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PHYSIOEX 9 Exercise 1:Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Worksheet
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dman1798
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For a more comfortable homework help experience, try HomeworkClinic.com.
any help on this would be appreciated.

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4 years ago

Post the question Wink



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4 years ago

Is physo 9.0 similar to the 8.0 book if not what the different?



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Is physo 9.0 similar to the 8.0 book if not what the different?

Questions are posed differently, could you post the questions, rather than attaching them.



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1.   The molecular weight of urea is approximately 60.  Which of the membranes can it pass through?
a.   50 MWCO membrane
b.   100 MWCO membrane            
c.   200 MWCO membrane
d.   Both the 100 and 200 MWCO membranes
2.   True or False:  A solution containing glucose will diffuse faster through a 200 MWCO membrane if it is heated.
3.   The molecular weight of carbon C is 12; the molecular weight of hydrogen (H) is 1; the molecular weight of oxygen (O) is 16.  The chemical formula of glucose is:  C6H12O6 .   Using some simple multiplication and addition, determine the molecular weight of one molecule of glucose.       
4.   Describe two variables that affect the rate of diffusion.
5.   Why do you think that the urea was not able to diffuse through the 20 MWCO membrane?
6.   Describe the results of the attempts to diffuse glucose and albumin through the 200 MWCO membrane.
7.   Put the following in order from smallest to largest molecular weight:  glucose, sodium chloride, albumin, and urea. 
ACTIVITY 2:  Simulated Facilitated Diffusion
8.   True or False:  The facilitated diffusion of glucose requires energy from ATP.   
9.   Which of the following might cause the facilitated diffusion of glucose from one solution to another to occur faster?
a.   Add Na+Cl- to the beaker on the left.
b.   Add K+Cl-  to the beaker on the left.         
c.   Add ATP to the beaker on the left.
d.   None of these would cause it to happen faster.
10.   True or False:   If there are a sufficient large number of transport proteins present, glucose can be transported from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration (i.e. up its concentration gradient.)
11.   Explain one way in which facilitated diffusion is the same as simple diffusion; one way in which it is different.
12.   The larger value obtained when more glucose carriers were present corresponds to an increase in the rate of glucose transport.  Explain why the rate increased.
13.   You were asked to predict what effect you thought that adding Na+ Cl- would have on the glucose transport rate.  Why did you pick the choice you did?  How well did the results compare with your prediction?
ACTIVITY 3:  Simulating Osmotic Pressure
14.   True or False:  Osmosis is considered a type of passive transport, i.e. it does not need energy from ATP.
15.   If a cell is placed in a ________ solution of water, there will be no net movement of water in or out of the cell.
a.   hypotonic
b.   isotonic      
c.   hypertonic
16.   If you “cut” the concentration of a non-diffusible solute that is on one side of a membrane in half, the osmotic pressure will
a.   double.
b.   not change.               
c.   be half of what it was before.
17.   Explain the effect that increasing the Na+Cl- concentration had on osmotic pressure and why it has this effect.
18.   Describe one way in which osmosis is similar to simple diffusion; describe one way in which it is different.
19.   Solutes are sometimes measured in milliosmoles.  Explain this statement: “Water chases milliosmoles.”
20.   The conditions were 9mM albumin in the left beaker and 10mM glucose in the right beaker with the 200 MWCO membrane in place.  Explain the results.
ACTIVITY 4:  Simulating Filtration
21.   The filtration rate of Na+Cl- in the simulation was dependent on
a.   the pore size of the membrane.
b.   the hydrostatic pressure applied to the top beaker.   
c.   the concentration of the solutes in the lower beaker.
d.   both the pore size and the hydrostatic pressure applied.
22.   True or False:  The simulation would not function if the top beaker were open to the atmosphere instead of having pressure applied to the top beaker.     
23.   Explain in your own words why increasing the pore size increased the filtration rate.  Use an analogy to support your statement.
24.   Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes?
25.   Why did increasing the filtration pressure increase the filtration rate but not the concentration of solutes?
ACTIVITY 5:  Simulating Active Transport
26.   In this simulation, each of the following was (were) required In order for active transport to occur:
a.   sodium ions (Na+)
b.   potassium ions (K+)            
c.   energy from ATP
d.   All of the above were required.
27.   True or False:  The amount of ATP that you dispensed did not affect the rate that the solutes passed from one beaker to the other.   
28.   Which of the following processes require ATP?
a.   Simple diffusion
b.   Facilitated diffusion      
c.   Filtration
d.   Osmosis
e.   Active transport
29.   Describe the significance of using 9mM sodium chloride inside the cell and 6mM potassium chloride outside the cell.
30.   Explain why there was no sodium transport even though ATP was present.
31.   Explain why the addition of glucose carriers either had no effect or did have an effect on sodium or potassium transport.
32.   Do you think glucose is being actively transported or transported by facilitated diffusion in this experiment.  Why?



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4 years ago

Can't answer them all, but I think these are the answers you're looking for Thinking

1.   The molecular weight of urea is approximately 60.  Which of the membranes can it pass through?
a.   50 MWCO membrane
b.   100 MWCO membrane            
c.   200 MWCO membrane
d.   Both the 100 and 200 MWCO membranes
2.   True or False:  A solution containing glucose will diffuse faster through a 200 MWCO membrane if it is heated.
3.   The molecular weight of carbon C is 12; the molecular weight of hydrogen (H) is 1; the molecular weight of oxygen (O) is 16.  The chemical formula of glucose is:  C6H12O6 .   Using some simple multiplication and addition, determine the molecular weight of one molecule of glucose.       
4.   Describe two variables that affect the rate of diffusion.
5.   Why do you think that the urea was not able to diffuse through the 20 MWCO membrane?
6.   Describe the results of the attempts to diffuse glucose and albumin through the 200 MWCO membrane.
7.   Put the following in order from smallest to largest molecular weight:  glucose, sodium chloride, albumin, and urea. 
ACTIVITY 2:  Simulated Facilitated Diffusion
8.   True or False:  The facilitated diffusion of glucose requires energy from ATP.   
9.   Which of the following might cause the facilitated diffusion of glucose from one solution to another to occur faster?
a.   Add Na+Cl- to the beaker on the left.
b.   Add K+Cl-  to the beaker on the left.         
c.   Add ATP to the beaker on the left.
d.   None of these would cause it to happen faster.
10.   True or False:   If there are a sufficient large number of transport proteins present, glucose can be transported from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration (i.e. up its concentration gradient.)
11.   Explain one way in which facilitated diffusion is the same as simple diffusion; one way in which it is different.
12.   The larger value obtained when more glucose carriers were present corresponds to an increase in the rate of glucose transport.  Explain why the rate increased.
13.   You were asked to predict what effect you thought that adding Na+ Cl- would have on the glucose transport rate.  Why did you pick the choice you did?  How well did the results compare with your prediction?
ACTIVITY 3:  Simulating Osmotic Pressure
14.   True or False:  Osmosis is considered a type of passive transport, i.e. it does not need energy from ATP.
15.   If a cell is placed in a ________ solution of water, there will be no net movement of water in or out of the cell.
a.   hypotonic
b.   isotonic      
c.   hypertonic
16.   If you “cut” the concentration of a non-diffusible solute that is on one side of a membrane in half, the osmotic pressure will
a.   double.
b.   not change.               
c.   be half of what it was before.
17.   Explain the effect that increasing the Na+Cl- concentration had on osmotic pressure and why it has this effect.
18.   Describe one way in which osmosis is similar to simple diffusion; describe one way in which it is different.
19.   Solutes are sometimes measured in milliosmoles.  Explain this statement: “Water chases milliosmoles.”
20.   The conditions were 9mM albumin in the left beaker and 10mM glucose in the right beaker with the 200 MWCO membrane in place.  Explain the results.
ACTIVITY 4:  Simulating Filtration
21.   The filtration rate of Na+Cl- in the simulation was dependent on
a.   the pore size of the membrane.
b.   the hydrostatic pressure applied to the top beaker.   
c.   the concentration of the solutes in the lower beaker.
d.   both the pore size and the hydrostatic pressure applied.
22.   True or False:  The simulation would not function if the top beaker were open to the atmosphere instead of having pressure applied to the top beaker.     
23.   Explain in your own words why increasing the pore size increased the filtration rate.  Use an analogy to support your statement.
24.   Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes?
25.   Why did increasing the filtration pressure increase the filtration rate but not the concentration of solutes?
ACTIVITY 5:  Simulating Active Transport
26.   In this simulation, each of the following was (were) required In order for active transport to occur:
a.   sodium ions (Na+)
b.   potassium ions (K+)            
c.   energy from ATP
d.   All of the above were required.
27.   True or False:  The amount of ATP that you dispensed did not affect the rate that the solutes passed from one beaker to the other.   
28.   Which of the following processes require ATP?
a.   Simple diffusion
b.   Facilitated diffusion      
c.   Filtration
d.   Osmosis
e.   Active transport
29.   Describe the significance of using 9mM sodium chloride inside the cell and 6mM potassium chloride outside the cell.
30.   Explain why there was no sodium transport even though ATP was present.
31.   Explain why the addition of glucose carriers either had no effect or did have an effect on sodium or potassium transport.
32.   Do you think glucose is being actively transported or transported by facilitated diffusion in this experiment.  Why?


Activity 1: Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Agar Gel (p. 55)

6. Potassium permanganates moved because they possess kinetic energy.

Activity 2: Observing Diffusion of Dye Through Water (p. 56)

4. Potassium diffusion.

Activity 3: Observing Diffusion Through Nonliving Membranes (pp. 56–57)

5. After 1 hour, sac 1 pass through the dialysis membrane.



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Reply# 7 Quote
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4 years ago

Did this solve your question?



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3 years ago

not sure why but these labs are killing me, a better simulation would help.



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3 years ago

answer to #1 is d.  #2 true



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3 years ago

The worksheets aren't the same, but they are similar in questions, so I posted what I had!!
Data:    
 Chart 1 – Dialysis Results (average diffusion rate in mM/min)
Solute            Membrane (MWCO)
                20      50      100      200
NaCl               -----                0.0150                    0.0150               0.150
Urea                   ----                ----                           0.0094               0.0094
Albumin           -----                ----                           ---                        ---
Glucose           ---                   ---                             ---                       0.0040

Questions:   ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help
1-1: Which solute(s) were able to diffuse into the right beaker from the left? 
 The solutes that were able to diffuse was NaCl with a molecule weight cut off of 50, 100, and 200, Urea with a molecule weight cut off of 100 and 200, and Glucose with a molecule wright cut off of 200.

1-2: Which solute(s) did not diffuse?   
The solutes that did not fuse is NaCl/20, Urea/20 and 50, Albumin/20, 50, and 100, and Glucose/20, 50, and 100.

1-3: If the solution in the left beaker contained both urea and albumin, which membrane(s) could you choose to selectively remove the urea from the solution in the left beaker? 
 I can use the dialysis membranes 100 and 200. 

How would you carry out this experiment?
 I would test each dialysis membrane starting with 20 MWCO through 200 MWCO with a combination of both urea and albumin solutes, at a concentration of 9.00mM in the left beaker and deionized water in the right beaker until urea is selectively removed.

1-4: Assume that the solution in the left beaker contained NaCl in addition to the urea and albumin. How could you set up an experiment so you removed the urea, but left the NaCl concentration unchanged? Hint: Assume that you also have control of the contents in the right beaker.
 I would use a concentration of 9.00mM in all three solutions in the left side beaker.  In the right side beaker I would only use NaCl solute, at a concentration of 9.00mM, with a dialysis membrane of 100 MWCO.  That way, the NaCl solute is not removed, and only the urea concentration has changed.


Summary: 
In this Activity, I learned/observed that:  albumin, urea, and glucose are much larger molecules than NaCl.  A lot of the molecules couldn’t pass through the membrane pores, unless the dialysis membrane MWCO was higher than 100.  While the NaCl solution was able to diffuse with all dialysis membranes, except the membrane with 20 MWCO.  I also learned that you could combine different molecules together in a solution, and “selectively” remove certain molecules if you use the correct weight in the dialysis membrane. 





Activity 2: Simulating Facilitated Diffusion

Data:    
Chart 2 – Facilitated Diffusion Results (glucose transport rate, mM/min)
Glucose Conc.       No. of glucose carrier proteins
(mM)         500      700      900
2.00                     0.0008               0.0010                 0.0012
8.00                                    0.0023             0.0031               0.0038

Questions:   ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help
2-1: What happened to the rate of facilitated diffusion as the number of protein carriers increased? Explain your answer. 
As the number of protein carriers increased, the transport rate increased.  I.e. I used 500 protein carriers, and I set the amount of glucose solute to be delivered to the beaker at 2.00mM, the transport rate was at 0.0008, compared to when I used 900 glucose carriers, the rate was then at 0.0012.  Also, the equilibrium of time it took to facilitate diffusion became shorter.

2-2: What do you think would happen to the transport rate if you put the same concentration of glucose into both beakers instead of deionized water in the right beaker? 
Since it is the same concentration of glucose in both beakers, nothing should happen because it is the same solute in both beakers;   therefore, it should stay at 0.

2-3: Should NaCl have an effect on glucose diffusion? Explain your answer. Use the simulation to see if it does. 
Yes it should.  Glucose is a much heavier molecule than NaCl, so it takes a longer time for the glucose to facilitate diffusion, than it does for NaCl.  And the transport rate for NaCl is much higher than glucose.


Summary:

In this Activity, I learned/observed that: When the glucose carriers increased, the transport rate increased.  And it took less and less time for the facilitated diffusion to happen.  I also learned that, NaCi facilitated diffusion at a much faster rate than glucose.  And its transport rate was much higher than the glucose transport rate also.

Activity 3: Simulating Osmotic Pressure

Data:
Chart 3 - Osmosis Results (pressure in mm Hg)
Solute            Membrane (MWCO)
         20      50      100      200
NaCl                    272                      0                          0                            0
Albumin                            136                     136                      136                        136
Glucose                             136                     136                      136                        0

Questions:     
3-1: Do you see any evidence of pressure changes in either beaker, using any of the four membranes? If so, which membrane(s)?
  Yes, there were pressure changes in the left beaker of the NaCl solute using the 20 MWCO.  There was also a pressure change in the left beaker with the Albumin solute using all four of the membranes.  And with the glucose solute, there was a pressure change in the left beaker also, using the 20, 50, and 100 MWCO membranes only. 

3-2: Does NaCl appear in the right beaker? If so, which membrane(s) allowed it to pass?  The membranes that allowed NaCl to pass into the right beaker are the 50, 100, and 200 MWCO membranes.

3-3: Explain the relationship between solute concentration and osmotic pressure.  The relationship is, a solute concentration in a closed system will need to have increased in volume in order for osmotic pressure to occur.

3-4: Will osmotic pressure be generated if solutes are able to diffuse? Explain your answer.
Yes.  If a semipermeable membrane that is impermeable to solutes is placed between two solutions, this will cause water to move to the more concentrated solution and the concentrated solution volume will then increase.  When this happens, the volume cannot change, which will cause the pressure to rise in the more concentrated solution (p. 6 in Marieb).


3-5: Because the albumin molecule is too large to pass through a 100 MWCO membrane, you should have noticed the development of osmotic pressure in the left beaker in the albumin run using the 100 MWCO membrane. What do you think would happen to the osmotic pressure if you replaced the deionized water in the right beaker with 9.00 mM albumin in that run? (Both beakers would contain 9.00 mM albumin).
 After completing the run with both beakers containing 9.00mM albumin, I noticed that nothing happened to the osmotic pressure, and both beakers stayed the same.

3-6: What would happen if you doubled the albumin concentration in the left beaker using any membrane?  After doubling the albumin concentration in the left beaker, I used the 50 MWCO membrane and what happened is, I noticed the development of osmotic pressure in the left beaker which was rose to 153 mmHg.

3-7: In the albumin run using the 200 MWCO membrane, what would happen to the osmotic pressure if you put 10 mM glucose in the right beaker instead of deionized water? Explain your answer. 
In this experiment, albumin stayed the same, while the glucose passed into the left beaker.  Also, the osmotic pressure of the left beaker rose to 136 mmHg.

3-8: What if you used the 100 MWCO membrane in the albumin/glucose run described in the previous question? 
After doing the albumin/glucose run over using the 100 MWCO membrane, there was no diffusion between the two solutes.  But the right beaker developed osmotic pressure of 34 mmHg.

Summary:

In this Activity, I learned/observed that:  In order for osmotic pressure to occur, one solute has to be able to diffuse with another solute, causing the more concentrated solute to increase in volume, and the osmotic pressure to rise.
Activity 4: Simulating Filtration

Data:    
Chart 4 – Filtration Results
Solute                     Membrane (MWCO)
               20      50      100      200
Filtration rate (ml/min)         1.00      2.50      5.00      10.00

NaCl in filtrate (mg/ml)                               0.00                     4.81                     4.81                      4.81
NaCl membrane residue (+/-)      present              present                 present               present
Urea in filtrate (mg/ml)                              0.00                       0.00                     4.74                      4.74
Urea membrane residue (+/-)                   present               present               present               present
Glucose in filtrate (mg/ml)                         0.00                     0.00                    0.00                     4.39
Glucose membrane residue (+/-)              present               present             present               present
Powdered charcoal in filtrate (mg/ml)     0.00                    0.00                    0.00                    0.00
Powdered charcoal membrane residue (+/-) present       present             present              present

Questions:  ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help
4-1: How did the membrane's MWCO affect the filtration rate? A smaller membrane MWCO (size) causes ____less___________ (less, more, equal - choose one) filtration rate than a larger membrane MWCO.

4-2: Which solute did not appear in the filtrate using any of the membranes? 
The powdered charcoal solute didn’t appear using any of the membranes.

4-3: What would happen if you increased the driving pressure? Use the simulation to arrive at an answer. When I increased the driving pressure, filtration __Stayed the same_____________ (increased, decreased, stayed the same - choose one).

4-4: Explain how you can increase the filtration rate through living membranes.
 In order to increase the filtration rate through living membranes, you will need have a membrane that has larger pores.

4-5: By examining filtration results, we can predict that the molecular weight of glucose must be greater than ______powdered charcoal______ but less than _____Urea__________ . (Hint: answer refers to solutes and NOT MWCOs).

Summary:    
In this Activity, I learned/observed that:  A smaller membrane causes a slower filtration rate, than a membrane that is larger.  Also I’ve learned that, it really don’t matter what size MWCO membrane you use, powdered charcoal will not filtrate.

Activity 5: Simulating Active Transport

Data:    ?No chart necessary here, but you will need to use the data you get from running the experiments to answer the questions below

Questions:  ?answer each question; use full sentences; ask instructor if you need help

5-1: Watch the solute concentration windows at the side of each beaker for any changes in Na+ and K+ concentrations. The Na+ transport rate stops before transport has completed. Why do you think that this happens? Hint: think about what is necessary for active transport to occur.
It stopped before the transport was complete because the ATP in the solutes caused the transport to happen at a faster rate.

5-2: What would happen if you did not dispense any ATP?
If ATP is not dispensed, there will not be a transport, because ATP provides the energy that is needed to move substances across the membrane.

5-3: Has the amount of Na+ transported changed?
 No it has not changed, because the ATP is what moves the substance.

5-4: What would happen if you decreased the number of sodium-potassium pumps? 
When I decreased the number of sodium-potassium pumps, the solution transported at a much slower rate than it would if the pump was set at 500.

5-5: Explain how you could show that this phenomenon is not just simple diffusion. (Hint: Adjust the Na+ concentration in the right beaker).  The way that I can explain that this is not just a simple diffusion is, after increasing the number of Na+ solution, I didn’t add the ATP which delayed the transport between the two solutions, and the solutions still didn’t diffuse.

5-6: Is Na+ transport affected by this change? Explain your answer.
Yes it was.  It was affected because ATP wasn’t added to the solutes and they couldn’t move through the membrane.

5-7: What would happen to the rate of ion transport if we increased the number of sodium-potassium pump proteins? 
The rate of the ion transport would happen a lot faster if the sodium-potassium pumps were increased.

5-8: Would Na+ and K+ transport change if we added glucose solution? No it will not change if glucose was added.  It will just take glucose a longer time to transport.

Summary:    

In this Activity, I learned/observed that: There will not be an active transport if ATP is not present in a concentrated solution.  I also learned that a decrease or an increase in sodium-potassium pumps will affect the rate of an ion transport.



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3 years ago

the questions are attached. thanks again

Thank you very much!



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3 years ago

Thank you very much for the help.



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3 years ago

I turned my physioex cd in and my final is tomorrow! so thanks!!!



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