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5.   The process by which related species become more different in order to reduce competition is called __________.

37.   A virgin pine forest covers a valley, and one of the inhabitants is a red squirrel species. A large volcanic eruption occurs and separates the valley with a huge lava flow that the squirrels cannot cross, thus producing two isolated populations of squirrels. What change needs to occur for the two populations of squirrels to become separate species?
A.   The two squirrel populations must eat distinct species of plants.
B.   The area that the squirrel populations occupy changes so that the squirrel populations exist in distinct habitats.
C.   The fur color of the two squirrel populations must become distinct.
D.   The two squirrel populations select mates using the same sexual behavior.
E.   The two squirrel populations become reproductively isolated.

42.   The most common mechanism for sympatric speciation is
A.   polyploidy.
B.   geographic isolation.
C.   spontaneous mutation.
D.   punctuated equilibrium.
E.   disruptive selection.
 
43.   Lake Victoria is famous for its variety of cichlid fishes. In fact, they offer the most diverse assembly of vertebrates presently known to science. One trait that scientists have focused on, as one possible reason for their adaptability is
A.   a second set of scales that lie beneath the top outermost scales.
B.   a second set of jaws in their throats.
C.   gill arches that are not covered by an operculum, which prevents hiding places for gill parasites.
D.   digestive tracts that are able to process most substrates, which has eliminated the need for feeding specialization.
E.   ability to change color in relationship to their environment.

 
48.   Which of the following is true about speciation on island archipelagos?
A.   Speciation is slow because it depends on emigration from the mainland.
B.   Most speciation occurs allopatrically.
C.   Ecological competition may cause new species to go extinct slowing speciation.
D.   Speciation by polyploidy is most common.
E.   Species clusters are less common.

53.   Several new tetraploid species of plant known as the salsifies have arisen in western North America from diploid species by allopolyploidy. This mode of speciation is known as ________ and it occurs ________.
A.   allopatric speciation; almost instantaneously
B.   allopatric speciation; very slowly
C.   sympatric speciation; almost instantaneously
D.   sympatric speciation; very slowly
E.   adaptive radiation; very slowly
 
54.   Which of the following is not a reason that the Galapagos Islands and the Hawaiian Islands have so many endemic species of flies and birds?
A.   numerous islands in archipelago
B.   adequate distance between islands to allow divergence
C.   founder effect when islands are colonized
D.   character displacement
E.   numerous volcanic events

55.   Imagine two species of birds with similar beak sizes and diets. Where the two species are allopatric, we would expect that their beak sizes
A.   should not differ than when sympatric.
B.   should differ more than when sympatric.
C.   should differ less than when sympatric.
D.   should both be larger.
E.   should both be smaller.
 
56.   Two species of plant hybridize. Species A zygotes have 2n = 4 chromosomes. Species B zygotes have 2n = 6 chromosomes. If the hybrid zygote undergoes events so that allopolyploid speciation occurs, then zygotes of the new species would 2n = ________ chromosomes.
A.   4
B.   5
C.   6
D.   10
E.   20
 
57.   If two species are able to mate and produce an offspring which can mate with itself, but which is unable to mate with its parent's species then this can best be described as an example of
A.   allopatric speciation.
B.   sympatric speciation via disruptive selection.
C.   sympatric speciation via polyploidy.
D.   a species cluster.
E.   character displacement.
 
58.   If a new species is produced by the interbreeding of two members of distinct species, this would be __________ speciation achieved via __________.
A.   allopatric; autopolyploidy
B.   allopatric; allopolyploidy
C.   sympatric; autopolyploidy
D.   sympatric; allopolyploidy
E.   sympatric; divergence
 
59.   Which one of the following factors was not important in creating the adaptive radiation of Drosophila in the Hawaiian islands?
A.   The Hawaiian islands are an archipelago.
B.   New islands are constantly being formed.
C.   High rates of mutation due to radioactive materials in the lava flows.
D.   The existence of land islands called kipukas.
E.   The presence of unoccupied niches.
 
60.   Which one of the following statements about the diversity of Darwin's finches on the Galápagos Islands is false?
A.   All of the finches share a common ancestor that colonized the islands.
B.   Prior to the adaptive radiation of finches, there were many unoccupied habitats in the Galápagos Islands.
C.   The many islands in the Galápagos archipelago favored allopatric speciation.
D.   The adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches resulted from a key evolutionary innovation.
E.   There are several species clusters of finches.




61.   Which one of the following statements about the Lake Victoria cichlid fishes is false?
A.   The adaptive radiation of the estimated 300 species of cichlid fish was very rapid and took place during the last 200,000 years.
B.   The adaptive radiation of the Lake Victoria cichlids may have resulted from a key evolutionary innovation.
C.   Speciation of the Lake Victoria cichlids was mainly allopatric and resulted from varying lake levels.
D.   The diversity of the Lake Victoria cichlids continues today because the lake is devoid of predators.
E.   Many of the Lake Victoria cichlids have very specialized adaptations that allow them to occupy diverse habitats within the lake.
62.   Which one of the following statements about the adaptive radiation of New Zealand alpine buttercups is false?
A.   Allopatric speciation occurred mainly during periods of glacial recession.
B.   Divergence occurred mainly during periods of glacial advance.
C.   The availability of a variety of habitats favored diversification.
D.   Reproductive isolation was reinforced mainly during periods of glacial recession.
E.   Sympatric speciation is unimportant in explaining the adaptive radiation of New Zealand alpine buttercups.
63.   Which one of the following statements about gradualism and punctuated equilibrium is false?
A.   Darwin's publication, On the Origin of Species, changed the view of evolution from gradualism to that of punctuated equilibrium.
B.   The pace of evolution according to the theory of gradualism is like the pace during stasis according to the theory of punctuated equilibrium.
C.   According to the theory of punctuated equilibrium, evolutionary change occurs only during brief periods of speciation.
D.   Stasis is likely caused by periods of stabilizing and oscillating selection.
E.   Gradualism suggests that evolutionary change is not linked to speciation.
 
64.   Which one of the following statements about mass extinctions is false?
A.   The five major mass extinctions were all followed by a rebound in species diversity.
B.   By definition, in mass extinctions all major groups are affected equally.
C.   Major changes in the direction of evolution have often occurred after mass extinctions.
D.   The five major mass extinctions were caused mainly by geological events and, perhaps, collision with asteroids.
E.   Rebound from the current, sixth mass extinction may be slower than in previous mass extinctions.




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Homework Help :)
A year ago
5.   The process by which related species become more different in order to reduce competition is called __________.

character displacement

Please follow forum rules, two questions per thread.

48.   Which of the following is true about speciation on island archipelagos?
A.   Speciation is slow because it depends on emigration from the mainland.
B.   Most speciation occurs allopatrically.
C.   Ecological competition may cause new species to go extinct slowing speciation.
D.   Speciation by polyploidy is most common.
E.   Species clusters are less common.

B


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Reply# 2
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Homework Help :)
A year ago
42.   The most common mechanism for sympatric speciation is

Disruptive selection


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Homework Help :)
A year ago
What answers did you get for the rest? Roll Eyes Please share Kiss


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