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flower555
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1) Which of the following is an example of hydrogen bond?
a) the peptide bond between amino acids in a protein
b) The bond between an oxygen atom and a hydrogen in the carboxyl group of a fatty acid.
c) The bond between Na+ and Cl- salt.
d) the attraction between a hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule.
e) the bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane

2) The nitrogenous base, adenine is found in which three of the following
a) Proteins, chlorophyll
b) protein, ATP, and DNA
c) ATP, DNA, and RNA
d) Chlorophyll, ATP, and DNA
e) Proteins, carbohydrates, and ATP

3) A feature of organic compounds NOT found in inorganic compounds is the presence of
a) ionizing chemical groups
b) electrons
c) carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other
d) oxygen
e) hydrogen bonds

4) which of the following is a correct statement about the relationship between pH and the hydrogen- ion concentration of a solution?
a) there are no hydrogen ions present in a solution with a basic pH
b) there are no hydrogen ions present in a solution with a neutral pH of 0.7
c) the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with a pH of 7.0 is 100 times as great as that in a solution with a pH of 9.0
d) the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with a pH of 5.0 is twice as great as that in a solution with a pH of 1.0

5) Which of the following pairs of functional groups characterizes the structure of an amino acid?
a) nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen & carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with R
b) Carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with OH & Nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen
c) carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with OH & carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with R
d) -OH & nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen
e) carbon bonded with 1 Hydrogen and  2 carbons & Nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen

6) The bonding of two amino acids molecules to form a larger molecule requires
a) the release of a water molecule
b) the release of a carbon dioxide molecule
c) the addition of a nitrogen atom
d) the addition of a water molecule
e) an increase in activation energy

7) Animals produce most of their nitrogen-containing wastes during
a) protein digestion
b) carbohydrate digestion
c) lipid digestion
d) glycogen synthesis
e) production of charismatic gradients

8) Which of the following is most abundant carbon-containing compound in the atmosphere of the earth?
a) carbon monoxide
b) carbon dioxide
c) carbon tetrachloride
d)ethane
e) ozone

9) Which of the following carbon compounds is standardly utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs?
a) calcium carbonate
b) carbonic acid
c) organic molecules
d) carbon dioxide
e) carbon monoxide

10) Which of the following is responsible for the cohesive property of water?
a) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
b)covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
c) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
d) covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
e) hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other types of molecules

11-14. Each group of questions in this section consists of five lettered choices followed by a list of numbered phrases or sentences. For each numbered phrase or sentence select the one heading that is most closely related to it.
a) protein
b)carbohydrates
c) nucleic acid
d) lipids
e) steroids

11) includes molecules that function as cellular signals, receptors, enzymes, transporters, and carriers

12) includes glycogen, chitin, cellulose, and glucose

13) used for insulation and buoyancy in marine arctic animals

14) used to carry the genetic code

15-19) refer to the following list of biomolecules
a)glucose
b) glycerol
c) glycogen
d) glucagon
e) guanine

15) a nitrogen base of nucleic acids

16) essential for the synthesis of fats

17) a storage form of carbohydrate in muscle

18) a monosaccharide

19) a purine

20-24) refer to the following list of bimolecular
a) glycocalyx
b) cholesterol
c) triglyceride
d) phospholipid
e) protein

20) Carbohydrate-containing layer coating the surface of the cell membrane

21) the major component of the bilayer of a cell membrane

22) structural molecule that enables muscle contraction

23) steroid affecting the fluidity of the plasma membrane

24) pepsin, digestive enzyme produced in mammalian stomachs

1) Describe three types of  bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structures.

2) Protein structure can be affected by environmental conditions. Identify two factors and explain the mechanism by which each affects protein structure

3) describe 2 other molecules (NOT PROTEINS) and explain how the structure of these molecules is important for their function.

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Reply# 1
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HELP HELP
Oct 16, 2010

1) Which of the following is an example of hydrogen bond?
a) the peptide bond between amino acids in a protein
b) The bond between an oxygen atom and a hydrogen in the carboxyl group of a fatty acid.
c) The bond between Na+ and Cl- salt.
d) the attraction between a hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule.
e) the bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane

2) The nitrogenous base, adenine is found in which three of the following
a) Proteins, chlorophyll
b) protein, ATP, and DNA
c) ATP, DNA, and RNA
d) Chlorophyll, ATP, and DNA
e) Proteins, carbohydrates, and ATP

3) A feature of organic compounds NOT found in inorganic compounds is the presence of
a) ionizing chemical groups
b) electrons
c) carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other
d) oxygen
e) hydrogen bonds

4) which of the following is a correct statement about the relationship between pH and the hydrogen- ion concentration of a solution?
a) there are no hydrogen ions present in a solution with a basic pH
b) there are no hydrogen ions present in a solution with a neutral pH of 0.7
c) the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with a pH of 7.0 is 100 times as great as that in a solution with a pH of 9.0
d) the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution with a pH of 5.0 is twice as great as that in a solution with a pH of 1.0

Each unit on the pH scale has a difference of one order of magnitude in H ions. Simply put, 1 unit on the scale has 10 times as many hydrogen ions as the one previous as you move down the scale from 14 to 1. And vice versa.

So, since 7.0 is 2 units from 9.0, 7 has two orders of magnitude more ions, or 10^2, or 100 times as many.


5) Which of the following pairs of functional groups characterizes the structure of an amino acid?
a) nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen & carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with R
b) Carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with OH & Nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen
c) carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with OH & carbon double bonded with oxygen and single bonded with R
d) -OH & nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen
e) carbon bonded with 1 Hydrogen and  2 carbons & Nitrogen bonded with 2 hydrogen

6) The bonding of two amino acids molecules to form a larger molecule requires
a) the release of a water molecule
b) the release of a carbon dioxide molecule
c) the addition of a nitrogen atom
d) the addition of a water molecule
e) an increase in activation energy

7) Animals produce most of their nitrogen-containing wastes during
a) protein digestion
b) carbohydrate digestion
c) lipid digestion
d) glycogen synthesis
e) production of charismatic gradients

8 ) Which of the following is most abundant carbon-containing compound in the atmosphere of the earth?
a) carbon monoxide
b) carbon dioxide
c) carbon tetrachloride
d)ethane
e) ozone



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Reply# 2
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Posts: 11380
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Oct 16, 2010

9) Which of the following carbon compounds is standardly utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs?
a) calcium carbonate
b) carbonic acid
c) organic molecules
d) carbon dioxide
e) carbon monoxide

10) Which of the following is responsible for the cohesive property of water?
a) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
b)covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
c) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
d) covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
e) hydrogen bonds between water molecules and other types of molecules

11-14. Each group of questions in this section consists of five lettered choices followed by a list of numbered phrases or sentences. For each numbered phrase or sentence select the one heading that is most closely related to it.
a) protein
b)carbohydrates
c) nucleic acid
d) lipids
e) steroids

11) includes molecules that function as cellular signals, receptors, enzymes, transporters, and carriers (A)

12) includes glycogen, chitin, cellulose, and glucose (B)

13) used for insulation and buoyancy in marine arctic animals (D)

14) used to carry the genetic code (C)

15-19) refer to the following list of biomolecules
a)glucose
b) glycerol
c) glycogen
d) glucagon
e) guanine

15) a nitrogen base of nucleic acids (E)

16) essential for the synthesis of fats (B)

17) a storage form of carbohydrate in muscle (C)

18) a monosaccharide (A)

19) a purine (E)

20-24) refer to the following list of bimolecular
a) glycocalyx
b) cholesterol
c) triglyceride
d) phospholipid
e) protein

20) Carbohydrate-containing layer coating the surface of the cell membrane (D)

21) the major component of the bilayer of a cell membrane (D)

22) structural molecule that enables muscle contraction (E)

23) steroid affecting the fluidity of the plasma membrane (B)

24) pepsin, digestive enzyme produced in mammalian stomachs (E)



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Reply# 3
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Oct 16, 2010

thanks for all the hard work could u also answer these!

1) Describe three types of  bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structures.

2) Protein structure can be affected by environmental conditions. Identify two factors and explain the mechanism by which each affects protein structure

3) describe 2 other molecules (NOT PROTEINS) and explain how the structure of these molecules is important for their function.



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Reply# 4
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Posts: 11380
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Oct 16, 2010

(1)

peptide bond: linking amino acid together

disulfide bond: two cysteine residues in a polypeptide molecule forms a bond through the sulfahydryl groups.

hydrogen bond: forming alpha helices and beta-pleated sheets

(2)

Heat: denatures proteains

pH: Can disrupt the hydrogen bonds

(3)

fatty acid: Long organic molecule that is lipid soluble. Its long fatty acid tail allows for membranes to form in hydrophilic environments.

H2O: Has an electornegative oxygen and two hydrogens. The hydrogens of one water molecule form hydrogen bonds with the oxygen of another; this allows for the cohesive properties of water.



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