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APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
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Part 1 of 1 -  100.0 Points

Question 1 of 15 5.0 Points

The pain to the victim following a gunshot wound is limited to which of the following. 
 A. The heart is most likely to cause excruciating pain if penetrated by a bullet. 
 B. Pain from a bullet is generally limited to the point of entry on the skin. 
 C. The head is most likely to feel the bullet because of the bone area involved and the vibration of the bone surface. 
 D. A bullet striking a kidney has been identified as a painful wound. 

Answer Key: B
Question 2 of 15 5.0 Points

Gunpower residue is generally distributed circumferentially around a bullet hole. When more residue is apparent on one side more so than another side of a bullet hole, the weapon is likely to have been fired from what direction. 
 A. From a distance of 25 feet or more. 
 B. From the opposite direction of the wound; that is, the back of the wound. 
 C. From the person's own hand. 
 D. From a shallow angle. 

Answer Key: D
Question 3 of 15 5.0 Points

Which is true of a bullet wound entry? 
 A. It is always the size of the caliber of the bullet. 
 B. It tends to be smaller than the caliber of the bullet because of the elasticity in the skin. 
 C. It tends to be larger than the bullet because of the insult to the skin. 
 D. It is always the same size of the exit wound. 

Answer Key: B
Question 4 of 15 5.0 Points

The term "metallic snow" regarding gunshot wounds refers to which of the following? 
 A. The scattering of metal fragments along the path of a bullet when it hits a hard surface, such as bone. 
 B. The ricocheting of a bullet when it hits a impermeable path. 
 C. The explosion of a bullet when shot in extremely cold weather, such as 20 degrees below Fahrenheit. 
 D. The explosion of the bullet exposes metallic-colored particles that are absorbed into the bloodstream of the body and show up as rainbow colors when X-rayed. 

Answer Key: A
Question 5 of 15 5.0 Points

Firearms are involved in approximately what percentage of homicides in the United States? 
 A. One-fourth 
 B. One-third 
 C. One-half 
 D. Two-thirds 

Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 15 10.0 Points

Define "somatic death" and explain specifically what happens to the body.
According to the website, Definition of Somatic Death (2011) Somatic death is characterized by the discontinuance of cardiac activity and respiration, and eventually leads to the death of all body cells from lack of oxygen, although for approximately six minutes after somatic death-a period reffered to as clinical death- a person whose vital organs have not been damaged may be revived. However, achievements of modern biomedical technology have enabled the physician to artificially maintain critical functions for indefinite periods. References:, Definition of Somatic Death (2011)

Question 7 of 15 15.0 Points

Describe and discuss the differences between the coroner system and medical examiner systems. Include (a) the history of each, (b) the education requirements for both positions, (c) the duties of each and (d) how each are appointed, elected or selected. Organize your response in a logical fashion so that I can read that you have addressed all parts of the question.
According to the National Association of medical examiners, Medical Examiners and Coroners (2011) states every death investigation jurisdiction is run under the jurisdiction of either a coroner or medical examiner; coroners are usually elected lay individuals who serve a county for a specified term while medical examiners are usually physicians (usually pathologists or forensic pathologists) who are appointed for unspecified terms and who serve a county, group of counties, or a state. According to the National Academies Press (2011) The major differences between coroners and medical examiners are embedded in the manner of their selection by electoral process versus appointment and their professional status. Coroners are elected lay people who often do not have professional training, whereas medical examiners are appointed and have board-certification in a medical specialty. The coroner system has advantages, but they are heavily outweighed by its disadvantages. The major advantages of the coroner system concern autonomy, access to power, and the ability to represent the will of the electorate. As an elected official, a coroner has the power to make decisions and has equal footing with other local elected officials. That places the coroner in a strong position to withstand political pressures imposed by other elected officials and to compete vigorously for the office’s budget allocation. Furthermore, due to their English common law origins, coroners also have subpoena and inquest powers. Finally, being an elected official resonates with American political culture, which views elected officials as the best representatives of a community’s needs and values. Two important disadvantages are that coroner systems are less likely to be medically proficient and that their structure often reflects piecemeal legislative reaction to inadequacies, rather than intelligent design. The coroner system is steeped in the vagaries of history rather than in a forward-looking, planned system that capitalizes on professional depth and knowledge. Coroner statutes are less specific about which types of cases are reported or investigated, and they tend to reflect the lowest common denominator in the qualifications of the office holder and the quality of investigations. The coroner may be deficient in knowledge and may have conflicts of interest; especially when funeral directors, prosecutors or sheriffs act as coroners. As elected officials, they cannot be dismissed for incompetence, except by the electorate after highly visible transgressions. The website also states The major advantages of a statewide medical examiner system are the quality of death investigations and forensic pathology services and their independence from population size, county budget variation, and politics. Certification of death is accomplished by highly trained medical professionals who can integrate autopsy findings with those from the crime scene and the laboratory. The professionals have core competency in assessing immediate and earlier medical history, interviewing witnesses, and physical examination. The recognized excellence of and confidence in a medical examiner system in Virginia have been vital for adjudicating the state’s death penalty cases and for prompt payment of insurance claims. Another major advantage of a statewide system is uniformity. Virginia’s uniformity comes from its statute covering types of cases automatically in the jurisdiction of the medical examiner. One example, set to take effect in 2003, is automatic referral of all deaths in state mental institutions. High-profile investigations had uncovered abusive practices in the handling of patients in those institutions, which resulted in preventable deaths. Automatic referral to medical examiner offices was instituted by the state legislature to promote more humane treatment and avoid abuses. Uniformity also covers credentialing, training, and continuing education of medical examiners and death investigators; coding of deaths; access to case files through archive and retrieval policies; criteria for exhumation and disposition of unclaimed bodies; and appeals processes. Those features benefit not only death investigations but also public health epidemiology and surveillance. Virginia’s office reports to the legislature each year on child fatalities, family violence, and domestic violence. The state office is striving to set up a new information-technology system that will permit greater access to its data; the goal is to develop a system with great utility not only for criminal prosecutions but also for epidemiologic and surveillance purposes. A final set of advantages of a statewide system are related to central administration. References:National Association of medical examiners, Medical Examiners and Coroners (2011) National Academies Press (2011)

Question 8 of 15 5.0 Points

Identify and define three natural causes of death. Then be sure to include examples of each to show your understanding.
According to our text, Sudden and unexpected deaths occur with a variety of acute and chronic pulmonary disorders and as a result of several different lethal mechanisms. Three natural causes of death would be old age, sickle cell disease, and Chronic Renal Failure. According to our text the best postmortem test for chronic renal failure other than a medical history, is the measurement of urea nitrogen and creatinine in vitreous fluid. Anatomical examination of the kidneys permits the labeling of the type of disease, but is a poor way to judge renal function. Most deaths from chronic renal failure are certified by treating physicians. Occasionally, the medical examiner will investigate deaths which occur during outpatient dialysis; most of these are due to cardiovascular disease. Sickle cell disease is characterized clinically by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodes of abdominal and join pain, recurrent infections and thrombotic events. Infection, hypoxia, acidosis and dehydration can precipitate extensive intravascular sickling in these patients, with resultant sudden death. The occurrence of rapidly fatal intravascular sickling following physical exertion at relatively high altitude has been reported in military personnel with sickle trait. In the postmortem diagnosis of sickle cell disease, the history and circumstances are of more importance than the autopsy findings, since erythrocytes will routinely sickle in formalin. Old age is listed in the International Classification of Diseases and is a competent cause of death for certification purposes. We generally reserve diagnosis for persons over the age of 90 with minimal autopsy findings or no significant medical history. In all, natural causes of death could be lung diseases, old age, heart diseases, and some births. References: Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime investigation fourth edition (2006)

Question 9 of 15 15.0 Points

Why should all sudden and unexpected deaths outside a hospital setting be investigated? Discuss as many reasons as you can think of and provide support for your answers. Use paragraphs to organize your answer and examples to show your understanding of the various investigations.
Sudden and unexpected deaths outside a hospital setting should be investigated for many reasons. One being witnesses that are in the hospital for example doctors nurses, and the medical technology that is in the hospital. Anything can happen outside the hospital. For example what may look like a natural heart attack may actually be from a poison that triggers a heart attack, who is to say that the person bringing the victim in saying it is a so called heart attack did not actually poison the individual?

Question 10 of 15 5.0 Points

Distinguish between livor mortis, rigor mortis and algor mortis. First explain how they differ; secondly give an example of each; and third discuss how they are used when examining a death. Clearly organize your answer to include all parts of the question.
According to our text Livor Mortis also known as Postmortem Lividity is a purplish-blue discoloration due to the settling of blood by gravitational forces within dilated, toneless capillaries of the deceased's skin. Livor Mortis is seen in the dependent areas on the back if the body was in a supine position, and on the face and front if the body remained prone. Livor Mortis may be evident as early as twenty minutes after death or may become apparent after several hours. Lividity is caused by the cessation of the hearts pumping action, which allows the red and white blood cells to separate. The red cells then settle into the lowest parts. A dead man found lying on his back will exhibit lividity on his back. If it appears elsewhere, that means the body was moved since death. Discolored skin that blanches when touched indicates that lividity has not yet set in permanently and the death was more than two hours earlier but probably not as long as ten. Some deaths will have different appearances because substances such as carbon monoxide keep the blood a bright red color, and bodies that have lost a lot of blood will not discolor. Reference: Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime investigation fourth edition (2006) Rigor Mortis is when the joints of the body stiffen and become locked in place. Depending on temperature and other conditions, rigor mortis becomes apparent within half an hour to an hour, increases progressively to a maximum within twelve hours, remains for about ten or twelve hours and then progressively disappears within the following twelve hours. The phenomenon is caused by the skeletal muscles partially contracting. The muscles are unable to relax, so the joints become fixed in place. More specifically, what happens is that the membranes of muscle cells become more permeable to calcium ions. Living muscle cells expend energy to transport calcium ions to the outside of the cells. The calcium ions that flow into the muscle cells promote the cross bridge attachment between actin and myosin, two types of fibers that work together in muscle contraction. The muscle fibers ratchet shorter and shorter until they are fully contracted or as long as the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the energy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are present. However, muscles need ATP in order to release from a contracted state. ATP reserves are quickly exhausted from the muscle contraction and other cellular processes. This means that the actin and myosin fibers will remain linked until the muscles themselves start to decompose. Rigor mortis can be used to help estimate time of death. The onset of rigor mortis may range from 10 minutes to several hours, depending on factors including temperature. Maximum stiffness is reached around 12-24 hours post mortem. Facial muscles are affected first, with the rigor then spreading to other parts of the body. The joints are stiff for 1-3 days, but after this time general tissue decay and leaking lysosomal intracellular digestive enzymes will cause the muscles to relax. Reference: Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime investigation fourth edition (2006) According to our text Algor Mortis is when postmortem body temperature declines progressively until it reaches the ambient temperature. Under average conditions, the body cools at a rate of 2.0F to 2.5F per hour during the first hours and slower thereafter, with an average loss of 1.5F to 2F during the first twelve hours and 1F for the next twelve to eighteen hours. The final slowing of the rate of cooling is attributed to the reduced gradient between body temperature and ambient temperature. Careful studies under controlled conditions have shown that the decrease in the postmortem temperature is not rectilinear but sigmoid in shape with a plateau at the beginning and at the end of the cooling process. References:Spitz and Fisher's Medicolegal Investigation of Death Guidelines for the application of pathology to crime investigation fourth edition (2006)

Question 11 of 15 5.0 Points

SFI found on the forearms and hands; or on the legs and feet, indicate which of the following? 
 A. The attacker was aiming for the victim's feet. 
 B. The attacker was not a good aim. 
 C. The victim was defending himself or herself. 
 D. The victim was likely unconscious. 

Answer Key: C
Question 12 of 15 5.0 Points

Weapons of attack in SFI are often identified by which of the following? 
 A. The handle, tip of the weapon, type of blade, length of blade and width of instrument. 
 B. b. Brand name on the blade 
 C. Types of weapons found in the victims home. 
 D. Location of the wounds on the victim's body. 

Answer Key: A
Question 13 of 15 5.0 Points

A shot in the back of the head indicates what. 
 A. The victim's spouse was likely the perpetrator. 
 B. Suspicion of homicide. 
 C. The person had long arms and was able to shoot himself in the back of the head. 
 D. The victim was defending himself in a house invasion. 

Answer Key: B
Question 14 of 15 5.0 Points

The spread of the soot and gunpowder around a bullet hole and the density of the material contribute to determining which of the following? 
 A. Age of the weapon 
 B. Range of fire 
 C. Emotional condition of the perpetrator 
 D. The toughness of the victim's skin 

Answer Key: B
Question 15 of 15 5.0 Points

Beveling bullet wounds are most likely found in what part of the body? 
 A. Skull 
 B. Hip bone 
 C. Hands 
 D. Femur Bone 

Answer Key: A

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APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
3 years ago
Question 1 of 21 5.0 Points

When is an individual considered to be suffering from morbid obesity? 
 A. 50 pounds overweight 
 B. 75 pounds overweight 
 C. 100 pounds overweight 
 D. When his body shape is wider than his height. 

Answer Key: C
Question 2 of 21 5.0 Points

Which one of the following is the most likely to be a hotter fire? 
 A. A chemical fire 
 B. A house fire 
 C. A garbage dump 
 D. A human body 

Answer Key: A
Question 3 of 21 5.0 Points

Heat and fire gases do which of the following? 
 A. a. Remain low to the ground. 
 B. Both rise to the highest point in a room. 
 C. Heat rises and gases remain low. 
 D. Gases cause heat to cool. 

Answer Key: B
Question 4 of 21 5.0 Points

While dining at a restaurant, a victim suddenly is unable to speak or breathe, coughs violently, clutches her chest in distress, and collapses. This MAY be a case of which of the following? 
 A. food poisoning 
 B. caf? coronary 
 C. shock of learning of her husband's affair 
 D. gunshot wound to the back of her head 

Answer Key: B
Question 5 of 21 5.0 Points

Drowning is the leading cause of death in children under four years of age in which of the following states? 
 A. South Carolina, Georgia and Florida 
 B. Maine, Michigan and Florida 
 C. California, Oregon and Washington 
 D. California, Arizona and Florida 

Answer Key: D
Question 6 of 21 5.0 Points

The flaps of the epidermis that are attached on the edge of a wound show the direction of a bullet. This type of bullet wound is called what? 
 A. Skipping 
 B. Grazing 
 C. Direct 
 D. Beveling 

Answer Key: B
Question 7 of 21 5.0 Points

Tardieu's spots are usually associated with what mode or type of asphyxia? 
 A. Strangulation 
 B. Mechanical asphyxia 
 C. Hanging 
 D. Chemical asphyxia 

Answer Key: C
Question 8 of 21 2.0 Points

On the average a contusion that is "yellowish" in color is about how many days old? Answers are to be 3 or 4 sentences.
According to our text, a contusion is the escape of blood into the tissues following the rupture of vessels, usually capillaries, by the application of blunt force. Bruises change in appearance over time, and it is possible to tell by looking at a bruise how old it is. According to our power point slides, when it appears, a bruise is a yellowish color that shows it is approximately 7-14 days old. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 9 of 21 2.0 Points

Define: Blunt Force Injury. Answers are to be 3 or 4 sentences.
According to our power point slides blunt force injuries are injuries produced by blunt impacts which disrupt the integrity of tissues. Tissues can be external (skin) or internal (organs). Blunt force injuries are associated with three manners of death. These manners of death are accidents, homicides, and suicides. Injuries associated with blunt force injuries are classified into two primary groups that help to define the type of injury from trivial to massive in nature, these two primary groups are closed and open. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 10 of 21 2.0 Points

Define: Patterned Abrasion. Be sure to give an example to show your understanding of the term. Answers are to be 3 or 4 sentences.
According to our text and power point slides, A patterned abrasion is an abrasion that may exhibit a pattern and may help identify the weapon that inflicted the injury. There are several objects that may leave a pattern abrasion.  A tire mark or a muzzle imprint of a gun would be considered patterned abrasions. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 11 of 21 2.0 Points

List and explain the five manner's of death.
The five manners of death are Natural, Accidental, Suicide, Homicide, and Undetermined. Natural manner of death would be a death due to natural disease process for example a heart disease. Homicide manner of death is the killing of one human being by the act or omission of another, for example a police officer in performance of his duty kills a suspect, this manner of death would be considered homicide. Suicide would be the deliberate or intentional termination of one's existence for example if one takes one too many pills to end their life. Accident manner of death is an unexpected death which results from a lawful act performed under a reasonable belief that no harm is possible, for example an unintentional fall or collision that results in death. Finally undetermined death is used when the information pointing to one manner of death is more compelling than one or more other competing manners of death when all available information is considered. This is usually an interim classification that indicates a level of uncertainty about the circumstances surrounding death. This classification is usually changed once the results of the autopsy are received. Undetermined is intended for cases in which it is impossible to establish, with reasonable medical certainty, the circumstances of death after a thorough investigation, for example poisoning. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 12 of 21 2.0 Points

Define: Sharp Force Injury. Answers are to be 3 or 4 sentences.
According to our text and power point slides, Sharp force injuries are injuries produced by sharp-edged objects. Basic lesions are incised wound, stab wound, and chop wound. Most sharp force injury deaths are caused by objects whose primary function is not that of an offensive weapon.  For example kitchen knife vs switch blade knife. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 13 of 21 2.0 Points

Define the term: Sudden and Unexpected Death. Answers are to be 3 or 4 sentences.
According to our text clinically unexplained deaths fall into two categories. Those categories are those that occur in patients who have been studied extensively during prolonged, complex illnesses without a satisfactory diagnosis having been established, and those that follow an illness of such brief duration that there has been little or no opportunity for medical observation or studies to provide a reasonable explanation for what has occurred. The more unexpected the death, the more likely it is to be unexplained.  Sudden and unexpected deaths occur in persons with varying medical backgrounds, including those in whom a diagnosis of potentially lethal disease has never been made. The terms sudden and unexpected have different meanings for different people.  It is my understanding that sudden death is a death that occurs unexpectedly and from 1 to 24 hours after the onset of symptoms, with or without known preexisting conditions. References: The Free Dictionary By Farlex, Sudden Death    Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition

Question 14 of 21 4.0 Points

What is a "stellate" appearing wound? First describe the wound and, secondly, provide an example of what might cause a wound of this type. Keep in mind, there are more than one example of an instrument that would create a stellate wound.
According to the book gunshot wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics, and Forensic Techniques, Second Edition by Vincent J.M. Di Maio, contact wounds in regions of the body where only a thin layer of skin and subcutaneous tissues overlies bone usually have a stellate or cruciform appearance that is totally unlike the round or oval perforating wounds seen in other areas. The most common area in which stellate wounds occur is the head. The unusual appearance of contact wounds over bone is due to the effects of the gas of discharge. When a weapon is fired, the gases produced by the combustion of the propellant emerge from the barrel in a highly compressed state. In hard contact wounds, they follow the bullet through the skin into the subcutaneous tissue where they immediately begin to expand. Where a thin layer of skin overlies bone, as in the head, these gases expand between the skin and the outer table of the skull, lifting up and ballooning out the skin. If stretching exceeds the elasticity of the skin, it will tear. These tears radiate from the entrance, producing a stellate or cruciform appearing wound of entrance.   Some contact wounds over bone, instead of the classical stellate or cruciform wound, one finds a very large circular wound with ragged, blackened, and seared margins. This type of wound is more common with the less powerful calibers such as the .32 ACP or .380 ACP. Stellate entrance wounds can occur in individuals shot at intermediate or distant range, where gas plays no role in the production of a wound.  An example of what might cause a wound of this type would be a shot to the temple from a .38 special revolver. A tangential gunshot wound of the face may simulate a stellate contact wound as well. Reference: Gunshot wounds: Practical Aspects of Firearms, Ballistics, and Forensic Techniques, Second Edition by Vincent J.M. Di Maio

Question 15 of 21 4.0 Points

Describe tissue "bridging," and provide an example to show your understanding of the term.
According to the website ADA County, Coroner Investigations (2009) Lacerations are skin splits caused by blunt force blows. They can be quite irregular or   linear depending on the configuration of the blunt instrument used. They are readily distinguished from incised wounds by examination. Lacerations have tissue bridges which are slender strands of tissue extending from side to side at the base and edges of the injury. Injuries caused by knives have edges and margins. Tissue bridging is not present in incised injuries. References: ADA County, Coroner Investigations (2009)  

Question 16 of 21 5.0 Points

How might we distinguish between homicidal and suicidal incised wounds of the neck? Clearly explain the differences.
According to our text suicidal stabbings are frequently accompanied by superficial, hesitation type cuts predominately situated in the wrists and front of the neck, less commonly in the bend of the elbows or on the ankles. Single or grouped superficial stab wounds below the chin are more likely the result of taunting in a case of homicide. The appearance of suicidal cuts is usually characteristic, they are multiple and parallel of variable depth whose edges commonly reveal several sharp angles, as if resulting from sawing of the skin, with repeated tentative incisions at the same location. Frequently numerous superficial, parallel cuts and scratches indicate repeated trials before the build up of sufficient courage for the final deep gash that severs major blood vessels or exposes the trachea or larynx. Such superficial cuts, or evidence of sawing, are referred to as hesitation wounds or hesitation marks. These cuts are mostly straight because sharp knives and razor blades are used. Suicidal cuts with a straight razor are unusual, except in older individuals, because the decreased popularity of this type of shaving device. Sometimes suicidal cuts are jagged and irregular, as when a piece of broken glass is used. Most homicidal throat slashings are produced with the assailant behind the victim. In this position a slash of the neck would run from left to right, if the assailant is right handed, and in the opposite direction if he is left handed. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition 

Question 17 of 21 5.0 Points

How does a stab wound differ from an incision? Be sure to define both, provide examples and show your understanding of the terms. One sentence is not an efficient answer.
An incised wound is an injury caused by sharp edged object drawn over the tissue. An incision cuts and divides tissue leaving the wound open and clean. The length of the wound is greater than the depth of the wound. Different types of incised wounds are therapeutic, accident incised wound, suicidal incised, and homicidal incised. Stab wounds are wounds produced by a pointed and or sharp instrument being forced into the tissue usually in a thrusting manner. The depth of the wound is greater than dimensions of the external wound.  Stab wounds produced by a cylindrical instrument with a pointed end may resemble small caliber bullet wounds. A bullet wound of exit in the skin may resemble a stab wound. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition   

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APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
3 years ago
Question 18 of 21 5.0 Points

Explain what "beveling" indicates? This is an essay question, so respond with more than one sentence.
Beveling of the skull is seen in the exit point of bullet. Beveling of the skull in bullet injury is the principle which guides the occurrence of beveling is that the bullet produces beveling in the second layer or exit point. In entry wound the beveling is present in inner table of skull. In exit wound the beveling is present in the outer table of skull. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition 

Question 19 of 21 10.0 Points

With regard to firearm injuries, discuss the procedures and findings to determine range of fire.
According to our text accurate assessment of the range of fire requires test firing of the gun with the type of ammunition that was used in the shooting. Since gunpowder particles which hit the body at close range penetrate the skin, causing small, superficial wounds, it is advisable that skin be used for the test target shot.  When a firearm is discharged, smoke containing abundant soot and gunpowder is ejected from the muzzle along with the bullet. These deposits that occur around the bullet holes in cases of close range fire are referred to as smudging and tattooing or stippling. It is the diameter of spread and the density of these deposits which permit assessment of the range of fire. Combing of hair with a fine tooth comb has been used successfully to gather organic gunshot residue resulting from incomplete combustion of smokeless gunpowder. Such test results are valuable when estimating distance of fire in shot involving the head.  The terminology most often used to describe the range of fire are contact shot, which is when the weapon is fired with the muzzle in contact with the body, close range shot, which is when gun smoke is deposited on the target, and distant shot, which is when the muzzle to target distance exceeds the limits in which guns smoke is identifiable on the target. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition 

Question 20 of 21 10.0 Points

There are two parts to this question. A. Discuss the four types of child abuse--clearly mark each one. Include in your discussion, the six patterns of child abuse. Be sure to include characteristics and examples to show your understanding of the terms. B. Discuss several of the challenges that an investigator may face when investigating child abuse.
The four types of child abuse are Physical, Emotional, Sexual, and Neglect.  According to our text child abuse is the physical and mental injury, sexual abuse, or exploitation, negligent treatment or maltreatment of a child under age 18 by a person who is responsible for the child' welfare under circumstances which indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened. The six patterns of child abuse that are recognized are physical abuse, nutritional deprivation, sexual abuse, intentional drugging or poisoning, neglect of medical care or safety, and emotional abuse. Physical abuse can be a result from severe discipline such as using a belt on a child or burning them with scalding hot water as a form of punishment. An example of child neglect could be failing to provide your childs basic need such as food or clothing. An example of child sexual abuse can be something like exposing them to sexual adult videos or pictures. An example of emotional abuse could be constantly putting the child down like calling them stupid and worthless repeatedly. Part 2 Investigators face many challenges when interviewing children who may have been abused. The fundamental dilemma is that if the child has been abused, many factors may keep the child from disclosing information to an investigatory interviewer. The offender may have used several strategies with the child to inhibit disclosure. Like manipulation such as if you tell, I will not love you anymore. Bribes is another one like giving the child material goods such as special clothing, a car, or money. Threats like I will you or I will kill your mom. Another challenge the investigator may face is that many abused children may have been told not to trust authority figures. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition   

Question 21 of 21 10.0 Points

Discuss the importance of the identification of human remains. Be sure and include specific means of identification verses non-specific means. Use paragraphs to distinguish your ideas.
The forensic recovery and identification of human remains contributes to the knowledge of the whereabouts of missing persons. The recovery of human remains also involves recovering associated material, for example, if a missing deceased individual wore a retainer, and the remains of a missing person are found in a land-fill will the retainer in their mouth, you could identify to person using their dental records. The recovery of human remains is never constrained by time, and tests can be still be conducted even after a long period of time. For instance, you can tell what part of the world a person is from by examining their teeth and identifying the mineral content in their bones. Furthermore, when you do find humans remains, you also get clues from what that individual is/was wearing when they died, or what they were carrying, i.e. weapons, jewellery. Human remains typically have insects crawling inside of them, which are analysed by forensic entomologists; the ratio of different types of insects on human remains can help determine PMI (postmortem interval). The major function of forensic anthropology is to provide law enforcement officials with enough information about human remains that they can be matched with a missing persons file, leading to a positive identification. The data that are first to be discerned from the skeleton are the demographic characteristics of ancestry (race/ethnicity), sex, age, and stature. Knowledge of these attributes helps to limit the search for a possible match, thereby hastening the process of identification. Thus, the assessment of these four traits of personal information constitutes the critical first steps in the forensic anthropological analysis. Since these characteristics are so critical, the methods for assessing each of them will be given separate chapters. References: Spitz, Werner U. (Ed). (2006). Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death: Guidelines for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations, 4th edition 

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Reply# 3
APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
3 years ago
would you have the final for pathology?

Reply# 4
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APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
3 years ago
would you have the final for pathology?

I think he posted this after it was handed over to him by another member who's no longer registered in the forum. I don't think he has access to other material.

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Reply# 5
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APU/AMU Pathology for Death Investigations
2 years ago
heyy Duddy do you have Quiz 5? I would greatly appreciate any help from you. Thanks for your time.

1. List the three major types of abuse OTHER than neglect: got this one.

2. Child abuse has been known and diagnosed by the medical community since the late 1800's? T/F

3. According to the textbook, not the power points, the largest percentage of abuse cases falls into the category of neglect. T/F

4. Of children under the age of five murdered by a family member, the largest percentage were murdered by their parents? T/F

5. The one or primary diagnostic characteristic of shaken baby syndrome is?

6. Since infants and toddlers (under 2 years of age) are usually active and learning to walk (balance) it is common to see fractures of the skull and rib cage as well as the long bones? T/F

7. SIDS is a natural manner of death? T/F

8. Regarding the death of infants from SIDS, the greatest number of deaths occur between 2 and 4 months of age. T/F

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