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AMU CMRJ 302 U.S. LAW ENFORCEMENT
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CRIMJUSTICE

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Does anyone have course documents, quizzes, and the final for AMU CMRJ 302 U.S. Law Enforcement?

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Reply# 1
Posts: 6
Points: 69
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A year ago

Anyone has anything on CRMJ302?



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Reply# 2
Mack
Guest
A year ago

Do anyone have the quizzes 1 thru 4 and mid-term well as final for CMRJ306 Criminal investigation



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Reply# 3
Posts: 35
Points: 208
Rep:  +0   -1

A year ago

Final I got a few Wrong but answers are provided
Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 34    2.0 Points
Crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on certain group characteristics are known as:
   
   A. a. vice crimes.    
Correct    
   B. b. hate crimes.    
   
   C. c. domestic crimes.    
   
   D. d. violent crimes.    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is member of a "disenfranchised" population?
   
   A. a. the mentally ill    
   
   B. b. the homeless    
   
   C. c. public inebriates    
Correct    
   D. d. All of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a form of internal control of police discretion?
   
   A. a. policies    
   
   B. b. training    
Correct    
   C. c. civilian review boards    
   
   D. d. supervision    



Answer Key: C
Question 4 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is (are) legislative means of control of police discretion?
   
   A. a. enactment of laws    
   
   B. b. training and supervision guidelines for organizations    
   
   C. c. allocation of funds    
Correct    
   D. d. both a and c    



Answer Key: D
Question 5 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is one of the three criteria used to identify excessive force?
   
   A. a. criminal law    
   
   B. b. civil liability    
   
   C. c. fear of scandal    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding courts' reactions in cases involving use of force?
Incorrect    
   A. a. They almost always rule for the victim.    
   
   B. b. They almost always rule for the police.    
   
   C. c. They rule for the victim and police at the same rate.    
   
   D. d. They rule for the victim slightly more than for the police.    



Answer Key: B
Question 7 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes deadly force?
   
   A. a. When an officer unholsters a firearm.    
   
   B. b. When an officer uses a baton.    
   
   C. c. When an officer threatens to shoot the suspect.    
Correct    
   D. d. When an officer discharges his/her weapon.    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the four performance criteria in an early warning system used to identify problem officers?
   
   A. a. use of force, reprimands, breach of duty, alcoholism    
Correct    
   B. b. complaints, use of force, reprimands, discharge of firearms    
   
   C. c. discharge of firearms, alcoholism, domestic violence, corruption    
   
   D. d. corruption, breach of duty, complaints, reprimands    



Answer Key: B
Question 9 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is an example of a "less-than-lethal" weapon?
   
   A. a. water cannons    
   
   B. b. rubber bullets    
   
   C. c. tear gas    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 10 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a purpose served by departmental written policies?
   
   A. a. to set forth the agency's philosophy of policing    
   
   B. b. to articulate the broad goals of the department    
   
   C. c. to reflect the community's expectations of the department    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a purpose served by a police department's formal policies?
   
   A. a. outline the agency's principles of organization and management    
   
   B. b. articulate the broad goals of the department    
Incorrect    
   C. c. reflect the community's expectations of the department    
   
   D. d. identify the parameters of organizational flexibility    



Answer Key: A
Question 12 of 34    2.0 Points
What differentiates police crime from crimes committed by police officers?
Correct    
   A. a. Police crime involves the officer's use of official powers to engage in criminal conduct.    
   
   B. b. Police crime is always committed while on duty.    
   
   C. c. Police crime takes place in patrol cars.    
   
   D. d. All crimes committed by police officers are police crimes.    



Answer Key: A
Question 13 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "behavior that requires the misuse of authority for personal gain"?
   
   A. a. deviance    
   
   B. b. autonomy    
   
   C. c. corruption    
Incorrect    
   D. d. extortion    



Answer Key: C
Question 14 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the concept of tort?
   
   A. a. They are heard in civil court.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. They are violations of private interests.    
   
   C. c. They are punishable by imprisonment.    
   
   D. d. They have a lower burden of proof than crime.    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes a strict liability tort?
Correct    
   A. a. Strict tort liability is normally associated with behaviors that are so dangerous that a reasonable person can be substantially certain injury or damage will result.    
   
   B. b. The person intended to engage in the conduct that led to the injury or damage.    
   
   C. c. Strict tort liability involves inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury.    
   
   D. d. Strict tort liability is a violation of federally protected civil rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ is behavior that inflicts injury or causes a person to fear the infliction of immediate injury.
   
   A. a. Deadly force    
Correct    
   B. b. Assault    
   
   C. c. Battery    
   
   D. d. Intentional force    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ is behavior that that is offensive, or harmful contact between two persons.
   
   A. a. Deadly force    
   
   B. b. Assault    
Correct    
   C. c. Battery    
   
   D. d. Intentional force    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the Supreme Court's ruling in Tennessee v. Garner?
Correct    
   A. a. Certain state "fleeing-felon" laws were unconstitutional.    
   
   B. b. Police could use deadly force to stop a fleeing murderer, but not other felons.    
   
   C. c. "Fleeing-felon" laws were constitutional.    
   
   D. d. Police could use deadly force in any situation the officer deems it necessary.    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a benefit to the police and the community when good relations exist?
   
   A. a. a decrease in the rate of crime and delinquency    
   
   B. b. improved working relationships with citizens    
   
   C. c. increased governmental support in terms of higher salaries    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 34    2.0 Points
Efforts to identify and manage the conditions within the social and physical environment that provide opportunities or precipitate crime represents what type of crime prevention program?
Correct    
   A. a. primary    
   
   B. b. secondary    
   
   C. c. tertiary    
   
   D. d. encompassing    



Answer Key: A
Question 21 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes community-oriented policing?
   
   A. a. focuses on educating the public about police problems through service-oriented activities    
Correct    
   B. b. focuses on fear reduction and order-maintenance activities through the involvement of citizens using problem-solving methods    
   
   C. c. focuses on fear reduction and order-maintenance activities using service-oriented activities    
   
   D. d. focuses on crime reduction and service-oriented activities through order maintenance methods    



Answer Key: B
Question 22 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a key element in problem solving?
   
   A. a. problems must be defined    
   
   B. b. information concerning problems must be collected    
   
   C. c. police must search for problem solutions    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 23 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "systemic" violence?
Correct    
   A. a. violence that is related to the "business" aspect of drug usage    
   
   B. b. violence that is related to obtaining drugs, or money for illegal drugs    
   
   C. c. violence that is related to the decreased mental capacity of a person who is under the influence of a drug    
   
   D. d. violence that is related to the consumption of alcohol    



Answer Key: A
Question 24 of 34    2.0 Points
The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute makes it a crime to:
Correct    
   A. a. conspire with others to commit crimes.    
   
   B. b. launder money gained from the sale for illicit drugs.    
   
   C. c. fail to pay taxes on money gained from the sale of illicit drugs.    
   
   D. d. participate in the manufacture of illicit drugs.    



Answer Key: A
Question 25 of 34    2.0 Points
The Bureau of Justice Assistance implemented a drug reduction strategy that has been adopted by many states. Which of the following is one of those strategies?
   
   A. a. drug use prevention campaigns, using different types of media to educate the public    
   
   B. b. programs that include law enforcement involvement in citizen education    
   
   C. c. community involvement programs designed to involve community groups    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 26 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following type of property can be seized under forfeiture statutes?
   
   A. a. contraband (drugs)    
   
   B. b. direct proceeds (cash)    
   
   C. c. derivative proceeds (real estate, stock, etc.)    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 27 of 34    2.0 Points
What is the most important reason for law enforcement actions at the retail or street level?
Correct    
   A. a. to make drug transactions riskier and more inconvenient, which leads to reduced consumption    
   
   B. b. safer neighborhoods    
   
   C. c. law enforcement actions will result in an increased number of arrests, which deters drug use and crime    
   
   D. d. citizens feel less fearful of crime    



Answer Key: A
Question 28 of 34    2.0 Points
Some police departments are currently using portable, laptop, or notebook computers. Which of the following is a reason for this?
   
   A. a. It allows officers to e-mail the dispatcher if he/she cannot otherwise contact them.    
   
   B. b. It makes officers look more professional, thus increasing community support.    
Correct    
   C. c. Officers can make clear and accurate reports at a crime scene.    
   
   D. d. It helps officers take statements from hearing-impaired persons.    



Answer Key: C
Question 29 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "desired ends of our actions?"
   
   A. a. objectives    
   
   B. b. directives    
Correct    
   C. c. goals    
   
   D. d. predictions    



Answer Key: C
Question 30 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "our calculations of what is likely to happen under given circumstances?"
   
   A. a. hypothesis    
   
   B. b. goals    
   
   C. c. aspirations    
Correct    
   D. d. predictions    



Answer Key: D

Question 31 of 34    10.0 Points
What is prejudice? What is discrimination? What is their relationship to discretion?





Question 32 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe the options available to a citizen who believes that his/her constitutional rights have been violated by a police officer. What issues are relevant?





Question 33 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe how neighborhood watch programs fit into the concept of community policing, include a discussion of the effectiveness and problems associated with these programs.





Question 34 of 34    10.0 Points
Discuss interdiction, prevention, and treatment programs as components of the national drug strategy. Include a discussion of the effectiveness of each strategy.


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MIDTERM

Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the results of the Kansas City Patrol
   
   A. a. Citizens were very aware that their patrol levels had been altered.    
   
   B. b. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, decreased in the areas of increased patrol.    
   
   C. c. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, increased in the areas of decreased patrol.    
Correct    
   D. d. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, showed no significant differences.    



Answer Key: D
Question 2 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is part of the environmental force that impacts policing?
   
   A. a. legal issues    
   
   B. b. political issues    
   
   C. c. economic issues    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following protects suspects from illegal searches and seizures?
Correct    
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 34    2.0 Points
What is the form of political organization that distributes authority and power among levels of government?
   
   A. a. capitalism    
   
   B. b. socialism    
   
   C. c. authoritarianism    
Correct    
   D. d. federalism    



Answer Key: D
Question 5 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "a binding rule that regulates conduct and provides sanctions for violations of its provisions?"
   
   A. a. a contract    
Correct    
   B. b. a law    
   
   C. c. a bill    
   
   D. d. none of the above    



Answer Key: B
Question 6 of 34    2.0 Points
The "watchman" style of policing emphasizes:
   
   A. a. the provision of services.    
   
   B. b. limited use of discretion.    
   
   C. c. order maintenance and crime control.    
Incorrect    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: C
Question 7 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following statements is true regarding rapid police response?
   
   A. a. Response time does not necessarily influence apprehension rates.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. Response time greatly influences apprehension rates.    
   
   C. c. Response time is only influenced by police action, and not affected by individual citizens.    
   
   D. d. Dispatchers should never tell a citizen when there will be a delay.    



Answer Key: A
Question 8 of 34    2.0 Points
What do most police organizations use to categorize calls for service?
Correct    
   A. a. prioritization    
   
   B. b. random selection    
   
   C. c. systematic selection    
   
   D. d. routinization    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the first form of policing in England?
Correct    
   A. a. constables    
   
   B. b. sheriffs    
   
   C. c. formal police organizations    
   
   D. d. state police agencies    



Answer Key: A
Question 10 of 34    2.0 Points
Sir Robert Peel developed which of the following principles?
   
   A. a. Police must be organized along military lines.    
   
   B. b. Police must be controlled by the government.    
   
   C. c. Police headquarters would be centrally located.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 34    2.0 Points
Modern policing has gone through a number of phases. Which of the following is NOT one of those phases?
   
   A. a. political entrenchment phase    
   
   B. b. reform phase    
   
   C. c. professionalization phase    
Correct    
   D. d. expansion phase    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a characteristic of the "political entrenchment phase?"
   
   A. a. The Civil Service was formed.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. The police became "crime fighters."    
   
   C. c. The police were corrupt.    
   
   D. d. The police emphasized citizens' rights.    



Answer Key: C
Question 13 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following was enacted by the Volstead Act?
   
   A. a.organizational changes    
Correct    
   B. b. prohibition    
   
   C. c. civil service    
   
   D. d. police reform    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is the process by which norms and values are internalized as workers begin to learn their new occupation?
   
   A. a. socialization    
   
   B. b. culturalization    
   
   C. c. institutionalizatio n    
Correct    
   D. d. professionalization    



Answer Key: D
Question 15 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices?
   
   A. a. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices.    
   
   B. b. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices.    
Correct    
   C. c. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices.    
   
   D. d. It will likely call for the chief to be fired.    



Answer Key: C
Question 16 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following are the two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies?
   
   A. a.institutional barriers and educational standards    
Correct    
   B. b. institutional barriers and personal preference    
   
   C. c. personal preference and educational standards    
   
   D. d. personal preference and residency requirements    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking employment?
   
   A. a. complicated applications    
   
   B. b. multistaged selection process    
   
   C. c. the department's image regarding minorities    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 18 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?"
Correct    
   A. a. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants    
   
   B. b. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants    
   
   C. c. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants    
   
   D. d. the process of transferring officers from other departments    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following tests are used in the selection of police officers?
   
   A. a. written examinations    
   
   B. b. physical agility tests    
   
   C. c. polygraph tests    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT one of White's typologies of police officers?
   
   A. a. tough cop    
   
   B. b. problem solver    
   
   C. c. crime fighter    
Correct    
   D. d. secretive rogue    



Answer Key: D
Question 21 of 34    2.0 Points
A __________ is distinguished by its distinct differences and shared similarities when compared to the dominant __________.
   
   A. a. profession, science    
Correct    
   B. b. subculture, culture    
   
   C. c. law, constitution    
   
   D. d. ordinance    



Answer Key: B
Question 22 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is the idea that police officers view situations and people differently from other segments of the population?
Correct    
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
   
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: A
Question 23 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following factors contribute to the development of the "code of silence?"
   
   A. a. potential for error in job performance    
   
   B. b. fear of loss of autonomy    
   
   C. c. protection of co-workers    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 24 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a responsibility of upper level administrators?
   
   A. a. training new recruits    
   
   B. b. scheduling patrol    
Correct    
   C. c. determining the department's mission    
   
   D. d. recruiting new officers    



Answer Key: C
Question 25 of 34    2.0 Points
Another name commonly used for "hierarchy" is:
   
   A. a.span of control.    
Correct    
   B. b. chain of command.    
   
   C. c. unity of command.    
   
   D. d. specialization.    



Answer Key: B
Question 26 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ are important because they outline to everyone in the department their duties, responsibilities, and limitations.
   
   A. a. Procedural guidelines    
   
   B. b. Directives    
Incorrect    
   C. c. Objectives    
   
   D. d. Goals    



Answer Key: A
Question 27 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of personal stressor?
   
   A. a. marital difficulties    
   
   B. b. physiological impact of shift work    
   
   C. c. financial constraints    
Correct    
   D. d. a and c only    



Answer Key: D
Question 28 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a factor that may contribute to police suicide?
   
   A. a. abuse of alcohol and drugs    
   
   B. b. ready access to firearms    
   
   C. c. depression    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 29 of 34    2.0 Points
The police have used foot patrol to accomplish a number of objectives. Which of the following is NOT one of the legitimate objectives of foot patrol?
Correct    
   A. a. punish problem officers    
   
   B. b. increase citizen perception of safety    
   
   C. c. deliver service consistent with community needs    
   
   D. d. create community awareness    



Answer Key: A
Question 30 of 34    2.0 Points
The type of patrol in which officers are assigned to beats in marked vehicles and randomly patrol to reduce opportunities for criminal acts when not involved in police activities is known as:
   
   A. a. split-force patrol.    
   
   B. b. differential response.    
Correct    
   C. c. routine preventive patrol.    
   
   D. d. delayed response patrol.    



Answer Key: C
Question 31 of 34    10.0 Points
Compare and contrast the Community Policing Era with the Post-Community Policing Era?

The community policing era that we currently live in is almost like doing a complete 180 degrees around from the Post-Community Policing Era. Many officers today patrol designated areas in vehicles and carry advance gear. In Post-Community Policing Era the officer were referred to as nightwatchmen similar to a neighborhood watch team. As the years past they were recognized as police officers and given authority. Crime before the present Community Policing Era was increasingly dangerous and always on the rise. Also police officer today are more involved in criminal cases and responses to emergency with the general public.

Comment:    The Community Policing Era most likely started as a result of negative images with the departments and the community perceptions of law enforcement. The police began to try and address the problems of crime rather than the symptoms. Thus, community policing was born with “two key elements: problem solving and community partnerships” (Gains, 2008, p.87). The police tried saturated patrols to prevent problematic areas from being overrun with criminals. They used community relations programs and outreach programs to increase awareness and reporting of crimes. Regardless, the police stayed focused only on professional crime fighting. The Post-Community Policing Era was most affected by the tragic events of 9/11 and “resulted in law enforcement placing greater emphasis on aggressive policing” (Gains, 2008, p.88). This really rallied all local and state departments together and coordinated with the Department of Homeland Security in an effort to prepare strategies for their areas to prevent such a disaster from occurring again. Police Departments have to incorporate response plans on how fire departments, medical teams, and civil defense will work along with them in such an event. Local cops may have to work alongside the FBI or other federal agencies in order to investigate potential terror suspects. These types of aggressive tactics are very similar to the aggressive tactics used in the community policing era. Because of the shift in priorities, funding is not available for community policing at the Federal level and this will trickle down to the local levels as well. Though the aggressive policing tactics are utilized in both eras, it seems police have moved away from community involvements and are concentrating more on strategic level tactics.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, NJ
Question 32 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe the impact of race and gender on police officer careers.

The impact of race and gender on a police officer career could have a significant effect against the individual especially if the agency is not following the proper hiring procedures. Scher, Holstetler, Cangiano and Kelly (1999) states “With only 3% of its force female, the N.J. State Police ranks second from the bottom among large U.S. state police agencies at recruiting women. In 1998, only six of 184 officers with ranks over sergeant were minority males and only two out of 161 lieutenants were women. No women achieved a rank above lieutenant. Since 1995, according to the state report, 72 internal complaints were filed for either race or gender discrimination” (p. 30).


References

Scher, A., Hostetler, M., Cangiano, G., & Kelly, B. (1999, Habitual offenders: Labor laws and the companies that break them. Dollars & Sense, (225), 28-31+. Retrieved from

Comment:    Both race and gender are very controversial subjects in law enforcement hiring processes and has been the centerpiece for many arguments challenging Title VII rulings and decisions. The police officer begins their career at the hiring face of law enforcement where the first gate holders into the system may try and keep them out because of the race or gender. This is very problematic for many aspiring officers who may be black, Hispanic, female, etc. because the application processes up until recently were made to personally exclude them from being a viable applicant. An example of this was the Vanguard Justice Society v. Hughes case which “found that the Baltimore Police Department’s 5’7” height requirement excluded 95 percent of the female population while only 32 percent of the male population was excluded as a result of the standard” (Gains, 2008, p.99). This obvious bias standard was a method used to covertly exclude females from being able to apply based on circumstances beyond their control, but still afforded for departments to maintain they upheld fair hiring practices. Other tools used may be complicated application processes, education requirements, and other barriers for some to be able to apply. Once they are accepted, it is a long hard road to having to prove themselves as reliable and effective officers based on shortcomings and misconceptions about their abilities based on race and gender alone. Additionally women and minorities may face “glass ceilings” (Gains, 2008, p.104) when it comes to being promoted. Those who make the selection processes for promotion may still be some of the older generation of people with values and misconceptions from an earlier era. These barriers may also greatly constrain aspiring police officers from achieving loftier goals in their careers.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, NJ
Question 33 of 34    10.0 Points
In your opinion what are the pros and cons of Police Collective Bargaining. Explain.



Comment:    Did not Answer. :-(
Question 34 of 34    10.0 Points
Discuss the results of the Kansas City Routine Preventive Patrol

The Kansas City Routine Preventive Patrol was a study conducted by the city of Kansas police department to test the theory of whether or not an increase of marked police patrol vehicle would reduce or detour crime in a giving area for a period equivalent to one year. The results varied but over it was concluded that the residence did not notice the increase in officer patrols. Also it didn't stop crimes such as burglaries and theft in the area either.

Comment:    The study, which was conducted during 1972 and 1973 at the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department, consisted of using fifteen patrol beats divided into three groups. One group, the reactive beats, included five beats where patrol was withdrawn and police only showed if they received calls. Another group of five beats, the proactive beats, contained two to three times the normal level of patrols. The last group of five beat patrol was the control beat in which no changes were made. The idea was that citizen satisfaction would increase and crime would decrease in the more patrolled areas and vice versa in the lesser patrolled areas. The results stated, “there were no significant differences in any of the three areas in the amount of crime or citizen satisfaction” (Gains, 2008, p.196). The results of this study were not to show that police officers do not have any effect on crime, but rather to show routine patrol has very little effect when it comes to crime. The study further showed that “specialized, aggressive patrol tactics should be considered as more appropriate tools to combat crime problems” (Gains, 2008, p.196). Most departments should use the Kansas City study as a real teaching tool for their departments to not rely so heavily on patrol tactics, in essence, to not be so reactive to crime. It is better to take a proactive stance when it comes to crime and use other tools available to the department to include running sources, area saturation, and undercover operations as other means for example to try and find the crime which exists out in the communities.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, N

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 Quiz #1

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Social contract theory describes the relationship between which of the following?
   
   A. a. citizens and police    
Correct    
   B. b. government and citizens    
   
   C. c. government and police    
   
   D. d. the Constitution and citizens    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a "function" of the Constitution?
   
   A. a. defines and describes social arrangements between a government and its citizens    
   
   B. b. distributes authority    
   
   C. c. limits the use of power    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following protects suspects from illegal searches and seizures?
Correct    
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
How police officers obtain confessions and conduct lineups is addressed in which Constitutional Amendment?
   
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
Correct    
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Suspects are guaranteed a right to legal counsel in the __________ to the U.S. Constitution?
   
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
Correct    
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: C
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
Which statement is true regarding local police departments?
   
   A. a. They have arresting power.    
   
   B. b. There are more of them than any other type of law enforcement agency.    
   
   C. c. They employ the largest number of law enforcement officers.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
The __________ perspective involves the systematic study of mental and emotional factors of the police personality.
Correct    
   A. a. psychological    
   
   B. b. sociological    
   
   C. c. anthropological    
   
   D. d. subculture    



Answer Key: A
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Muir classified four types of police officers. Which of the following best defines the "enforcer?"
   
   A. a. tends to be cynical and is coercion-oriented    
   
   B. b. is sympathetic toward citizens and has difficulty being coercive    
   
   C. c. has an integrated sense of coercion and follows rule of law    
Incorrect    
   D. d. has little sympathy and avoids being coercive    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is the idea that police officers view situations and people differently from other segments of the population?
Correct    
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
   
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: A
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
Character, disposition, or basic values specific to a particular culture or subculture is known as:
   
   A. a. theme.    
   
   B. b. postulate.    
Incorrect    
   C. c. autonomy.    
   
   D. d. ethos.    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following factors contribute to the development of the "code of silence?"
   
   A. a. potential for error in job performance    
   
   B. b. fear of loss of autonomy    
Incorrect    
   C. c. protection of co-workers    
   
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a statement of belief held by a culture that reflects its basic orientations?
   
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
Correct    
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: D
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the Christopher Commission's findings after the beating of motorist Rodney King?
   
   A. a. Very few LAPD officers engage in illegal use of force.    
Correct    
   B. b. A significant number of LAPD officers repetitively misuse force.    
   
   C. c. The LAPD culture emphasizes crime prevention.    
   
   D. d. The LAPD officers view citizens with respect.    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following statements about policing is true?
   
   A. a. The police function was vested with the military during earlier times.    
   
   B. b. Policing has been linked to the development of political organization and control of citizens and resources.    
   
   C. c. Successful Egyptian dynasties established some form of police force to protect domestic tranquility.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Henry Fielding made which of the following contributions to policing?
Correct    
   A. a. He organized the Bow Street Runners.    
   
   B. b. He established a school for police officers.    
   
   C. c. He enacted legislation creating the London police.    
   
   D. d. He drafted a police bill of rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes Patrick Colquhoun's approach to solving the crime problem in London?
   
   A. a. He wanted to eliminate those who were biologically predisposed to criminal behavior.    
Correct    
   B. b. He wanted to eliminate social problems.    
   
   C. c. He wanted to implement a government police force.    
   
   D. d. He wanted to create more laws, police officers, and prisons.    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
The London police force was not armed and was successful at reducing crime and making citizens feel safe. What was the reason for this success?
   
   A. a. The officers carried guns without the knowledge of their supervisors.    
Correct    
   B. b. The professional principles of policing were followed.    
   
   C. c. Would-be criminals were afraid of the nightsticks officers carried.    
   
   D. d. Policymaking was decentralized and officers were given great autonomy.    



Answer Key: B
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
Many southern police departments began as:
Correct    
   A. a. slave patrols.    
   
   B. b. night watches.    
   
   C. c. day watches.    
   
   D. d. organized, structured police departments.    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following factors contributed to the shift toward the community relations phase of policing?
   
   A. a. ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment    
   
   B. b. The Depression    
   
   C. c. Prohibition    
Correct    
   D. d. civil disturbances of the 1960s    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
When did the Watts Riots occur in Los Angeles?
   
   A. a. 1843    
   
   B. b. 1930    
Correct    
   C. c. 1965    
   
   D. d. 1993    



Answer Key: C

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 Quiz #2

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Which screening process is recommended for achieving the best pool of applicants?
   
   A. a. screening out    
Correct    
   B. b. screening in    
   
   C. c. lateral screening    
   
   D. d. vertical screening    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in employment based on all of the following EXCEPT:
   
   A. a. race.    
Correct    
   B. b. age.    
   
   C. c. sex.    
   
   D. d. religion.    



Answer Key: B
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following court cases was the first to establish standards by which to judge discrimination?
Correct    
   A. a. Griggs v. Duke Power Co.    
   
   B. b. Bakke v. California    
   
   C. c. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antonio    
   
   D. d. Thomas v. City of Evanston    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
There have been two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies. What are they?
   
   A. a. institutional barriers and educational standards    
Correct    
   B. b. institutional barriers and personal preference    
   
   C. c. personal preference and educational standards    
   
   D. d. personal preference and residency requirements    



Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking employment?
   
   A. a. complicated applications    
   
   B. b. multi-staged selection process    
   
   C. c. the department's image regarding minorities    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
Davis v. Dallas (1985) dealt with which recruitment standard?
Correct    
   A. a. education    
   
   B. b. vision    
   
   C. c. residency    
   
   D. d. physical agility    



Answer Key: A
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
In Thomas v. City of Evanston (1985) the Supreme Court determined that in order for physical agility tests in law enforcement to be acceptable, the tests must:
Incorrect    
   A. a. be based on job analysis.    
   
   B. b. represent the content of the job.    
   
   C. c. be equally challenging for both genders.    
   
   D. d. both a and b    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the "role-play" exercise simulated in an assessment center?
Correct    
   A. a. It consists of candidates acting out scenarios, such as taking a report.    
   
   B. b. It tests the candidates' ability to use facts and other information.    
   
   C. c. It is an exercise in which candidates review paperwork and decide how it should be processed.    
   
   D. d. It consists of candidates displaying their verbal skills in front of groups.    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a topic covered in basic training?
   
   A. a. criminal law    
   
   B. b. human values    
   
   C. c. patrol and investigation procedures    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
In-service training may include all of the following activities EXCEPT:
   
   A. a. radio training.    
   
   B. b. departmental training sessions.    
   
   C. c. roll-call training.    
Correct    
   D. d. basic academy training.    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices?
   
   A. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices.    
   
   B. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices.    
Correct    
   C. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices.    
   
   D. It will likely call for the chief to be fired.    



Answer Key: C
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes "disparate rejection?"
Incorrect    
   A. It applies to groups when the employer adopts a policy that excludes members of a minority.    
   
   B. It applies to groups and is commonly referred to as the 80 percent rule.    
   
   C. It applies to groups and consists of a practice where the courts compare the percentage of minority employees with the percentage of minorities in the community.    
   
   D. It applies to individuals and consists of a policy by which a qualified minority applies for an advertised position and is rejected.    



Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding Griggs v. Duke Power Co.?
   
   A. The Court found that it did not matter if discrimination was intentional or unintentional.    
   
   B. The Court found that once it established the existence of discrimination, the burden of proof fell upon the plaintiff to prove that the selection process was discriminatory.    
   
   C. There could be NO differences in hiring rates, even if the hiring practices were related to job performance.    
Incorrect    
   D. all of the above.    



Answer Key: A
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
When was the first African-American police officer hired in the United States?
Correct    
   A. the 1860s    
   
   B. the 1920s    
   
   C. the 1950s    
   
   D. the 1960s    



Answer Key: A
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are African-Americans?
   
   A. 4    
   
   B. 8    
Correct    
   C. 11    
   
   D. 15    



Answer Key: C
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Why has policing been such a male-dominated vocation?
   
   A. Women have always preferred to stay home and care for the children.    
Incorrect    
   B. Smaller size limits the duties women can perform.    
   
   C. Males have been the powerholders in society.    



Answer Key: C
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding the first female police officer in the United States?
   
   A. She quickly rose up the ranks to become the chief of her department.    
   
   B. She was responsible for investigating serious violent crimes.    
Correct    
   C. She was responsible for enforcing laws in skating rinks.    
   
   D. She was hired in 1890.    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
Poulos and Doerner studied Florida police departments to determine female representation. According to their study, what percentage of officers in Florida is female?
Correct    
   A. 8    
   
   B. 25    
   
   C. 40    
   
   D. 51    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the primary difference between male and female police officers?
   
   A. Males subscribe to a "morality of care" while females subscribe to a "morality of justice."    
   
   B. Males subscribe to a "morality of crime fighting" while females subscribe to a "morality of crime nurture."    
Correct    
   C. Males subscribe to a "morality of justice" while females subscribe to a "morality of care."    
   
   D. There really are no differences between male and female officers.    



Answer Key: C
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?"
Correct    
   A. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants    
   
   B. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants    
   
   C. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants    
   
   D. the process of transferring officers from other departments    



Answer Key: A
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 Quiz #3

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
A traffic unit is charged with reducing accidents and facilitating the flow of traffic. How do such units accomplish these two goals?
Correct    
   A. a. enforcement, education, engineering    
   
   B. b. enforcement, direction, counseling    
   
   C. c. patrolling, ticketing, arresting    
   
   D. d. enforcement, education, communication    



Answer Key: A
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines the allocation of police personnel?
Incorrect    
   A. a. deciding how many officers will patrol a specific area    
   
   B. b. deciding how many officers will work during each shift    
   
   C. c. deciding how many officers will work on each unit    
   
   D. d. deciding how many officers will investigate a case    



Answer Key: C
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
The police have used foot patrol to accomplish a number of objectives. Which of the following is NOT one of the legitimate objectives of foot patrol?
Correct    
   A. a. punish problem officers    
   
   B. b. increase citizen perception of safety    
   
   C. c. deliver service consistent with community needs    
   
   D. d. create community awareness    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "downtime?"
Incorrect    
   A. a. the time an officer is not responding to calls    
   
   B. b. the time an officer is at the station doing paperwork    
   
   C. c. the time an officer is committed to some call or police activity    
   
   D. d. the time an officer is off duty    



Answer Key: C
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the results of the Kansas City Patrol Experiment?
   
   A. a. Citizens were very aware that their patrol levels had been altered.    
   
   B. b. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, decreased in the areas of increased patrol.    
   
   C. c. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, increased in the areas of decreased patrol.    
Correct    
   D. d. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, showed no significant differences.    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
The effectiveness of police patrol at reducing crime was called into question by research conducted in the __________ police department.
Incorrect    
   A. a. New York City    
   
   B. b. Chicago    
   
   C. c. Kansas City    
   
   D. d. Flint, Michigan    



Answer Key: C
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a primary responsibility of a detective?
   
   A. a. locating a suspect    
   
   B. b. being the first at the scene    
   
   C. c. identifying a suspect    
Correct    
   D. d. both a and c    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following was characteristic of the "detective as secretive rogue?"
Correct    
   A. a. They focused on criminals rather than crimes.    
   
   B. b. They focused on investigating crimes.    
   
   C. c. They performed intricate, detailed investigations.    
   
   D. d. They were mostly female.    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
The movement toward the bureaucratization of criminal investigation was greatly affected by which of the following?
   
   A. a. the Vietnam War    
   
   B. b. the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment    
Correct    
   C. c. the due process revolution    
   
   D. d. a focus on individual criminals    



Answer Key: C
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
What is a "preliminary investigation?"
   
   A. a. The investigation done prior to arrest.    
   
   B. b. The investigation done prior to a preliminary hearing.    
Correct    
   C. c. The initial investigation of a reported crime.    
   
   D. d. The investigation done prior to the sentencing of the defendant.    



Answer Key: C
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "effective limits on a public official's power leave him or her free to make a choice among a number of possible courses of action?"
Correct    
   A. a. discretion    
   
   B. b. control    
   
   C. c. policy formulation    
   
   D. d. authority    



Answer Key: A
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which model of criminal justice emphasizes individual rights?
   
   A. a. crime control model    
Correct    
   B. b. due process model    
   
   C. c. conflict model    
   
   D. d. consensus model    



Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Making decisions concerning the allocation of police personnel, and developing plans and policy, are examples of which type of discretion?
   
   A. a. enforcement    
Correct    
   B. b. administrative    
   
   C. c. selective    
   
   D. d. managerial    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
The decisions of an individual police officer to investigate or report a crime or to effect an arrest are each examples of which type of discretion?
   
   A. a. administrative    
   
   B. b. vice    
Correct    
   C. c. enforcement    
   
   D. d. issue    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
In what way do administrators attempt to control officer discretion?
   
   A. a. by establishing policies    
   
   B. b. by providing direction through orders    
   
   C. c. by providing direction through supervision    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
The nuances of the interaction between officers and citizens are known as:
Correct    
   A. a. situation variables.    
   
   B. b. offender variables.    
   
   C. c. system variables.    
   
   D. d. officer variables.    



Answer Key: A
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the historical police view of domestic violence?
   
   A. a. a serious crime    
Correct    
   B. b. situations where arrest should be the last resort    
   
   C. c. a threat to the family    
   
   D. d. a situation that called for mandatory arrest    



Answer Key: B
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
The National Commission on Obscenity and Pornography called for which of the following?
   
   A. a. the elimination of anti-pornography laws    
Incorrect    
   B. b. strict enforcement of pornography laws    
   
   C. c. police use of discretion in enforcing pornography laws    
   
   D. d. allowing adult pornography, but not child pornography    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which best describes the priority departments give to the enforcement of gambling laws?
Correct    
   A. a. no priority    
   
   B. b. top    
   
   C. c. middle    
   
   D. d. it is equal to prostitution    



Answer Key: A
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
Crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on certain group characteristics are known as:
   
   A. a. vice crimes.    
Correct    
   B. b. hate crimes.    
   
   C. c. domestic crimes.    
   
   D. d. violent crimes.    



Answer Key: B
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 Quiz #4

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "deontological ethics?"
   
   A. a. It examines the consequences in order to determine if an action is right or wrong.    
Correct    
   B. b. It examines the duty to act, not the consequences of an action as a determinant of ethical behavior.    
   
   C. c. It examines the intent of the action as a determinant of ethical behavior.    
   
   D. d. Its meaning is best understood in terms of the greatest happiness for the greatest number.    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a source of police ethics discussed in the text?
   
   A. a. justice    
Correct    
   B. b. religion    
   
   C. c. law    
   
   D. d. agency policy    



Answer Key: B
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a purpose served by departmental written policies?
   
   A. a. to set forth the agency's philosophy of policing    
   
   B. b. to articulate the broad goals of the department    
   
   C. c. to reflect the community's expectations of the department    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
__________ are developed through the process of socialization.
   
   A. a. Social norms    
   
   B. b. Professional codes of ethics    
Correct    
   C. c. Personal values    
   
   D. d. Ethics    



Answer Key: C
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
What differentiates police crime from crimes committed by police officers?
Correct    
   A. a. Police crime involves the officer's use of official powers to engage in criminal conduct.    
   
   B. b. Police crime is always committed while on duty.    
   
   C. c. Police crime takes place in patrol cars.    
   
   D. d. All crimes committed by police officers are police crimes.    



Answer Key: A
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
When a citizen offers a police officer something of value to influence the officers' performance of duty, this conduct is called:
   
   A. a. extortion.    
Correct    
   B. b. bribery.    
   
   C. c. corruption.    
   
   D. d. gratuity.    



Answer Key: B
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the difference between extortion and bribery?
   
   A. a. Extortion involves networks of officers.    
   
   B. b. Extortion involves only high-ranking officers.    
   
   C. c. Extortion is initiated by the citizen.    
Correct    
   D. d. Extortion is initiated by the officer.    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
The use of threat of arrest or harassment by an officer against someone who has committed or is suspected of committing a crime to avoid arrest is known as:
   
   A. a. bribery.    
   
   B. b. coercion.    
   
   C. c. corruption.    
Correct    
   D. d. extortion.    



Answer Key: D
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
The Knapp Commission characterized corrupt police officers as:
   
   A. a. enforcement and vice.    
   
   B. b. patrol and investigation.    
Correct    
   C. c. grass eaters and meat eaters.    
   
   D. d. passive and aggressive.    



Answer Key: C
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
Sherman suggests that police organizations can be classified into several types according to the level of corruption in the department. Which of the following does large numbers of officers working alone on corrupt activities characterize?
Incorrect    
   A. a. rotten apples and rotten pockets    
   
   B. b. pervasive unorganized    
   
   C. c. pervasive organized    
   
   D. d. pervasive community based    



Answer Key: B
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
What influences the high costs associated with civil suits?
   
   A. a. cost of liability insurance    
   
   B. b. litigation expenses    
   
   C. c. out-of-court settlements    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
What is the average jury award of liability against a municipality?
   
   A. a. $100,000    
   
   B. b. $500,000    
Correct    
   C. c. $2 million    
   
   D. d. $4 million    



Answer Key: C
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes a strict liability tort?
Correct    
   A. a. Behaviors that are so dangerous that a reasonable person can be substantially certain injury or damage will result.    
   
   B. b. The person intended to engage in the conduct that led to the injury or damage.    
   
   C. c. Inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury.    
   
   D. d. A violation of federally protected civil rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT an intentional tort?
   
   A. a. assault    
   
   B. b. false arrest    
Correct    
   C. c. failure to protect    
   
   D. d. wrongful death    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as: "inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury?"
Correct    
   A. a. negligence    
   
   B. b. legal duty    
   
   C. c. proximate cause    
   
   D. d. contributory negligence    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is required for liability in negligence claims?
   
   A. a. existence of a legal duty    
   
   B. b. breach of duty    
   
   C. c. proximate causation    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
In order to be held liable under Section 1983 what is necessary?
   
   A. a. acting under the Constitution    
   
   B. b. acting under oath    
Correct    
   C. c. acting under color of law    
   
   D. d. acting under duress    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
The __________ to the United States Constitution affords protection from unreasonable searches and seizures.
   
   A. a. First Amendment    
Correct    
   B. b. Fourth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Fifth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Sixth Amendment    



Answer Key: B
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Police officers who face claims of false arrest or unlawful search are afforded the defense of:
Incorrect    
   A. a. qualified immunity.    
   
   B. b. probable cause.    
   
   C. c. contributory negligence.    
   
   D. d. assumption of risk.    



Answer Key: B
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
Which defense argues that at the time the act was committed, the officer could not have reasonably k



Last Edit: A year ago by airbornerange Report this PostReport Abuse
Reply# 4
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Points: 104
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A year ago

Hey man, Do you have quiz 5?



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Reply# 5
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A year ago

Do you have the midterm



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Reply# 6
Airbornerange #2
Guest
A year ago

Really 89-

Sorry, I am on a guest account....i am not at home. But if you look above i already Posted the MidTerm:  



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Reply# 7
TakeNote123
Guest
A year ago

This is cheating!! And is very much unethical...especia lly for individuals trying to attain a criminal justice degree...a field that is based on high ethical character.



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Reply# 8
heyhey
Guest
A year ago

toneortega
i need quiz 5 Smile



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Reply# 9
Posts: 20
Points: 86
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A year ago

When did you take this course and with who? I'm about to take it. What other AMU courses do you have?

Final I got a few Wrong but answers are provided
Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 34    2.0 Points
Crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on certain group characteristics are known as:
   
   A. a. vice crimes.    
Correct    
   B. b. hate crimes.    
   
   C. c. domestic crimes.    
   
   D. d. violent crimes.    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is member of a "disenfranchised" population?
   
   A. a. the mentally ill    
   
   B. b. the homeless    
   
   C. c. public inebriates    
Correct    
   D. d. All of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a form of internal control of police discretion?
   
   A. a. policies    
   
   B. b. training    
Correct    
   C. c. civilian review boards    
   
   D. d. supervision    



Answer Key: C
Question 4 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is (are) legislative means of control of police discretion?
   
   A. a. enactment of laws    
   
   B. b. training and supervision guidelines for organizations    
   
   C. c. allocation of funds    
Correct    
   D. d. both a and c    



Answer Key: D
Question 5 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is one of the three criteria used to identify excessive force?
   
   A. a. criminal law    
   
   B. b. civil liability    
   
   C. c. fear of scandal    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding courts' reactions in cases involving use of force?
Incorrect    
   A. a. They almost always rule for the victim.    
   
   B. b. They almost always rule for the police.    
   
   C. c. They rule for the victim and police at the same rate.    
   
   D. d. They rule for the victim slightly more than for the police.    



Answer Key: B
Question 7 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes deadly force?
   
   A. a. When an officer unholsters a firearm.    
   
   B. b. When an officer uses a baton.    
   
   C. c. When an officer threatens to shoot the suspect.    
Correct    
   D. d. When an officer discharges his/her weapon.    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the four performance criteria in an early warning system used to identify problem officers?
   
   A. a. use of force, reprimands, breach of duty, alcoholism    
Correct    
   B. b. complaints, use of force, reprimands, discharge of firearms    
   
   C. c. discharge of firearms, alcoholism, domestic violence, corruption    
   
   D. d. corruption, breach of duty, complaints, reprimands    



Answer Key: B
Question 9 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is an example of a "less-than-lethal" weapon?
   
   A. a. water cannons    
   
   B. b. rubber bullets    
   
   C. c. tear gas    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 10 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a purpose served by departmental written policies?
   
   A. a. to set forth the agency's philosophy of policing    
   
   B. b. to articulate the broad goals of the department    
   
   C. c. to reflect the community's expectations of the department    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a purpose served by a police department's formal policies?
   
   A. a. outline the agency's principles of organization and management    
   
   B. b. articulate the broad goals of the department    
Incorrect    
   C. c. reflect the community's expectations of the department    
   
   D. d. identify the parameters of organizational flexibility    



Answer Key: A
Question 12 of 34    2.0 Points
What differentiates police crime from crimes committed by police officers?
Correct    
   A. a. Police crime involves the officer's use of official powers to engage in criminal conduct.    
   
   B. b. Police crime is always committed while on duty.    
   
   C. c. Police crime takes place in patrol cars.    
   
   D. d. All crimes committed by police officers are police crimes.    



Answer Key: A
Question 13 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "behavior that requires the misuse of authority for personal gain"?
   
   A. a. deviance    
   
   B. b. autonomy    
   
   C. c. corruption    
Incorrect    
   D. d. extortion    



Answer Key: C
Question 14 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning the concept of tort?
   
   A. a. They are heard in civil court.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. They are violations of private interests.    
   
   C. c. They are punishable by imprisonment.    
   
   D. d. They have a lower burden of proof than crime.    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes a strict liability tort?
Correct    
   A. a. Strict tort liability is normally associated with behaviors that are so dangerous that a reasonable person can be substantially certain injury or damage will result.    
   
   B. b. The person intended to engage in the conduct that led to the injury or damage.    
   
   C. c. Strict tort liability involves inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury.    
   
   D. d. Strict tort liability is a violation of federally protected civil rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ is behavior that inflicts injury or causes a person to fear the infliction of immediate injury.
   
   A. a. Deadly force    
Correct    
   B. b. Assault    
   
   C. c. Battery    
   
   D. d. Intentional force    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ is behavior that that is offensive, or harmful contact between two persons.
   
   A. a. Deadly force    
   
   B. b. Assault    
Correct    
   C. c. Battery    
   
   D. d. Intentional force    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the Supreme Court's ruling in Tennessee v. Garner?
Correct    
   A. a. Certain state "fleeing-felon" laws were unconstitutional.    
   
   B. b. Police could use deadly force to stop a fleeing murderer, but not other felons.    
   
   C. c. "Fleeing-felon" laws were constitutional.    
   
   D. d. Police could use deadly force in any situation the officer deems it necessary.    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a benefit to the police and the community when good relations exist?
   
   A. a. a decrease in the rate of crime and delinquency    
   
   B. b. improved working relationships with citizens    
   
   C. c. increased governmental support in terms of higher salaries    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 34    2.0 Points
Efforts to identify and manage the conditions within the social and physical environment that provide opportunities or precipitate crime represents what type of crime prevention program?
Correct    
   A. a. primary    
   
   B. b. secondary    
   
   C. c. tertiary    
   
   D. d. encompassing    



Answer Key: A
Question 21 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes community-oriented policing?
   
   A. a. focuses on educating the public about police problems through service-oriented activities    
Correct    
   B. b. focuses on fear reduction and order-maintenance activities through the involvement of citizens using problem-solving methods    
   
   C. c. focuses on fear reduction and order-maintenance activities using service-oriented activities    
   
   D. d. focuses on crime reduction and service-oriented activities through order maintenance methods    



Answer Key: B
Question 22 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a key element in problem solving?
   
   A. a. problems must be defined    
   
   B. b. information concerning problems must be collected    
   
   C. c. police must search for problem solutions    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 23 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "systemic" violence?
Correct    
   A. a. violence that is related to the "business" aspect of drug usage    
   
   B. b. violence that is related to obtaining drugs, or money for illegal drugs    
   
   C. c. violence that is related to the decreased mental capacity of a person who is under the influence of a drug    
   
   D. d. violence that is related to the consumption of alcohol    



Answer Key: A
Question 24 of 34    2.0 Points
The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute makes it a crime to:
Correct    
   A. a. conspire with others to commit crimes.    
   
   B. b. launder money gained from the sale for illicit drugs.    
   
   C. c. fail to pay taxes on money gained from the sale of illicit drugs.    
   
   D. d. participate in the manufacture of illicit drugs.    



Answer Key: A
Question 25 of 34    2.0 Points
The Bureau of Justice Assistance implemented a drug reduction strategy that has been adopted by many states. Which of the following is one of those strategies?
   
   A. a. drug use prevention campaigns, using different types of media to educate the public    
   
   B. b. programs that include law enforcement involvement in citizen education    
   
   C. c. community involvement programs designed to involve community groups    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 26 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following type of property can be seized under forfeiture statutes?
   
   A. a. contraband (drugs)    
   
   B. b. direct proceeds (cash)    
   
   C. c. derivative proceeds (real estate, stock, etc.)    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 27 of 34    2.0 Points
What is the most important reason for law enforcement actions at the retail or street level?
Correct    
   A. a. to make drug transactions riskier and more inconvenient, which leads to reduced consumption    
   
   B. b. safer neighborhoods    
   
   C. c. law enforcement actions will result in an increased number of arrests, which deters drug use and crime    
   
   D. d. citizens feel less fearful of crime    



Answer Key: A
Question 28 of 34    2.0 Points
Some police departments are currently using portable, laptop, or notebook computers. Which of the following is a reason for this?
   
   A. a. It allows officers to e-mail the dispatcher if he/she cannot otherwise contact them.    
   
   B. b. It makes officers look more professional, thus increasing community support.    
Correct    
   C. c. Officers can make clear and accurate reports at a crime scene.    
   
   D. d. It helps officers take statements from hearing-impaired persons.    



Answer Key: C
Question 29 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "desired ends of our actions?"
   
   A. a. objectives    
   
   B. b. directives    
Correct    
   C. c. goals    
   
   D. d. predictions    



Answer Key: C
Question 30 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "our calculations of what is likely to happen under given circumstances?"
   
   A. a. hypothesis    
   
   B. b. goals    
   
   C. c. aspirations    
Correct    
   D. d. predictions    



Answer Key: D

Question 31 of 34    10.0 Points
What is prejudice? What is discrimination? What is their relationship to discretion?





Question 32 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe the options available to a citizen who believes that his/her constitutional rights have been violated by a police officer. What issues are relevant?





Question 33 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe how neighborhood watch programs fit into the concept of community policing, include a discussion of the effectiveness and problems associated with these programs.





Question 34 of 34    10.0 Points
Discuss interdiction, prevention, and treatment programs as components of the national drug strategy. Include a discussion of the effectiveness of each strategy.


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MIDTERM

Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the results of the Kansas City Patrol
   
   A. a. Citizens were very aware that their patrol levels had been altered.    
   
   B. b. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, decreased in the areas of increased patrol.    
   
   C. c. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, increased in the areas of decreased patrol.    
Correct    
   D. d. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, showed no significant differences.    



Answer Key: D
Question 2 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is part of the environmental force that impacts policing?
   
   A. a. legal issues    
   
   B. b. political issues    
   
   C. c. economic issues    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following protects suspects from illegal searches and seizures?
Correct    
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 34    2.0 Points
What is the form of political organization that distributes authority and power among levels of government?
   
   A. a. capitalism    
   
   B. b. socialism    
   
   C. c. authoritarianism    
Correct    
   D. d. federalism    



Answer Key: D
Question 5 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "a binding rule that regulates conduct and provides sanctions for violations of its provisions?"
   
   A. a. a contract    
Correct    
   B. b. a law    
   
   C. c. a bill    
   
   D. d. none of the above    



Answer Key: B
Question 6 of 34    2.0 Points
The "watchman" style of policing emphasizes:
   
   A. a. the provision of services.    
   
   B. b. limited use of discretion.    
   
   C. c. order maintenance and crime control.    
Incorrect    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: C
Question 7 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following statements is true regarding rapid police response?
   
   A. a. Response time does not necessarily influence apprehension rates.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. Response time greatly influences apprehension rates.    
   
   C. c. Response time is only influenced by police action, and not affected by individual citizens.    
   
   D. d. Dispatchers should never tell a citizen when there will be a delay.    



Answer Key: A
Question 8 of 34    2.0 Points
What do most police organizations use to categorize calls for service?
Correct    
   A. a. prioritization    
   
   B. b. random selection    
   
   C. c. systematic selection    
   
   D. d. routinization    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the first form of policing in England?
Correct    
   A. a. constables    
   
   B. b. sheriffs    
   
   C. c. formal police organizations    
   
   D. d. state police agencies    



Answer Key: A
Question 10 of 34    2.0 Points
Sir Robert Peel developed which of the following principles?
   
   A. a. Police must be organized along military lines.    
   
   B. b. Police must be controlled by the government.    
   
   C. c. Police headquarters would be centrally located.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 34    2.0 Points
Modern policing has gone through a number of phases. Which of the following is NOT one of those phases?
   
   A. a. political entrenchment phase    
   
   B. b. reform phase    
   
   C. c. professionalization phase    
Correct    
   D. d. expansion phase    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a characteristic of the "political entrenchment phase?"
   
   A. a. The Civil Service was formed.    
Incorrect    
   B. b. The police became "crime fighters."    
   
   C. c. The police were corrupt.    
   
   D. d. The police emphasized citizens' rights.    



Answer Key: C
Question 13 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following was enacted by the Volstead Act?
   
   A. a.organizational changes    
Correct    
   B. b. prohibition    
   
   C. c. civil service    
   
   D. d. police reform    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is the process by which norms and values are internalized as workers begin to learn their new occupation?
   
   A. a. socialization    
   
   B. b. culturalization    
   
   C. c. institutionalizatio n    
Correct    
   D. d. professionalization    



Answer Key: D
Question 15 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices?
   
   A. a. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices.    
   
   B. b. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices.    
Correct    
   C. c. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices.    
   
   D. d. It will likely call for the chief to be fired.    



Answer Key: C
Question 16 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following are the two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies?
   
   A. a.institutional barriers and educational standards    
Correct    
   B. b. institutional barriers and personal preference    
   
   C. c. personal preference and educational standards    
   
   D. d. personal preference and residency requirements    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking employment?
   
   A. a. complicated applications    
   
   B. b. multistaged selection process    
   
   C. c. the department's image regarding minorities    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 18 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?"
Correct    
   A. a. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants    
   
   B. b. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants    
   
   C. c. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants    
   
   D. d. the process of transferring officers from other departments    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following tests are used in the selection of police officers?
   
   A. a. written examinations    
   
   B. b. physical agility tests    
   
   C. c. polygraph tests    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT one of White's typologies of police officers?
   
   A. a. tough cop    
   
   B. b. problem solver    
   
   C. c. crime fighter    
Correct    
   D. d. secretive rogue    



Answer Key: D
Question 21 of 34    2.0 Points
A __________ is distinguished by its distinct differences and shared similarities when compared to the dominant __________.
   
   A. a. profession, science    
Correct    
   B. b. subculture, culture    
   
   C. c. law, constitution    
   
   D. d. ordinance    



Answer Key: B
Question 22 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is the idea that police officers view situations and people differently from other segments of the population?
Correct    
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
   
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: A
Question 23 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following factors contribute to the development of the "code of silence?"
   
   A. a. potential for error in job performance    
   
   B. b. fear of loss of autonomy    
   
   C. c. protection of co-workers    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 24 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a responsibility of upper level administrators?
   
   A. a. training new recruits    
   
   B. b. scheduling patrol    
Correct    
   C. c. determining the department's mission    
   
   D. d. recruiting new officers    



Answer Key: C
Question 25 of 34    2.0 Points
Another name commonly used for "hierarchy" is:
   
   A. a.span of control.    
Correct    
   B. b. chain of command.    
   
   C. c. unity of command.    
   
   D. d. specialization.    



Answer Key: B
Question 26 of 34    2.0 Points
__________ are important because they outline to everyone in the department their duties, responsibilities, and limitations.
   
   A. a. Procedural guidelines    
   
   B. b. Directives    
Incorrect    
   C. c. Objectives    
   
   D. d. Goals    



Answer Key: A
Question 27 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of personal stressor?
   
   A. a. marital difficulties    
   
   B. b. physiological impact of shift work    
   
   C. c. financial constraints    
Correct    
   D. d. a and c only    



Answer Key: D
Question 28 of 34    2.0 Points
Which of the following is a factor that may contribute to police suicide?
   
   A. a. abuse of alcohol and drugs    
   
   B. b. ready access to firearms    
   
   C. c. depression    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 29 of 34    2.0 Points
The police have used foot patrol to accomplish a number of objectives. Which of the following is NOT one of the legitimate objectives of foot patrol?
Correct    
   A. a. punish problem officers    
   
   B. b. increase citizen perception of safety    
   
   C. c. deliver service consistent with community needs    
   
   D. d. create community awareness    



Answer Key: A
Question 30 of 34    2.0 Points
The type of patrol in which officers are assigned to beats in marked vehicles and randomly patrol to reduce opportunities for criminal acts when not involved in police activities is known as:
   
   A. a. split-force patrol.    
   
   B. b. differential response.    
Correct    
   C. c. routine preventive patrol.    
   
   D. d. delayed response patrol.    



Answer Key: C
Question 31 of 34    10.0 Points
Compare and contrast the Community Policing Era with the Post-Community Policing Era?

The community policing era that we currently live in is almost like doing a complete 180 degrees around from the Post-Community Policing Era. Many officers today patrol designated areas in vehicles and carry advance gear. In Post-Community Policing Era the officer were referred to as nightwatchmen similar to a neighborhood watch team. As the years past they were recognized as police officers and given authority. Crime before the present Community Policing Era was increasingly dangerous and always on the rise. Also police officer today are more involved in criminal cases and responses to emergency with the general public.

Comment:    The Community Policing Era most likely started as a result of negative images with the departments and the community perceptions of law enforcement. The police began to try and address the problems of crime rather than the symptoms. Thus, community policing was born with “two key elements: problem solving and community partnerships” (Gains, 2008, p.87). The police tried saturated patrols to prevent problematic areas from being overrun with criminals. They used community relations programs and outreach programs to increase awareness and reporting of crimes. Regardless, the police stayed focused only on professional crime fighting. The Post-Community Policing Era was most affected by the tragic events of 9/11 and “resulted in law enforcement placing greater emphasis on aggressive policing” (Gains, 2008, p.88). This really rallied all local and state departments together and coordinated with the Department of Homeland Security in an effort to prepare strategies for their areas to prevent such a disaster from occurring again. Police Departments have to incorporate response plans on how fire departments, medical teams, and civil defense will work along with them in such an event. Local cops may have to work alongside the FBI or other federal agencies in order to investigate potential terror suspects. These types of aggressive tactics are very similar to the aggressive tactics used in the community policing era. Because of the shift in priorities, funding is not available for community policing at the Federal level and this will trickle down to the local levels as well. Though the aggressive policing tactics are utilized in both eras, it seems police have moved away from community involvements and are concentrating more on strategic level tactics.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, NJ
Question 32 of 34    10.0 Points
Describe the impact of race and gender on police officer careers.

The impact of race and gender on a police officer career could have a significant effect against the individual especially if the agency is not following the proper hiring procedures. Scher, Holstetler, Cangiano and Kelly (1999) states “With only 3% of its force female, the N.J. State Police ranks second from the bottom among large U.S. state police agencies at recruiting women. In 1998, only six of 184 officers with ranks over sergeant were minority males and only two out of 161 lieutenants were women. No women achieved a rank above lieutenant. Since 1995, according to the state report, 72 internal complaints were filed for either race or gender discrimination” (p. 30).


References

Scher, A., Hostetler, M., Cangiano, G., & Kelly, B. (1999, Habitual offenders: Labor laws and the companies that break them. Dollars & Sense, (225), 28-31+. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220953028?accountid=8289

Comment:    Both race and gender are very controversial subjects in law enforcement hiring processes and has been the centerpiece for many arguments challenging Title VII rulings and decisions. The police officer begins their career at the hiring face of law enforcement where the first gate holders into the system may try and keep them out because of the race or gender. This is very problematic for many aspiring officers who may be black, Hispanic, female, etc. because the application processes up until recently were made to personally exclude them from being a viable applicant. An example of this was the Vanguard Justice Society v. Hughes case which “found that the Baltimore Police Department’s 5’7” height requirement excluded 95 percent of the female population while only 32 percent of the male population was excluded as a result of the standard” (Gains, 2008, p.99). This obvious bias standard was a method used to covertly exclude females from being able to apply based on circumstances beyond their control, but still afforded for departments to maintain they upheld fair hiring practices. Other tools used may be complicated application processes, education requirements, and other barriers for some to be able to apply. Once they are accepted, it is a long hard road to having to prove themselves as reliable and effective officers based on shortcomings and misconceptions about their abilities based on race and gender alone. Additionally women and minorities may face “glass ceilings” (Gains, 2008, p.104) when it comes to being promoted. Those who make the selection processes for promotion may still be some of the older generation of people with values and misconceptions from an earlier era. These barriers may also greatly constrain aspiring police officers from achieving loftier goals in their careers.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, NJ
Question 33 of 34    10.0 Points
In your opinion what are the pros and cons of Police Collective Bargaining. Explain.



Comment:    Did not Answer. :-(
Question 34 of 34    10.0 Points
Discuss the results of the Kansas City Routine Preventive Patrol

The Kansas City Routine Preventive Patrol was a study conducted by the city of Kansas police department to test the theory of whether or not an increase of marked police patrol vehicle would reduce or detour crime in a giving area for a period equivalent to one year. The results varied but over it was concluded that the residence did not notice the increase in officer patrols. Also it didn't stop crimes such as burglaries and theft in the area either.

Comment:    The study, which was conducted during 1972 and 1973 at the Kansas City, Missouri, Police Department, consisted of using fifteen patrol beats divided into three groups. One group, the reactive beats, included five beats where patrol was withdrawn and police only showed if they received calls. Another group of five beats, the proactive beats, contained two to three times the normal level of patrols. The last group of five beat patrol was the control beat in which no changes were made. The idea was that citizen satisfaction would increase and crime would decrease in the more patrolled areas and vice versa in the lesser patrolled areas. The results stated, “there were no significant differences in any of the three areas in the amount of crime or citizen satisfaction” (Gains, 2008, p.196). The results of this study were not to show that police officers do not have any effect on crime, but rather to show routine patrol has very little effect when it comes to crime. The study further showed that “specialized, aggressive patrol tactics should be considered as more appropriate tools to combat crime problems” (Gains, 2008, p.196). Most departments should use the Kansas City study as a real teaching tool for their departments to not rely so heavily on patrol tactics, in essence, to not be so reactive to crime. It is better to take a proactive stance when it comes to crime and use other tools available to the department to include running sources, area saturation, and undercover operations as other means for example to try and find the crime which exists out in the communities.

Gains, L., Kappeler, V. (2008) Policing In America, Sixth Edition, Newark, N

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Quiz #1

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Social contract theory describes the relationship between which of the following?
   
   A. a. citizens and police    
Correct    
   B. b. government and citizens    
   
   C. c. government and police    
   
   D. d. the Constitution and citizens    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a "function" of the Constitution?
   
   A. a. defines and describes social arrangements between a government and its citizens    
   
   B. b. distributes authority    
   
   C. c. limits the use of power    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following protects suspects from illegal searches and seizures?
Correct    
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
How police officers obtain confessions and conduct lineups is addressed in which Constitutional Amendment?
   
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
Correct    
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Suspects are guaranteed a right to legal counsel in the __________ to the U.S. Constitution?
   
   A. a. Fourth Amendment    
   
   B. b. Fifth Amendment    
Correct    
   C. c. Sixth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Eighth Amendment    



Answer Key: C
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
Which statement is true regarding local police departments?
   
   A. a. They have arresting power.    
   
   B. b. There are more of them than any other type of law enforcement agency.    
   
   C. c. They employ the largest number of law enforcement officers.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
The __________ perspective involves the systematic study of mental and emotional factors of the police personality.
Correct    
   A. a. psychological    
   
   B. b. sociological    
   
   C. c. anthropological    
   
   D. d. subculture    



Answer Key: A
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Muir classified four types of police officers. Which of the following best defines the "enforcer?"
   
   A. a. tends to be cynical and is coercion-oriented    
   
   B. b. is sympathetic toward citizens and has difficulty being coercive    
   
   C. c. has an integrated sense of coercion and follows rule of law    
Incorrect    
   D. d. has little sympathy and avoids being coercive    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is the idea that police officers view situations and people differently from other segments of the population?
Correct    
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
   
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: A
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
Character, disposition, or basic values specific to a particular culture or subculture is known as:
   
   A. a. theme.    
   
   B. b. postulate.    
Incorrect    
   C. c. autonomy.    
   
   D. d. ethos.    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following factors contribute to the development of the "code of silence?"
   
   A. a. potential for error in job performance    
   
   B. b. fear of loss of autonomy    
Incorrect    
   C. c. protection of co-workers    
   
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a statement of belief held by a culture that reflects its basic orientations?
   
   A. a. worldview    
   
   B. b. ethos    
   
   C. c. themes    
Correct    
   D. d. postulates    



Answer Key: D
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the Christopher Commission's findings after the beating of motorist Rodney King?
   
   A. a. Very few LAPD officers engage in illegal use of force.    
Correct    
   B. b. A significant number of LAPD officers repetitively misuse force.    
   
   C. c. The LAPD culture emphasizes crime prevention.    
   
   D. d. The LAPD officers view citizens with respect.    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following statements about policing is true?
   
   A. a. The police function was vested with the military during earlier times.    
   
   B. b. Policing has been linked to the development of political organization and control of citizens and resources.    
   
   C. c. Successful Egyptian dynasties established some form of police force to protect domestic tranquility.    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Henry Fielding made which of the following contributions to policing?
Correct    
   A. a. He organized the Bow Street Runners.    
   
   B. b. He established a school for police officers.    
   
   C. c. He enacted legislation creating the London police.    
   
   D. d. He drafted a police bill of rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes Patrick Colquhoun's approach to solving the crime problem in London?
   
   A. a. He wanted to eliminate those who were biologically predisposed to criminal behavior.    
Correct    
   B. b. He wanted to eliminate social problems.    
   
   C. c. He wanted to implement a government police force.    
   
   D. d. He wanted to create more laws, police officers, and prisons.    



Answer Key: B
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
The London police force was not armed and was successful at reducing crime and making citizens feel safe. What was the reason for this success?
   
   A. a. The officers carried guns without the knowledge of their supervisors.    
Correct    
   B. b. The professional principles of policing were followed.    
   
   C. c. Would-be criminals were afraid of the nightsticks officers carried.    
   
   D. d. Policymaking was decentralized and officers were given great autonomy.    



Answer Key: B
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
Many southern police departments began as:
Correct    
   A. a. slave patrols.    
   
   B. b. night watches.    
   
   C. c. day watches.    
   
   D. d. organized, structured police departments.    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following factors contributed to the shift toward the community relations phase of policing?
   
   A. a. ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment    
   
   B. b. The Depression    
   
   C. c. Prohibition    
Correct    
   D. d. civil disturbances of the 1960s    



Answer Key: D
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
When did the Watts Riots occur in Los Angeles?
   
   A. a. 1843    
   
   B. b. 1930    
Correct    
   C. c. 1965    
   
   D. d. 1993    



Answer Key: C

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Quiz #2

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Which screening process is recommended for achieving the best pool of applicants?
   
   A. a. screening out    
Correct    
   B. b. screening in    
   
   C. c. lateral screening    
   
   D. d. vertical screening    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination in employment based on all of the following EXCEPT:
   
   A. a. race.    
Correct    
   B. b. age.    
   
   C. c. sex.    
   
   D. d. religion.    



Answer Key: B
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following court cases was the first to establish standards by which to judge discrimination?
Correct    
   A. a. Griggs v. Duke Power Co.    
   
   B. b. Bakke v. California    
   
   C. c. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antonio    
   
   D. d. Thomas v. City of Evanston    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
There have been two broad categories of explanations for the lack of minority representation in law enforcement agencies. What are they?
   
   A. a. institutional barriers and educational standards    
Correct    
   B. b. institutional barriers and personal preference    
   
   C. c. personal preference and educational standards    
   
   D. d. personal preference and residency requirements    



Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a type of "institutional barrier" that dissuades minorities from seeking employment?
   
   A. a. complicated applications    
   
   B. b. multi-staged selection process    
   
   C. c. the department's image regarding minorities    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
Davis v. Dallas (1985) dealt with which recruitment standard?
Correct    
   A. a. education    
   
   B. b. vision    
   
   C. c. residency    
   
   D. d. physical agility    



Answer Key: A
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
In Thomas v. City of Evanston (1985) the Supreme Court determined that in order for physical agility tests in law enforcement to be acceptable, the tests must:
Incorrect    
   A. a. be based on job analysis.    
   
   B. b. represent the content of the job.    
   
   C. c. be equally challenging for both genders.    
   
   D. d. both a and b    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the "role-play" exercise simulated in an assessment center?
Correct    
   A. a. It consists of candidates acting out scenarios, such as taking a report.    
   
   B. b. It tests the candidates' ability to use facts and other information.    
   
   C. c. It is an exercise in which candidates review paperwork and decide how it should be processed.    
   
   D. d. It consists of candidates displaying their verbal skills in front of groups.    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a topic covered in basic training?
   
   A. a. criminal law    
   
   B. b. human values    
   
   C. c. patrol and investigation procedures    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
In-service training may include all of the following activities EXCEPT:
   
   A. a. radio training.    
   
   B. b. departmental training sessions.    
   
   C. c. roll-call training.    
Correct    
   D. d. basic academy training.    



Answer Key: D
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the court's likely reaction when it has determined that a police department has discriminated against groups or classes in hiring practices?
   
   A. It will likely demand a settlement to the plaintiff, but not require changes in hiring practices.    
   
   B. It will likely strike down some of the department's promotion practices, but not hiring practices.    
Correct    
   C. It will likely strike down some or all of the department's hiring practices.    
   
   D. It will likely call for the chief to be fired.    



Answer Key: C
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes "disparate rejection?"
Incorrect    
   A. It applies to groups when the employer adopts a policy that excludes members of a minority.    
   
   B. It applies to groups and is commonly referred to as the 80 percent rule.    
   
   C. It applies to groups and consists of a practice where the courts compare the percentage of minority employees with the percentage of minorities in the community.    
   
   D. It applies to individuals and consists of a policy by which a qualified minority applies for an advertised position and is rejected.    



Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding Griggs v. Duke Power Co.?
   
   A. The Court found that it did not matter if discrimination was intentional or unintentional.    
   
   B. The Court found that once it established the existence of discrimination, the burden of proof fell upon the plaintiff to prove that the selection process was discriminatory.    
   
   C. There could be NO differences in hiring rates, even if the hiring practices were related to job performance.    
Incorrect    
   D. all of the above.    



Answer Key: A
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
When was the first African-American police officer hired in the United States?
Correct    
   A. the 1860s    
   
   B. the 1920s    
   
   C. the 1950s    
   
   D. the 1960s    



Answer Key: A
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Approximately what percentage of police officers in America are African-Americans?
   
   A. 4    
   
   B. 8    
Correct    
   C. 11    
   
   D. 15    



Answer Key: C
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Why has policing been such a male-dominated vocation?
   
   A. Women have always preferred to stay home and care for the children.    
Incorrect    
   B. Smaller size limits the duties women can perform.    
   
   C. Males have been the powerholders in society.    



Answer Key: C
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is true regarding the first female police officer in the United States?
   
   A. She quickly rose up the ranks to become the chief of her department.    
   
   B. She was responsible for investigating serious violent crimes.    
Correct    
   C. She was responsible for enforcing laws in skating rinks.    
   
   D. She was hired in 1890.    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
Poulos and Doerner studied Florida police departments to determine female representation. According to their study, what percentage of officers in Florida is female?
Correct    
   A. 8    
   
   B. 25    
   
   C. 40    
   
   D. 51    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the primary difference between male and female police officers?
   
   A. Males subscribe to a "morality of care" while females subscribe to a "morality of justice."    
   
   B. Males subscribe to a "morality of crime fighting" while females subscribe to a "morality of crime nurture."    
Correct    
   C. Males subscribe to a "morality of justice" while females subscribe to a "morality of care."    
   
   D. There really are no differences between male and female officers.    



Answer Key: C
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines police "recruitment?"
Correct    
   A. the development of a pool of sufficiently qualified applicants    
   
   B. the development of a pool of minimally qualified applicants    
   
   C. the development of a pool of exceedingly qualified applicants    
   
   D. the process of transferring officers from other departments    



Answer Key: A
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Quiz #3

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
A traffic unit is charged with reducing accidents and facilitating the flow of traffic. How do such units accomplish these two goals?
Correct    
   A. a. enforcement, education, engineering    
   
   B. b. enforcement, direction, counseling    
   
   C. c. patrolling, ticketing, arresting    
   
   D. d. enforcement, education, communication    



Answer Key: A
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines the allocation of police personnel?
Incorrect    
   A. a. deciding how many officers will patrol a specific area    
   
   B. b. deciding how many officers will work during each shift    
   
   C. c. deciding how many officers will work on each unit    
   
   D. d. deciding how many officers will investigate a case    



Answer Key: C
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
The police have used foot patrol to accomplish a number of objectives. Which of the following is NOT one of the legitimate objectives of foot patrol?
Correct    
   A. a. punish problem officers    
   
   B. b. increase citizen perception of safety    
   
   C. c. deliver service consistent with community needs    
   
   D. d. create community awareness    



Answer Key: A
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "downtime?"
Incorrect    
   A. a. the time an officer is not responding to calls    
   
   B. b. the time an officer is at the station doing paperwork    
   
   C. c. the time an officer is committed to some call or police activity    
   
   D. d. the time an officer is off duty    



Answer Key: C
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following most accurately describes the results of the Kansas City Patrol Experiment?
   
   A. a. Citizens were very aware that their patrol levels had been altered.    
   
   B. b. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, decreased in the areas of increased patrol.    
   
   C. c. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, increased in the areas of decreased patrol.    
Correct    
   D. d. Citizen fear of crime, and victimization, showed no significant differences.    



Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
The effectiveness of police patrol at reducing crime was called into question by research conducted in the __________ police department.
Incorrect    
   A. a. New York City    
   
   B. b. Chicago    
   
   C. c. Kansas City    
   
   D. d. Flint, Michigan    



Answer Key: C
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a primary responsibility of a detective?
   
   A. a. locating a suspect    
   
   B. b. being the first at the scene    
   
   C. c. identifying a suspect    
Correct    
   D. d. both a and c    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following was characteristic of the "detective as secretive rogue?"
Correct    
   A. a. They focused on criminals rather than crimes.    
   
   B. b. They focused on investigating crimes.    
   
   C. c. They performed intricate, detailed investigations.    
   
   D. d. They were mostly female.    



Answer Key: A
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
The movement toward the bureaucratization of criminal investigation was greatly affected by which of the following?
   
   A. a. the Vietnam War    
   
   B. b. the ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment    
Correct    
   C. c. the due process revolution    
   
   D. d. a focus on individual criminals    



Answer Key: C
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
What is a "preliminary investigation?"
   
   A. a. The investigation done prior to arrest.    
   
   B. b. The investigation done prior to a preliminary hearing.    
Correct    
   C. c. The initial investigation of a reported crime.    
   
   D. d. The investigation done prior to the sentencing of the defendant.    



Answer Key: C
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as "effective limits on a public official's power leave him or her free to make a choice among a number of possible courses of action?"
Correct    
   A. a. discretion    
   
   B. b. control    
   
   C. c. policy formulation    
   
   D. d. authority    



Answer Key: A
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
Which model of criminal justice emphasizes individual rights?
   
   A. a. crime control model    
Correct    
   B. b. due process model    
   
   C. c. conflict model    
   
   D. d. consensus model    



Answer Key: B
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Making decisions concerning the allocation of police personnel, and developing plans and policy, are examples of which type of discretion?
   
   A. a. enforcement    
Correct    
   B. b. administrative    
   
   C. c. selective    
   
   D. d. managerial    



Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
The decisions of an individual police officer to investigate or report a crime or to effect an arrest are each examples of which type of discretion?
   
   A. a. administrative    
   
   B. b. vice    
Correct    
   C. c. enforcement    
   
   D. d. issue    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
In what way do administrators attempt to control officer discretion?
   
   A. a. by establishing policies    
   
   B. b. by providing direction through orders    
   
   C. c. by providing direction through supervision    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
The nuances of the interaction between officers and citizens are known as:
Correct    
   A. a. situation variables.    
   
   B. b. offender variables.    
   
   C. c. system variables.    
   
   D. d. officer variables.    



Answer Key: A
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the historical police view of domestic violence?
   
   A. a. a serious crime    
Correct    
   B. b. situations where arrest should be the last resort    
   
   C. c. a threat to the family    
   
   D. d. a situation that called for mandatory arrest    



Answer Key: B
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
The National Commission on Obscenity and Pornography called for which of the following?
   
   A. a. the elimination of anti-pornography laws    
Incorrect    
   B. b. strict enforcement of pornography laws    
   
   C. c. police use of discretion in enforcing pornography laws    
   
   D. d. allowing adult pornography, but not child pornography    



Answer Key: A
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Which best describes the priority departments give to the enforcement of gambling laws?
Correct    
   A. a. no priority    
   
   B. b. top    
   
   C. c. middle    
   
   D. d. it is equal to prostitution    



Answer Key: A
Question 20 of 20    5.0 Points
Crimes that manifest evidence of prejudice based on certain group characteristics are known as:
   
   A. a. vice crimes.    
Correct    
   B. b. hate crimes.    
   
   C. c. domestic crimes.    
   
   D. d. violent crimes.    



Answer Key: B
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Quiz #4

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Part 1 of 1 -    100.0 Points

Question 1 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best defines "deontological ethics?"
   
   A. a. It examines the consequences in order to determine if an action is right or wrong.    
Correct    
   B. b. It examines the duty to act, not the consequences of an action as a determinant of ethical behavior.    
   
   C. c. It examines the intent of the action as a determinant of ethical behavior.    
   
   D. d. Its meaning is best understood in terms of the greatest happiness for the greatest number.    



Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT a source of police ethics discussed in the text?
   
   A. a. justice    
Correct    
   B. b. religion    
   
   C. c. law    
   
   D. d. agency policy    



Answer Key: B
Question 3 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is a purpose served by departmental written policies?
   
   A. a. to set forth the agency's philosophy of policing    
   
   B. b. to articulate the broad goals of the department    
   
   C. c. to reflect the community's expectations of the department    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 4 of 20    5.0 Points
__________ are developed through the process of socialization.
   
   A. a. Social norms    
   
   B. b. Professional codes of ethics    
Correct    
   C. c. Personal values    
   
   D. d. Ethics    



Answer Key: C
Question 5 of 20    5.0 Points
What differentiates police crime from crimes committed by police officers?
Correct    
   A. a. Police crime involves the officer's use of official powers to engage in criminal conduct.    
   
   B. b. Police crime is always committed while on duty.    
   
   C. c. Police crime takes place in patrol cars.    
   
   D. d. All crimes committed by police officers are police crimes.    



Answer Key: A
Question 6 of 20    5.0 Points
When a citizen offers a police officer something of value to influence the officers' performance of duty, this conduct is called:
   
   A. a. extortion.    
Correct    
   B. b. bribery.    
   
   C. c. corruption.    
   
   D. d. gratuity.    



Answer Key: B
Question 7 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes the difference between extortion and bribery?
   
   A. a. Extortion involves networks of officers.    
   
   B. b. Extortion involves only high-ranking officers.    
   
   C. c. Extortion is initiated by the citizen.    
Correct    
   D. d. Extortion is initiated by the officer.    



Answer Key: D
Question 8 of 20    5.0 Points
The use of threat of arrest or harassment by an officer against someone who has committed or is suspected of committing a crime to avoid arrest is known as:
   
   A. a. bribery.    
   
   B. b. coercion.    
   
   C. c. corruption.    
Correct    
   D. d. extortion.    



Answer Key: D
Question 9 of 20    5.0 Points
The Knapp Commission characterized corrupt police officers as:
   
   A. a. enforcement and vice.    
   
   B. b. patrol and investigation.    
Correct    
   C. c. grass eaters and meat eaters.    
   
   D. d. passive and aggressive.    



Answer Key: C
Question 10 of 20    5.0 Points
Sherman suggests that police organizations can be classified into several types according to the level of corruption in the department. Which of the following does large numbers of officers working alone on corrupt activities characterize?
Incorrect    
   A. a. rotten apples and rotten pockets    
   
   B. b. pervasive unorganized    
   
   C. c. pervasive organized    
   
   D. d. pervasive community based    



Answer Key: B
Question 11 of 20    5.0 Points
What influences the high costs associated with civil suits?
   
   A. a. cost of liability insurance    
   
   B. b. litigation expenses    
   
   C. c. out-of-court settlements    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 12 of 20    5.0 Points
What is the average jury award of liability against a municipality?
   
   A. a. $100,000    
   
   B. b. $500,000    
Correct    
   C. c. $2 million    
   
   D. d. $4 million    



Answer Key: C
Question 13 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following best describes a strict liability tort?
Correct    
   A. a. Behaviors that are so dangerous that a reasonable person can be substantially certain injury or damage will result.    
   
   B. b. The person intended to engage in the conduct that led to the injury or damage.    
   
   C. c. Inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury.    
   
   D. d. A violation of federally protected civil rights.    



Answer Key: A
Question 14 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is NOT an intentional tort?
   
   A. a. assault    
   
   B. b. false arrest    
Correct    
   C. c. failure to protect    
   
   D. d. wrongful death    



Answer Key: C
Question 15 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is best defined as: "inadvertent behavior that results in damage or injury?"
Correct    
   A. a. negligence    
   
   B. b. legal duty    
   
   C. c. proximate cause    
   
   D. d. contributory negligence    



Answer Key: A
Question 16 of 20    5.0 Points
Which of the following is required for liability in negligence claims?
   
   A. a. existence of a legal duty    
   
   B. b. breach of duty    
   
   C. c. proximate causation    
Correct    
   D. d. all of the above    



Answer Key: D
Question 17 of 20    5.0 Points
In order to be held liable under Section 1983 what is necessary?
   
   A. a. acting under the Constitution    
   
   B. b. acting under oath    
Correct    
   C. c. acting under color of law    
   
   D. d. acting under duress    



Answer Key: C
Question 18 of 20    5.0 Points
The __________ to the United States Constitution affords protection from unreasonable searches and seizures.
   
   A. a. First Amendment    
Correct    
   B. b. Fourth Amendment    
   
   C. c. Fifth Amendment    
   
   D. d. Sixth Amendment    



Answer Key: B
Question 19 of 20    5.0 Points
Police officers who face claims of false arrest or unlawful search are afforded the defense of:
Incorrect    
   A. a. qualified immunity.    
   
   B. b. probable cause.    
   
   C. c. contributory negligence.    
   



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A year ago

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