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Sept 14th IHST 1001
York University
Uploaded: 2 months ago
Contributor: gohabsgo313
Category: Anatomy
Type: Lecture Notes
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Sept 14th IHST 1001 Anatomy & Physiology Lecture 2 Energy – the ability to do work 2 types of energy W = F X D potential (energy that is stored/stored within tissue etc..) kinetic (energy of movement/motion) the more work we do, the more energy we will spend (ex: baseball player, energy required to bunt and hit a homerun requires different amounts work Types of energy nuclear energy has to do with atoms (fission and fussion) electric energy (positive and negative atoms, when you bring those together, gives off a current) Chemical energy (larger scale of nuclear, transfer between atoms, breakdown and formation of molecules) Thermal energy (generated from heat) Light energy (radiant energy) *Mehanical energy – energy involved in directly moving matter (ex: biking) In all these forms, we have potential and kinetic energy (eg: when you’re sitting, your legs have potential, when you get up, you have kinetic) Energy Conversion Radiant energy is going to have an affect on the tree, trees use the energy and create saap, tree uses radiant energy and transforms it into chemical energy Chemical to mechanical energy, gasoline + oxygen give us combustion, which allows the car to move, we also get a bi product = heat, another form of energy Chemical Reactions Synthesis: creates bond formation, Anabolic reactions (synthesis and building reactions), anabolic reactions consume energy Endogonic reactions [NEED ENERGY] Decomposition: we have matter that we need to break down, releasing energy Catabolic reaction, Energy is produced Exogonic reactions [RELEASE ENERGY] Exchange: between requiring energy and releasing energy (no energy is lost), it’s a transfer of energy, this is what we are trying our bodies to do Energy Flow in chemical reactions Redox Reactions Oxidation + Reduction Hydrogen is the element used in our bodies, and it is a donor Biochemistry Organic (related to the human body, compound that contains Carbon atoms) Inorganic (any compound that doesn’t contain Carbon) Both are important for life Inorganic compounds No carbon Water Salts H+ hydrogen ions OH- hydroxal ions Ex: NaCl Salt into water Water pulls Na and Cl apart Causing us to conduct an electrical current Positivity(Hydrogen) from water molecule is attracted to the chlorine Negativity(oxygen) from water molecule is attracted to the sodium Acids/Bases Like a salt, but they always have a Hydrogen and Hydroxyl ion NaOH (donation and acceptance of ions) Organic compounds Everything that has carbon is an inorganic compound EXCEPT CO2 and CO Includes carbs, lipids and fats Carbohydrates, CHO’S, monosaccharides (simple sugars) simplest form of a carbohydrate, main energy source linked monosaccharides = disaccharides more than 2 monosaccharides = polysaccharides used in the liver Lipids Triglycerides – healthy fat that are stored, and called on when needed Adipose tissue Phospholipids (important in cell structure) Polar head (going to have a charge to it that is going to attract it to other bodies), the tail (has no charge) Hydrophilic head (attracted to water), hydrophobic (wants to be away from water) Protein Building block for structure of the body Focus on contractile protein If you don’t have enough protein in your lipids etc..then the body starts pulling it from the muscle 20 amino acids, all look different components of amino acids (AMIN group (the purple), carboxyl group(the red), and in the middle, we have the R…which differentiates between the 20 amino acid groups [Slide 19] phases of protein structure (first phase: building it, not until the fourth sheet that is it doing it’s function) Primary structure - lining up amino acids beside one another until a long chain is formed Secondary – charge between their R groups form, R groups bond, which creates a shape change (either we get a alpha helix- rotated or we get a beta sheet-looks like a paper folding to make a fan) 1st – individual amino acid 2nd – R groups attract to one another and change shape (still ONE chain, just that we had a shape chain) Polypeptide chain * Fan shape* 3rd – polypeptide chain is changed into a different shape (alpha or beta shape) alpha or beta sheet fold on itself, still a SINGLE chain…meaning not functional as a amino acid 4th- more than one chain are joined, now we get a function from the amino acid ATP Energy currency of our bodies Use ATP for chemical reactions We have ATP (full energy) and ADP (little bit reduced) Cells Plasma membrane: phospholipid bi-layer (controls whats inside and outside) Cytoplasm: Nucleus: brain of the cell, every cell will have a nucleus, what’s inside a nucleus is what makes it different from another Extracellular materials 2 categories (in the call: intracellular, anything outside the cell: extracellular) Interstitial fluid, blood, CSF (fluid that baths spinal cord + brain) Found in the plasma membrane (cholesterol) Transport across the plasma membrane Think of ATP has a toll DIRECTION: high concentration to low concentration Passive transport, simple diffusion High to low concentration Ex: a river being stopped by a side has high concentration, while the other has low Facilitated Diffusion (carrier-mediated) Use a carrier to assist in the passage of the molecule Channel-mediated Osmosis Passive transport (4 ways, requires no energy) Active transport Requires energy Moving substances across the concentration gradient

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