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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
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Diane28
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Does anyone have the essay questions answered (below) for Anthropology 100 through AMU?

1.   What is the most accurate description of the relative importance of hunting versus gathering in foraging societies in terms of nutrition? In terms of place in society?

2.   Larger societies include groups whose organization can be categorized as bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. What type of organizational structure would you argue that the Hutterites fall under? Please explain your reasoning.


3.   What kinds of evidence have been examined to try to determine the time of origin of modern human language? What answer to this question do these suggest?

4.   The number of recognized supernatural beings differs among cultures. To what major aspect of culture is this number related? Give examples.


5.   What is the general focus of sociobiology (also known as evolutionary psychology and behavioral ecology)? How is this applied to human behaviors?

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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Jul 22, 2013

Please limit to two questions per topic.

1.   What is the most accurate description of the relative importance of hunting versus gathering in foraging societies in terms of nutrition? In terms of place in society?

Anthropology considers the food acquisition techniques as factors of great importance to categorize the impressive array of human cultures. First in terms of emergence and importance, the subsistence pattern of early or contemporaneous uncivilized societies, taken in the literal sense of "non-urbanized societies," has been the foraging model, which encompasses the hunt and the food gathering. The preponderance of hunting over the gathering, or vice versa, is not as conspicuous as one could imagine. Those two food acquisition techniques have profound consequences in terms of nutrition and place in society because they influence the health, the labour specialization, and the social stratification.

In the first place, the comparison of hunt with gathering permits to evaluate the nutritional consequences for the people that belong to foraging societies. Foragers have necessitated meeting their caloric needs through stable supplies of food, both qualitatively and quantitatively, to avoid malnutrition or starvation. Hunting and gathering have provided them with about the same amount of proteins, although they have needed to collect large quantities of edible plants to equal the outcome of proteins supplied by the relatively small pieces of meat. However, gathering has been less energy consuming than hunt because foragers could more simply locate vegetables in the forest or in the open ground than animals. Besides, even the scavenged animals have required humans covered longer distances to amass available carcasses than to cover distances to accumulate vegetable food. The major implication of the concurrent use of hunting and gathering has been the development of a generalized alimentation through a mixed diet. Such a varied nutritional regime offers the foragers flexible eating habits that permit them to conserve a high income of proteins, even in times of paucity of either animal flesh or eatable vegetation, and thus escape starvation.

In the second place, the contrast between hunt and gathering allows to appraise the structural repercussions in foraging societies. In the light of the foraging techniques, including hunting and gathering, one is not amazed to discover that the foragers emphasize a division of labour based on gender. Indeed, each individual is catalogued in a gender that is associated with specific tasks. For example, generally, men hunt and women gather. Nonetheless, the labour specialization is not the rule, because individuals, independently of their gender, may perform duties that are usually assigned to other genders. Subsequently, egalitarianism is the normality for there are no formalized, and even sometimes recognized, differences between individuals in a group. Such parity conducts to generate societies without any class, and therefore, without social stratification.

Furthermore, hunting and gathering deeply influence the foraging societies far beyond their immediate need of food, because the produce of hunting and gathering diverges only in terms of methods of food acquisition. Indeed, although at first sight those techniques seem to have relatively opposite effects on foraging societies, they are at the origin of a generalized dentition and diet that enhance the health and the chances of survival of individuals in a group. In the end, that maximizes the chances of reproductive success and minimizes the risks to see many individuals selected against by selective agents during the process of natural selection. Consequently, from an evolutionary point of view, hunting and gathering in foraging societies prevent the human species from extinction through adaptive modus operandi to collect food supplies.

Finally, because of the proximity of the individuals with the nature in their daily life, and particularly when they search for their alimentation through both hunting and gathering, foragers develop a profound sense of respect tinged with admiration for the natural phenomena. Furthermore, due to their lack of scientific knowledge, they tend to acquire deferential behaviours towards nature that are often translated into a wide panel of diverse religious practices. To adhere to the diversity of their requirements, such as protective or prophetic requests, and of what appears as supernatural, foragers construct a miscellaneous ensemble of supreme beings. Thus, polytheism becomes the transcription of the worldview of foragers, formed through their conception of the social order in addition to their fear of lacking food supplies to forage, into religious matters. Consequently, the description of the relative importance of hunting versus gathering in foraging societies in terms of nutrition and place in society is not limited to practical observations but it provides anthropologists with an in depth understanding of the culture of those societies.



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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Jul 22, 2013

Thank you for your help. I was unaware there was a limit to the questions as I have seen in other posts many questions being asked at one time.

I am looking for help due to I have been ill and just got out of the hospital. I have never looked or asked for help before as this was the first time I ever found this sight. I apologize for asking more than 2 questions.



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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Jul 22, 2013

Thank you for your help. I was unaware there was a limit to the questions as I have seen in other posts many questions being asked at one time.

I am looking for help due to I have been ill and just got out of the hospital. I have never looked or asked for help before as this was the first time I ever found this sight. I apologize for asking more than 2 questions.

No problem, but the policy is stated in the text area where topics are made. Also, keep in mind that the answer I provided should only be used as an exemplar. I've attached a PDF that might help you answer #2, Diane.



Attached file(s)* Park+Chapter+10.pdf (2546.28 KB - downloaded 38 times.)
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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Sep 2, 2013

Thanks for the guidance in completing the ANTH100 Final Exam Questions.



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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Sep 26, 2013

Thanks for the help and guidance.  Smile



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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Oct 25, 2013

This was a great post everyone thank you for the help.



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ANTH 100 AMU/PUS Final Essay Questions
Dec 1, 2013

Gresta post!



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Dec 2, 2013

thank you so much



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Dec 26, 2013

Thank you for the much needed help!



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Dec 28, 2013

much needed help!! thanks for the post



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Jan 12, 2014

thank you for the post!



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Jan 23, 2014

Your post has been more than helpful, you can't be thanked enough....



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Jan 25, 2014

thanks



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