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I need help with the following questions from chapter 5 (cardiovascular dynamics) exercises 1-8.  It's due on Friday and I've kinda had to work extra hours this week to pay the mortgage. I will be able to return the favor in the near future.  Thanks

Activity 1
What happened to the fluid flow rate as the radius of the flow
tube was increased?

Is the relationship between the fluid flow rate and the flow
tube radius linear or exponential? ___________________ __
In this experiment, a simulated motor changes the diameter
of the flow tube. Explain how our blood vessels alter blood
flow.

After a heavy meal when we are relatively inactive, we might
expect blood vessels in the skeletal muscles to be somewhat
_________________, whereas blood vessels in the digestive
organs are probably _________________. ?

A C T I V I T Y  2
How does fluid flow change as viscosity is modified?
Is fluid flow versus viscosity an inverse or direct relationship?
Is the effect of viscosity greater or less than the effect of radius on fluid flow?

Predict the effect of anemia (e.g., fewer red blood cells than
normal) on blood flow.
What might happen to blood flow if we increased the number
of blood cells?
Blood viscosity would _______________ in conditions of
dehydration, resulting in _______________ blood flow.

Activity 3
How does flow tube length affect fluid flow?
What effect do you think obesity would have on blood flow?
Hint: Relate obesity to changes in blood vessel length.

Activity 4
How does driving pressure affect fluid flow?
How does this plot differ from the plots for tube radius,
viscosity, and tube length? Although changing pressure could be used as a means of  blood flow control, explain why this approach would not be as effective as altering blood vessel radius.

Activity 5
Try to explain why this graph differs from the radius plot in
the Vessel Resistance experiment. Remember that the flow
rate into the pump did not change, whereas the flow rate out
of the pump varied according to your radius manipulations.
What do you think would happen to the flow rate and the
pump rate if the left flow tube radius is changed (either increased or decreased)?

Activity 6

What happened to the pump’s rate as its stroke volume was
increased?
Using your simulation results as a basis for your answer, explain why an athlete’s resting heart rate might be lower than
that of the average person.Applying the simulation outcomes to the human heart, predict the effect of increasing the stroke volume on cardiac output (at any given rate).

Activity 7
How is the flow rate affected when the right flow tube radius
is kept constant (at 3.0 mm) and the left flow tube radius is
modified (either up or down)?

How does decreasing left flow tube radius affect pump chamber filling time? Does it affect the ability of the pump to
empty?

You have already examined the effect of changing the pump’s
end volume as a way of manipulating stroke volume. What
effect will decreasing stroke volume have on the pump rate?
Try manipulating the pressure delivered to the left beaker.
How does changing the left beaker pressure affect flow rate?
(This change would be similar to changing pulmonary vein
pressure.)
If the left beaker pressure is decreased to 10 mm Hg, how is
pump-filling time affected?
What happens to the pump rate if the filling time is shortened?
What happens to fluid flow when the right beaker pressure
equals the pump pressure?

Activity 8
Now decrease the right flow tube radius to 2.5 mm, and run
another trial. How does this flow rate compare with “normal”? Think logically about what condition(s) might compensate
for a decrease in flow tube radius. How were you able to accomplish this? (Hint: There are several ways.)
Circle the correct term within the parentheses: Decreasing
the right flow tube radius is similar to a partial (leakage /
blockage) of the aortic valve or (increased / decreased) resistance in the arterial system.
Explain how the human heart might compensate for such a
condition.
To increase (or decrease) blood flow to only one particular
body system (e.g., digestive), would it be better to adjust
heart rate or blood vessel diameter? Explain.
Complete the following statements by
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topic author
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Posts: 57
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3 years ago
i know this is lengthy, but if you can answer  activities 3, 4 & 8 that would be great.

Activity 3
How does flow tube length affect fluid flow?

What effect do you think obesity would have on blood flow?
Hint: Relate obesity to changes in blood vessel length.

Activity 4
How does driving pressure affect fluid flow?

How does this plot differ from the plots for tube radius,
viscosity, and tube length?

Although changing pressure could be used as a means of  blood flow control, explain why this approach would not be as effective as altering blood vessel radius.

Activity 8
Now decrease the right flow tube radius to 2.5 mm, and run
another trial. How does this flow rate compare with “normal”?

Think logically about what condition(s) might compensate
for a decrease in flow tube radius. How were you able to accomplish this? (Hint: There are several ways.)

Circle the correct term within the parentheses: Decreasing
the right flow tube radius is similar to a partial (leakage /
blockage) of the aortic valve or (increased / decreased) resistance in the arterial system.

Explain how the human heart might compensate for such a
condition.

To increase (or decrease) blood flow to only one particular
body system (e.g., digestive), would it be better to adjust
heart rate or blood vessel diameter? Explain.

Complete the following statements by circling the correct response
   a.  if we decreased the overall peripheral resistance in the human body ( as an athlete), the heart would need to generate (more/less) pressure to deliver an adequate amount of blood flow, and arterial pressure would be ( higher/ lower)
    b.  If the diameter of the arteries of the body were partley filled with fatty deposits, the heart would need to generate ( more / less ) force to maintain blood flow, and pressure in the arterial system would be ( higher/ lower) than normal
topic author
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Posts: 57
Credits: 585
Rep:  +1 
     
3 years ago
can someone please help with answers
topic author
wrote...
Posts: 57
Credits: 585
Rep:  +1 
     
3 years ago
Please help!
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3 years ago
Activity 8
Now decrease the right flow tube radius to 2.5 mm, and run
another trial. How does this flow rate compare with “normal”?

Think logically about what condition(s) might compensate
for a decrease in flow tube radius. How were you able to accomplish this? (Hint: There are several ways.)

Circle the correct term within the parentheses: Decreasing
the right flow tube radius is similar to a partial (leakage /
blockage) of the aortic valve or (increased / decreased) resistance in the arterial system.

Explain how the human heart might compensate for such a
condition.

To increase (or decrease) blood flow to only one particular
body system (e.g., digestive), would it be better to adjust
heart rate or blood vessel diameter? Explain
Complete the following statements by circling the correct response
   a.  if we decreased the overall peripheral resistance in the human body ( as an athlete), the heart would need to generate (more/less) pressure to deliver an adequate amount of blood flow, and arterial pressure would be ( higher/ lower)
    b.  If the diameter of the arteries of the body were partley filled with fatty deposits, the heart would need to generate ( more / less ) force to maintain blood flow, and pressure in the arterial system would be ( higher/ lower) than normal

Here's a start!

Activity 8

If the right flow tube radius is decreased to 2.5 mm, the flow rate decreases. The increased peripheral resistance can be overcome by: (1) increasing the pump’s pressure, (2) decreasing the pressure in the right beaker, and (3) increasing the radius of the left flow tube to decrease the pump’s filling time. Decreasing the right flow tube radius is similar to a partial (leakage, blockage) of the aortic valve or (increased, decreased) resistance in the arterial system. The human heart could compensate for this condition by increasing its force of contraction to overcome the increased resistance. To control blood flow to specific organs, it is necessary to adjust the radius of the blood vessels feeding them. It would not be reasonable to adjust the heart rate because that would affect all organs equally.

a. If we decreased overall peripheral resistance in the human body (as in an athlete), the heart would need to generate (more, less) pressure to deliver an adequate amount of blood flow and arterial pressure would be (higher, lower).

b. If the diameter of the arteries of the body were partly filled with fatty deposits, the heart would need to generate (more, less) force to maintain blood flow, and pressure in the arterial system would be (higher, lower) than normal.
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topic author
wrote...
Posts: 57
Credits: 585
Rep:  +1 
     
3 years ago
bio, thanks so much for your answers, but i'm not understanding the answer.  are you answering all of activity 8 or partial?
wrote...
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Posts: 14248
Credits: 2880
Rep:  +1165  -5 
     
3 years ago
bio, thanks so much for your answers, but i'm not understanding the answer.  are you answering all of activity 8 or partial?

I just posted what is written in the solutions manual.
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lena213
wrote...
3 years ago
Modifiers of Heart Rate
Activity 3: Effect of Epinephrine

      1. What was the effect of epinephrine on heart rate? Epinephrine is an adrenergic agonist which binds to adrenergic receptors such as B1 and B2, or Alpha 1... these increase the HR
      2. Does this effect mimic the effect of the sympathetic nervous system or that of the parasympathetic  nervous system? Sympathetic nervous system
      3. What is the heart rate when the status window reads Heart Rate Stable? 81

Activity 4: Effect of Pilocarpine

      1. What was the effect of pilocarpine on heart rate? Pilocarpine is a direct acting cholinergic agonist which decreases heart rate by directly acting on the receptor.....this acts the same as acetylcholine
      2. What is the heart rate when the status window reads Heart Rate Stable? 47

lena213
wrote...
3 years ago
 Undecided Sorry I dont think this is what you were looking for! Sorry about that
topic author
wrote...
Posts: 57
Credits: 585
Rep:  +1 
     
3 years ago
bio_man thanks for your help.  i was able to figure it out.  It there anyway i can get answers to the posting for Chapter 5 Cardiovascular Dynamics review sheet?

agaom. thanks for your help.
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