecules are oxidized and two NAD+ are reduced.
E) Each pyruvate molecule has a CO2 added and then joins with an NADH.

Answer:
Topic:  6.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


35) Pyruvate is considered a(n) ________ aerobic cellular respiration.
A) source of O2 for
B) end product of
C) intermediate in
D) cofactor in
E) enzyme in

Answer:
Topic:  6.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


36) The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the
A) intermembrane space of the mitochondrion.
B) outer mitochondrial membrane.
C) mitochondrial matrix.
D) inner mitochondrial membrane.
E) matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane.

Answer:
Topic:  6.9
Skill:  Factual Recall


37) The end products of the citric acid cycle include all of the following except
A) CO2.
B) pyruvate.
C) ATP.
D) NADH.
E) FADH2.

Answer:
Topic:  6.9
Skill:  Factual Recall


38) The function of coenzyme A in the citric acid cycle is most like
A) a limousine driver dropping off a couple at the school prom.
B) a recycling company, collecting paper and using it to manufacture new products.
C) a hamster in its exercise wheel, running quickly but not getting anywhere.
D) a kid jumping up and down on a trampoline.
E) throwing a baited hook into a lake and catching a fish.

Answer:
Topic:  6.9
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


39) A culture of bacteria growing aerobically is fed glucose containing radioactive carbon and is then examined. During the citric acid cycle, radioactivity would first appear in
A) NADH.
B) citrate.
C) FADH2.
D) oxaloacetic acid.
E) CoA.

Answer:
Topic:  6.9
Skill:  Application


40) At the end of the citric acid cycle, most of the energy remaining from the original glucose is stored in
A) CO2.
B) pyruvate.
C) ATP.
D) NADH.
E) FADH2.

Answer:
Topic:  6.9
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding

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How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy - Chapter 6 -TEST BANK
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