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sociology 1000 exam 1
University of Lethbridge
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Narratives TAP THE CARD TO FLIP IT Stories that reflect the lives and views of the tellers TAP THE ARROWS BELOW TO ADVANCE Sociology The social science that studies development, structure, and functioning of human society Nice work! You just studied 155 terms! Start over Narratives Stories that reflect the lives and views of the tellers Sociology The social science that studies development, structure, and functioning of human society Sociological Imagination (as described by C. Wright Mills) the capacity to shift from perspective of the personal experience to the grander, societal scale that has caused or influenced that personal experience. Social Institution a complex group of interdependent positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time. (like a grand narrative) Founding Fathers of Sociology Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, (Georg Simmel?) Aguste Comte positivism: it is the job of the sociologist to develop secular morality & that human society went through 3 epistemological stages Protestant Work Ethic (As described by Weber) a set of values embodied by early Protestantism, believed to have led to the development of modern capitalism. Capital Marx's terms for the owners of the means of production (or capital, as these were known during the industrial era) Structural-Functionalist A sociological approach that examines the way social systems operate by viewing those systems in terms of the various parts or structures of which they are made. Views society as being like a human body, made up of different structures, with each having a vital function in ensuring the survival of the whole body. (Durkheim & Talcott Parsons) Social Fact Durkheim's term for a patterned way of acting, thinking, and feeling that exits outside of the individual but exerts control over all people. Manifest Functions (as described by Merton) the intended and widely recognized function of a social process or institution. These are explicit and stated, versus latent functions which are hidden or hinted at. Latent Functions (as described by Merton) the largely unintended and unrecognized positive function of a social process or institution. Latent Dysfunctions Produces socially negative consequences Conflict Theory A sociological perspective espousing the view that complex societies are made up of groups in conflict, with one or more groups dominating or oppressing the others. Class Marx's term for a socioeconomic group defied either relationally - that is, in Marxist terms, with respect to their relationship to the means of production - or absolutely, in terms of access to socially valued goods such as money, education, and respect. Symbolic Interactionism A view of social behavior that looks at the meaning of daily social interactions, including the words and gestures we use and how these are interpreted by others. Macrosociology An approach to sociological inquiry that involves looking at the large-scale structure and dynamics of society as a whole Microsciology An approach sociology that focuses not on the grand scale of society, but on plants, motivations, and actions of the individual of a specific group. Total Institutions (as described by Goffman) institutions such as the military, hospitals, and asylums that regulate all aspects of an individuals life. Standpoint Theory (as described by D. Smith) the view that knowledge is developed from a particular lived position, or "standpoint", making objectivity impossible. Objective A supposed quality of scientific research that is not influenced by emotions, personality, or particular life experiences of the individual scientist. It better applies to the physical sciences - physics, chemistry, biology, etc. - than to the social sciences. Subjective Denoting theories, beliefs, and opinions influenced by emotions, personality, and particular life experiences of the individual. The term is used in opposing ways: some sociologists discredit observation that is "merely subjective" rather than "objective fact"; all "facts" are to some degree subjective but hide behind the mask of objectivity Ideology A relatively coherent set of interrelated beliefs about society and the people in it. Totalitarian Discourse Any discourse that makes a universal claim about how all knowledge and understanding can be achieved. Discourse A conceptual framework with its own internal logic and underlying assumptions. Different disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, have their own discourses. Archaeology of Knowledge Foucault's term for the process of "digging down" to find out how a piece of information was constructed, typically in order to discover or expose flaws in the way supposed facts or truths were established. Professional Sociology Sociology that involves research typically designed to generate highly specific information, often with the aim of applying it to a particular problem or intellectual question. Its usual audience is the academic world of sociology departments, academic journals, professional associations, and conferences. Critical Sociology Sociology that challenges both established sociological theories and the research that sociologists do. Policy Sociology The use of sociological research and data to produce social change, especially through government or corporate policy. Public Sociology (as described by H. Gans) sociology that addresses an audience outside of the academy. It is presented in a language that can be understood by the college educated reader, without the dense style of the academic paper or journal, and expresses concern for a breadth of sociological subjects. Ethnography A research method, shared by sociology and social anthropology, in which communities or groups are studied through extensive fieldwork. Ethnography requires the researcher to participate daily in the lives of the subjects, observing their actions and asking questions. Political Economy An interdisciplinary approach that involves sociology, political science, economics, law, anthropology, and history. It looks primarily at the relationship between politics and the economics surrounding the production, distribution, and consumption of goods. Cultural Mosaic A metaphor for any society in which individual ethnic groups are able to maintain distinctive identities. Melting Pot A metaphor for a country in which immigrants are believed or expected to lose their cultural distinctiveness and assimilate into the dominant society. Vertical Mosaic (as described by J. Pointer) a metaphor used to describe a society or nation in which there is a hierarchy of higher and lower ethnic groups. Positivism The belief that every rational assertion can be verified by scientific proof. Insider Perspectives The viewpoints of those who experience the subject being studied or written about. Outsider Perspectives The viewpoints of those outside of the group or culture being studied. The outsider perspective was once considered a privileged position, with the outsider viewed as an expert. Quantitative Research The close examination of social elements that can be counted or measured, and therefore used to generate statistics. Qualitative Research The close examination of characteristics that cannot be counted or measured. Ethnography A research method, shared by sociology and social anthropology; in which communities or groups are studied through extensive fieldwork. Ethnography requires the researcher to participate daily in the lives of the subjects, observing their actions and asking questions. Participant-Observation A form of research in sociology and anthropology that entails both observing people as an outsider would and actively participating in the various activities of the studied people's lives. It is usually employed in undertaking an ethnography. Informants A person knowledgeable in his or her own culture who provides his or her views of the culture to an outside researcher. Institutional Ethnography A form of ethnography that challenges the need for a neutral stance in sociological research, claiming instead that any institution or organization can be seen as having two sides: one representing the ruling interests of the organization, one representing the interests of those working for the organization. Ruling Interests The interests of the organization, particularly its administration or the interests of those who are dominant in society. Ruling Relations The conformity of works to the rules and practices of the organizations they work for; ruling relations are activated when workers fulfill the organization's ruling interests. Narrative Stories that reflect the lives and the views of the teller Triangulation The use of at least three narratives, theoretical perspectives, or investigators to examine the same phenomenon. Content Analysis A study of a set of cultural artifacts or events by systematically counting them and interpreting the themes they reflect. Discourse Analysis An approach to analyzing a conversation, a speech, or a written text. Geneaology A form of discourse analysis that involves tracing the origin and history of modern discourses. The term is sometimes considered interchangeable with the archeaology of knowledge. Orientalism A discourse about the Middle East and the Far East constructed by outsider "experts" from the West. Operational Definition The definition of an abstract quality, in such a way that it can be counted for statistical purposes. Poverty A state of doing or being without what are considered essentials. Poverty Line The arbitrary dividing point, usually based in household income, that separates the poor from the rest of society, It can differ according to the cost of living in the studied environment, and it may differ for urban and rural communities. It can also vary according to the political biases of the person drawing the line. Relative Poverty A state of poverty based on a comparison with others in the immediate area or country. Low Income Cutoffs LICOSA measure of poverty derived by calculating the percentage of a family's income spent on food, clothing, and shelter. Low Income Measure LIMIAT A measure of poverty calculated by identifying those households with total incomes (after taxes) half that of the median income in Canada Variable (Independent & Dependent) A factor or element that is likely to vary or change according to the circumstances governing it. Correlation (Direct/Positive & Inverse/Negative) A mutual relationship or interdependence among variables Causation The relationship between cause and effect Spurious Reasoning The perception of correlation between two factors that are wrongly seen as cause and effect. Third Variable A variable that causes two or more variables to relate. Anomie Durkheim's term for a societal state of breakdown or confusion, or a more personal one based on an individual;s lack of connection or contact with society. Culture A social system comprising behavior, beliefs, knowledge, practices, values, and material such as buildings, tools, and sacred times. Contested Describing a practice whose moral goodness, or badness, normalcy, or deviance, or general predominance, is disputed by some members of society. Authenticity The quality of being true to the traditions of a people. Authenticity is often contested by the modern representatives of the people themselves and "experts" from outside the community. Dominant Culture The culture that through its political and economic power is able to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving and interpreting behavior on a given society. Counter Cultures Groups that reject selected elements of the dominant culture, such as clothing styles or sexual norms. Subcultures A group that is organized around occupation or hobbies differing from those of the dominant culture but that is not engaged in any significant opposition to the dominant culture. Cultural Capitals (as described by Bourdieu) the knowledge and skills required to develop the sophisticated tastes that mark someone as a person of high culture and upper class. Popular Culture Commercial culture based on popular taste Cultural Studies A field of study drawing on both the social sciences and the humanities to cast academic light on the meanings expressed in popular culture and their significance. Agency The capacity to influence what happens in one's life. Mass Culture The culture of the majority; when that culture is produced by big companies and powerful governments Simulacra (as described by J. Baudrillard) cultural images, often in the form of stereotypes, that are produced and reproduced like material goods or commodities by the media and sometimes by academics. Victimology Generally, the study of victims of crime and psychological effects on them of their experience; in sociology it often refers to the way a person is portrayed as the victim of some event or situation, in a way that downplays or denies the person's agency, the ability to control his or her circumstances. Decipherment The process of examining a text to discover its true meaning, which often involves looking beyond the explicit message to discover the intent of the individual or organization that produced it. Norms Rules or standards of behaviour that are expected of a group, society, or culture. Positive & Negative Sanction Positive - ways of rewarding people for following the norms of a society. Negative - ways of punishing people who contravene cultural norms. Folkways Norms that in the usual course of events one should not violate. They are the least respected and mostly weakly sanctioned norms. Mores (as described by W. Sumner) rules that one "must not" violate. Some of these are enshrined in the criminal code as laws; violation of mores often results in shock, sever disapproval, or punishment. Taboo A norm so deeply ingrained that the mere thought or mention of it is enough to arouse disgust or revulsion. An example is incest Symbols An aspect of a culture that has many strings of meaning that are unique to that culture. Values Those features held up by a culture as good, right, desirable, and admirable. Typically contested. Patriarchy A social system in which men hold political, cultural, and social power. Patriarchy is visible in societies where only male political leaders are elected and where the media and the arts are dominated by male views. Ethnocentrism The belief that one culture is the absolute standard by which other cultures should be judged. Indigenous (adj.) originating in the country or region where found, native; inborn; inherent Eurocentrism Generally the belief that "European" (western and northern European plus North American), culture is superior to other cultures; more specifically in sociology the use of a European viewpoint to address others, often with the assumption that the audience shares that viewpoint. Reverse Ethnocentrism A situation in which individuals set up a culture other than their own as the absolute standard by which to judge their own culture. Noble Savage The romantic belief that indigenous people, or savages are superior in outlook and lifestyle because they don't believe in the industrialized and urbanized environment if the person invoking the image. Cultural Relativism The view that any aspect of a culture including its practices and beliefs, is best explained within the context of the culture itself, not by the standard or ways of another culture. Dialect A version of a language, usually with a unique set of features and a socially identifiable group of speakers. Sociolinguistics (as described by W. Labov) the study of language as a social marker of status or general distinctiveness, or the study of how different languages conceptualize the world. C. Wright Mills Coined the term Sociological Imagination (1916-1962) Ibn Khaldun First person to carry out a systematic study of sociological subjects. (1332-1406) Max Weber Identified a set of values, the "Protestant Ethic", to which he attributed the rise of capitalism by upending the ethic of virtuous poverty and replacing it with an ideology that saw riches as a sign of divine providence. August Comte Coined the term sociology. A proponent positivist philosophy, he aimed to develop a social science that could be used for social reconstruction. 1798-1857 Karl Marx The founder of modern communism, he viewed social change in terms of economic factors. Historical Materialism: conflict between classes drives social change Emile Durkheim Among the first to consider society as a legitimate subject of scientific observation, he studied society in terms of "social facts" such as ethics, occupations, and suicide. Anomie: drastic changes in living conditions leads to sense of normlessness. Positivist sociology: the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable reltionships George Herbert Mead Father of "symbolic interactionism" looked at how the self is constructed through personal exchanges with others. Michael Foucault A leader in postmodern theory. Described totalitarian discourse. (1926-1984). Georg Simmel Formal Sociology: a sociology of pure numbers; b/w groups of 2, 3, etc. American Sociology Brought by Chicago School: humans' behaviors and personalities are shaped by their social and physical environments-->social ecology. George Mead and Charles Cooley: theory of social self, how environment shapes the individual W. E. B. Dubois Double consciousness: taking the external opinions of often racially prejudiced onlookers into consideration Functionalism The best way to analyze society is to identify the roles that different aspects or phenomena play. The functions may be manifest (explicit) or latent (hidden). Society is like a living organism, each part of which serves an important role in keeping society together. Conflict theory competition, not consensus, is the basic, animating force of society Feminist Theory emphasis on women's experiences...sociology/society subordinate women Postmodernism There is no one version of history that is correct Midrange theory attempts to predict how certain social institutions tend to function. Predictions that can be tested by analyzing the real world. Quantitative methods seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form Qualitative methods attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form Deductive approach starts with theory, hypothesis, empirical observations, analyze, modify Inductive approach empirical observations, form a theory Causality to be established, need: correlation, time order, and ruling out alternative explanations Dependent variable outcome you are trying to explain Independent variable measured factors that you believe have a causal impact on the dependent variable Operationalization process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study Reflexivity relationship to research subjects Comparative research researcher compares two or more entities with the intent of learning more about the factors that differ between them Cultural relativism taking into account differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value Subculture groups united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to the members of that group Socialization our internalization of society's values, beliefs, and norms-->the process by which you learn how to become a functioning member of society Reflection theory culture is a projection of social structures and relationships into the public sphere Hegemony a historical process in which a dominant group exercise moral and intellectual leadership throughout society by winning the voluntary consent of popular masses (opposite of domination) Culture jamming act of turning media against themselves, based on notion that advertisements are basically propaganda Self develops through a social process Role strain the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status Role conflict the tension cause by competing demands between two or more roles within different statuses Dyad relationship of two: dependent on one another Triad Mediator, tertius gaudens (profits from disagreement of the other two), divide et impera (intentionally drives wedge between the other two parties) Small group 4 factors: face-to-face interaction, unifocal, lack of formal arrangements or roles, equality Party multifocal Large group formal structure, status differentiation Embeddedness the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network Social capital the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in them Isomorphism constraining process that forces one unit in a population to resemble other units that face the same set of environmental conditions Segmental solidarity based on the sameness of the individual parts Organic solidarity based on interdependence because the members in this type of social body perform different, specialized functions, and this increased mutual dependence among the parts is what allows for the smooth functioning of the whole Altruistic suicide because a group dominates the life of the individual to such a degree that he or she feels meaningless aside from the social recognition Anomic suicide from the insufficient social regulation Fatalistic suicide when a person experiences too much social regulation Merton's strain theory when a society holds out the same goals to all its members but does not give them equal ability to achieve these goals Conformist accepts the goals and strategies to achieve those goals that are considered socially acceptable Ritualist person who rejects socially defined goals but not the means Innovator accepts socially defined goals but not the means Retreatists stop participating in society Rebel rejects goals and traditional means but wants to change or destroy the social institutions from which he or she is alienated Symbolic interactionism takes seriously our inner thoughts and everyday interactions with one another, including how others see us and how we respond to our surroundings Labeling theory individuals subconsciously notice how others see or label them, and their reactions to those labels over time form the basis of their self identity White collar crime committed by a professional in his or her capacity in the professional world Corporate crime type of white collar crime that are offenses committed by the officers of a corporation Deterrence theory crime results from a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of criminal activity Recidivism the reversion of an individual to criminal behavior after involvement with the criminal justice system Asch Test Group conformity: groups have strong influences over individual behavior See more

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