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Exam2B questions Fall2009
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BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I (2012 sec 003) MIDTERM EXAM 2B (October 15, 2009) Mark the ONE BEST letter choice (either A, B, C, D, or E) on the computer-graded sheet in TWO PENCIL. If you need to erase, do so completely! You MUST use the answer sheet provided by us inside your exam packet. No other answer sheet will be allowed. Take a deep breath, relax; you will do just fine! 1. Which of the following is not a taste quality perceived by our gustatory (taste) system? a) saltiness. b) fatness. c) sourness. d) bitterness. e) sweetness. 2. In humans, taste buds are replaced, on average, every a) year. b) 10 days. c) month. d) day. e) 10 minutes. 3. The chemicals that are perceived as odors: a) are heavy metals. b) must first bind in the lungs. c) are watery substances. d) must first be dissolved in nasal mucus. e) reach the brain directly. 4. The inferior and superior colliculi a) auditory and visual. b) visual and auditory. c) chemical and visual. d) visual and tactile. e) tactile and auditory. . He shows no other clear motor deficits (right leg or arms) and feels touch throughout his body, including his left leg. From what you learned in class, give me your best guess as to where George’s injury is located? a) the right parietal lobe. b) the left ventral lumbar spinal cord. c)the left trigeminal nerve. d) the left dorsal cervical spinal cord. e) the right dorsal cervical spinal cord. 6. Which general part of the brain controls breathing and heart rate (very basic and vital functions): a) the cerebellum. b) the occipital lobe. c) the hippocampus. d) the medulla (oblongata). e) the basal ganglia. 7. In relational terms, the temporal lobe is ____________ to the parietal lobe? a) posterior. b) medial. c) caudal. d) dorsal. e) ventral. E A C B D 8. According to the picture of the brain above, the black arrow points to: a) a crack. b) a fissure. c) a bump. d) a sulcus. e) a gyrus. 9. According to the picture of the brain above, the white arrowhead points to: a) the longitudinal fissure. b) the central sulcus. c) the lateral sulcus. d) the occipital lobe. e) the calcarine fissure. 10. According to the picture of the brain above, which letter corresponds to the frontal cortex? 11. According to the picture of the brain above, which letter corresponds to the midbrain? 12. According to the picture of the brain above, which letter corresponds to the parietal lobe? 13. Which of the following is/are not part of the central nervous system? a) brain. b) the cerebellum. c) the optic nerve. d) spinal cord. e) both b) and c). 14. Which cranial nerve carries information from the semicircular canals to the brainstem? a) facial nerve. b) glossopharyngeal nerve. c) olfactory nerve. d) vagus nerve. e) vestibulocochlear nerve. 15. You are listening to your favorite band on your IPod; which cranial nerve is bringing this information to your brain? a) the trigeminal nerve. b) the vagus nerve. c) the olfactory nerve. d) the vestibulocochlear nerve. e) the hypoglossal nerve. 16. What is the name of the structures that can contact and move the cilia of the vestibular sacs’ hair cells? a) Otoconia. b) Endolymph. c) Otolith organs. d) Tectorial membrane. e) Cupula. 17. Infection of which of the following membranes produces what is known as meningitis? a) the pia mater. b) the nasal epithelium. c) the retina. d) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). e) none of the above. 18. Which of the following brain regions receives direct information from the vestibular bipolar neurons? a) The hippocampus. b) The medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. c) The cerebellum. d) The occipital cortex. e) The cochlear nuclei. 19. What is the name of the structure that makes up the external ear? a) basilar membrane. b) vestibular canal. c) pinna. d) ossicles. e) outer hair cells. 20. True (A) or false (B). Explosions and other loud noises can be heard in outer space (near vacuum – hardly any molecules present). 21. Who provided the solution to the “coding” puzzle of how the cochlea detects different sound frequencies? a) Karl Wernicke. b) Paul Broca. c) Hermann Snellen d) Noam Chomsky. e) George von Bekesy. 22. Parvocellular (P) cells: a) primarily receive their inputs from the peripheral retina. b) primarily receive their inputs from rods. c) primarily receive their inputs from cones. d) are large neurons in the visual thalamus (lateral geniculate nucleus). e) both a) and b). 23. The best way of reducing activity (turning off) in off-center ganglion cells of the retina: a) is to shine light onto the center of their receptive fields. b) is to shine light onto the cells’ surround receptive fields. c) is to shine light onto both the center and surround receptive fields. d) is to shine no light at all (keep eyes in the dark). e) both b) and c). 24. We have discussed the Mach band phenomenon in class, which greatly enhances the capacity of the eye for edge detection. Which of the following mechanisms best explains this function? a) The convergence of multiple rods onto ganglion cells. b) The direct inhibition of rods and cones between each other. c) The circular receptive fields of ganglion cells with antagonist center-surround responses to light. d) The lateral inhibition of neighboring ganglion cells. e) The feedforward activation of simple cortical cells in the visual cortex. 25. In the dark (no light entering the eyes), the photoreceptors of the retina: a) normally release neurotransmitters. b) have their sodium and potassium ion channels open. c) produce many action potentials that can be recorded in their internal segments. d) all of the above. e) both a) and b). 26. The stirrups are attached to which membrane? a) oval window. b) tympanic membrane. c) inner ear drum. d) basilar membrane. e) round window. 27. Arrival time of a sound between the two ears is used by the auditory system to determine: a) the loudness of a sound. b) the location of a sound. c) the timbre of a sound. d) the intensity of a sound. e) the frequency of a sound. 28. Which part of the auditory frequency range do people loose with advancing age? a) the higher frequencies (above 12000 Hz). b) the mid-high frequencies (8000 - 12000 Hz). c) the mid frequencies (4000 – 8000 Hz). d) the mid-low frequencies (1000 – 3000 Hz). e) the lower frequencies (below 1000 Hz). 29. In the human cochlea, the part of the basilar membrane nearest the base responds to: a) very low frequencies (near 20 Hz). b) low frequencies (near 100 Hz). c) mid-frequencies (near 10,000 Hz). d) very high frequencies (near 100,000 Hz). e) high frequencies (near 20,000 Hz). 30. What are the two types of coding used by the cochlea to give rise to the perception of pitch? a) amplitude coding. b) place coding. c) rate coding. d) a) and b). e) b) and c). 31. For the human eye, the band of visible wavelengths is located approximately between: a) 4 and 7 millimeters. b) 5 and 10 centimeters. E C A B D c) 400 and 700 nanometers. d) 700 and 1400 nanometers. e) 400 and 700 meters. 32. According to the diagram at right, which letter corresponds to retinal ganglion cells? 33. According to the diagram at right, which letter corresponds to the cones? 34. The specialized structure of the eye that helps focus light and loses elasticity during aging is called: a) the retina. b) the lens. c) the optic nerve. d) the iris. e) the sclera. 35. How many different types (containing different photopigments) of cones are normally expressed in the human retina? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5 36. What is the name of the bundle of axons that originates from the retinal ganglion cells, after it enters the brain, and terminates in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus? a) the visual nerve. b) the optic nerve. c) the visual tract. nd d) the II cranial nerve. e) the optic tract. 37. Near-sightedness (myopia), a problem of light refraction, is often produced because: a) the eyeballs are too long. b) the cornea or lenses are uneven. c) the lenses are opaque. d) the eyeballs are too short. e) the ciliary muscles don’t work properly. 38. The sequence of cells transmitting light information in the retina is normally from: a) photoreceptors to horizontal cells to retinal ganglion cells. b) photoreceptors to amacrine cells to bipolar cells. c) amacrine cells to horizontal cells to retinal ganglion cells. d) photoreceptors to bipolar cells to retinal ganglion cells. e) photoreceptors to retinal ganglion cells to bipolar cells. 39. At night (in the dark), the peripheral retina is most sensitive to light. Which of the following mechanisms would best explain this specialization? a) the different cones in the peripheral retina are especially sensitive to light. b) the cones in the fovea are especially sensitive to light. c) the output of multiple rods in the peripheral retina converge onto single ganglion cells. d) the foveal cones have a 1:1 relationship to ganglion cells. e) the output of multiple cones in the peripheral retina converge onto single ganglion cells. 40. A wavelength near 400 nm is perceived by most people as which color? a) red. b) green. c) blue. d) yellow. e) white. 41. Perception of the left visual field is achieved mainly by: a) the nasal retina of each eye. b) the temporal retina of the right eye and the nasal retina of the left eye. c) the nasal retina of the right eye and the temporal retina of the left eye. d) the temporal retina of each eye. e) the retina of the left eye only. 42. In the theory of color vision proposed by Young and von Helmholtz, a) they noted the association of red and green colors. b) they noted the association of blue and yellow colors. c) they suggested the existence of three different photoreceptors. d) they suggested the existence of four different photoreceptors. e) both a) and b). 43. Which region of the neocortex is most likely to help people plan their day or a trip at the local grocery store? a) basal ganglia. b) frontal cortex. c) insular cortex. d) cerebellar cortex. e) parietal cortex. 44. What is the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)? a) It is responsible for producing motion (airplane, ship, car) sickness. b) It helps keep the head and neck straight up. c) It is responsible for keeping balance, especially in the upright position for walking and running in bipeds. d) It stabilizes the visual field by controlling eye movements to compensate for self-generated head movements. e) Both b) and c). 45. Which of the following sensory detector is mainly responsible for the perception of head/body acceleration? a) The organ of Corti. b) The semicircular canals. c) The vestibular sacs. d) The utricle. e) The spiral ganglia. 46. Which of the following brain structures is closely associated with taste functions? a) lateral geniculate nucleus. b) occipital cortex. c) suprachiasmatic nucleus. d) nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). e) superior colliculus. 47. Which of the following functions is/are especially associated with the parietal lobe? a) sleeping. b) somatosensation. c) spatial maps. d) eating and drinking. e) both b) and c). 48. The ventral visual stream: a) visual information to control movement (the “how” function). b) uses visual information to identify objects (the “what” function). c) is directed to the parietal cortex. d) only helps in the detection of color information. uses e) only helps in the detection of motion. 49. True (a) or False (b); the hair cells of the saccule contain cilia that can increase or decrease neurotransmitter release onto vestibular bipolar neuron terminals depending on the direction of their movements. 50. The gustatory system is unique among the sensory systems in that: a) its information is purely chemical. b) its information reaches the orbitofrontal cortex. c) its information does not go through the thalamus to reach the neocortex. d) its information remains on the same side of the brain it enters (remains ipsilateral). e) all of the above. That’s it, you’re done!!! Answers: 1. B 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. E 8. E 9. C 10. A 11. D 12. E 13. C 14. E 15. D 16. A 17. A 18. C 19. C 20. B 21. E 22. C 23. A 24. D 25. E 26. A 27. B 28. A 29. E 30. E 31. C 32. B 33. C 34. B 35. C 36. E 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. C 41. B 42. C 43. B 44. D 45. B 46. D 47. E 48. B 49. A 50. D
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