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GPY 100 Exam 2 Study Guide

Grand Valley State University : GVSU
Uploaded: 3 weeks ago
Contributor: ryann
Category: Geography
Type: Test / Midterm / Exam
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Filename:   GPY 100 Exam Two Study Guide .docx (43.71 kB)
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Chapter 7 ________ have the most dynamic and changeable day-to-day weather on Earth. Correct Latitudes affected by fronts ________ is a distinguishing feature of thunderstorms. Correct An anvil top ________ is the time of day when tornadoes are most likely to occur. Correct Mid-afternoon 90 percent of all reported tornadoes take place in the United States. Correct TRUE A cold front may advance faster than its parent middle latitude cyclone. Correct TRUE A mature middle latitude cyclone takes on the shape of a ________. Correct wave A midlatitude anticyclone ________. Correct is associated with sunny, dry weather A speed of 40 kilometers per hour is typical of the movement of a middle latitude cyclone across the landscape. Correct TRUE A tornado is identical to a waterspout. Correct FALSE A typical air mass extends more than 1,600 kilometers in diameter. Correct TRUE A waterspout tends to have a lesser internal pressure gradient than a tornado. Correct TRUE A weak migratory low pressure trough which is common in the low latitudes is often called a(n) ________. Correct easterly wave A(n) ________ is the name for a tornado does not reach the ground. Correct funnel cloud According to the "People and the Environment" section about devastating 2011 tornadoes, ________. Correct many, many EF-5 tornadoes occurred According to the "People and the Environment" section about lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina, ________. Correct it is unclear whether New Orleans is protected from all sizes of hurricanes Air masses labeled "polar" tend to be unstable. Correct FALSE Air near the Pacific coast of the southwestern United States is usually ________ than air over the Gulf Coast of the United States. Correct more stable An average air mass is on the order of ________ kilometers in diameter. Correct 1,600 An easterly wave is on the order of ________ kilometers long. Correct a few hundred An occluded front forms part of which of the following? Correct an extratropical cyclone As a middle latitude cyclone goes through its life cycle, the warm sector ________. Correct gets smaller As a rule, thunderstorms are unknown poleward of ________ latitude. Correct 60° At any given time, how many extratropical cyclones might one expect to be in existence in the Northern Hemisphere? Correct 6 to 15 At any given time, how many extratropical cyclones might one expect to be in existence in the Northern Hemisphere? Correct 6 to 15 Concerning midlatitude anticyclones, which of the following is FALSE? Correct They contain air mass conflict. Cyclogenesis occurs along the________. Correct polar front Easterly waves are usually associated with polar high pressure. Correct FALSE Every minute, there are about 6,000 flashes of lightning produced by Earth's thunderstorms. Correct TRUE Fronts are located ________. Correct at the edges of air masses Fronts typically lean with height so that they slope at so low an angle as to be much closer to horizontal than vertical in their orientation. Correct TRUE Hurricane Katrina's damage was so great because the storm intensified just as it reached New Orleans. Correct TRUE Hurricane Katrina's greatest damage came from storm surge and flooding. Correct TRUE Hurricanes have their greatest wind speeds within the eyewall. Correct TRUE In a midlatitude anticyclone, where are the strongest winds usually found? Correct near the eastern edge In a warm front, warm air pushes underneath cold air. Correct FALSE In hurricanes, surface winds converge towards the center while winds aloft diverge away from the center. Correct TRUE In order to be classified as a hurricane, sustained wind velocity must exceed ________ kilometers per hour (mph). Correct 119 (74) In the Conveyor Belt Model, the dry slot is ________. Correct bringing descending air into the cyclone In the Focus section about "Weather Radar," the latest improvement on the U.S. Government's radar NEXRAD system is the ________. Correct dual polarization In the last decade or so there has been ________. Correct an increase in the number of hurricanes In which frontal type is there no "aggressor" air mass? Correct stationary It can be said that along all the fronts in a middle latitude cyclone, ________. Correct air rises Katrina was the ________ hurricane ever to hit the United States. Correct most costly Maritime Tropical air is a common air mass affecting the eastern United States. Correct TRUE Midlatitude cyclones and anticyclones function as migratory features in the ________. Correct westerlies Midlatitude cyclones tend to pass over North America going from east to west. Correct FALSE More than 80% of hurricanes originate on the poleward side of the ________. Correct intertropical convergence zone Most middle latitude cyclones occur ________. Correct downstream of an upper level pressure trough Most midlatitude cyclones have ________ . Correct paths determined by the upper flow Most tornadoes are classified as ________. Correct moderate New Orleans is prone to hurricane flooding because it is lower than the level of the Mississippi River. Correct TRUE NEXRAD radars use the Doppler effect to detect features in thunderstorms. Correct TRUE North America does not contain air mass source regions. Correct FALSE Of the air masses below, the coldest, driest ones are termed ________. Correct continental Polar Of the list below, the coldest air is bound to be associated with a(n) ________ air mass. Correct cP Of the regions of the United States, which has the highest incidence of tornadoes? Correct Central States On a NEXRAD computer screen, indications of strong winds flowing towards the radar adjacent to strong winds flowing away from the radar is evidence of a(n) ________ within a thunderstorm and would cause the radar operator to issue a tornado warning. Correct mesocyclones On a weather map, a symbol consisting of triangles arranged along one side of a line indicates a(n) ________ front. Correct cold Rain clouds associated with a cold front can be found hundreds of kilometers ahead of the front. Correct FALSE Stable anticyclones act as a ________ to moving cyclones. Correct block Temperature is usually the key difference between air masses separated by a front. Correct TRUE The "eye" of the hurricane is a zone characterized by ________. Correct sinking air The 1-5 scale rating of hurricane intensity is the ________ scale. Correct Saffir-Simpson The ability of NEXRAD to distinguish mesocyclones in thunderstorms is dependent upon ________. Correct the Doppler effect The average directional movement of hurricanes is ________. Correct east to west The average hurricane exists, on the average, for about ________. Correct one week The beginning of a middle latitude cyclone is known as ________. Correct cyclogenesis The correct designation for a hurricane is as a(n) ________. Correct tropical cyclone The cumulus stage is the first stage in the formation of a thunderstorm. Correct TRUE The damage done in New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina was mainly a result of ________. Correct flooding from the failure of levees The desert would be the obvious zone of origin of a(n) ________ air mass. Correct cT The energy source of hurricanes is ________. Correct warm seawater The Enhanced Fujita Scale was adopted in 2007. It is based on estimates of 3-second gusts of wind as estimated by ________. Correct tornado damage The global westerly wind zone most heavily impacts the ________ latitudes. Correct middle The greatest annual number of hailstorms can be found in ________. Correct Colorado The month most likely for a hurricane to occur in the Northern Hemisphere is ________. Correct September The most active phase of a thunderstorm is called the ________ phase. Correct mature The movement (track along the ground) of middle latitude cyclones is determined by ________. Correct the jet stream The normal tendency is for cold fronts to move into and displace the warm sector of a midlatitude cyclone. Correct TRUE The part of the hurricane characterized by scattered high clouds and light winds is known as the ________. Correct eye The paths of long-lasting hurricanes tend to curve poleward around the subtropical highs. Correct TRUE The slope of a warm front averages 1 200. Correct TRUE The term "tropical disturbance" cannot be applied to which of the following storm types? Correct wave cyclone The warmest air can be found in the ________ air mass. Correct cT Thunderstorms are more common over continents than oceans. Correct TRUE Thunderstorms are violent ________ storms accompanied by thunder and lightning. Correct convective Thunderstorms DO NOT usually accompany ________. Correct anticyclones Thunderstorms often accompany the warm sector ahead of cold fronts. Correct TRUE To be officially considered a hurricane, sustained wind speed must be at least 119 kilometers per hour (74 mph). Correct TRUE Tornado tracks tend to be in a straight line and north to south in the United States. Correct FALSE Tornadoes contain extreme pressure gradients. They are thought to be on the order of ________ millibars from the outside to the inside of the storm. Correct 100 Tornadoes, although erratic in their pathways, are always characterized by ________ pressure. Correct low Tropical cyclones tend to cause the greatest loss of life on the ________. Correct Bay of Bengal. What process seems to weaken hurricanes? Correct eyewall replacement When air masses come together, warm air rises over cold air. Correct TRUE Where is a place where tropical cyclones DO NOT form? Correct South Atlantic Which country is the most likely place on Earth for a tornado to occur? Correct The United States Which front is shown on weather maps as a line with alternating semicircles and triangles on the same side of the line? Correct occluded front Which is NOT true of BOTH midlatitude cyclones and midlatitude anticyclones? Correct They contain subsiding air. the length of the life cycle of a typical midlatitude cyclone? Correct 1 week Which of the following happens LAST before tornado drops to the ground? Correct formation of a mesocyclone Which of the following is a normal slope for a warm front? Correct 1 400 Which of the following is CLOSEST to the WIDTH of a front at Earth's surface? Correct 10 kilometers Which of the following is NOT an ideal air mass source region? Correct the Rocky Mountains west of Denver Which of the following is NOT NECESSARILY a property of an air mass? Correct It must travel as a recognizable entity. Which of the following is the least likely zone of formation for a large air mass? Correct the U.S. Midwest Which of the following occurs most frequently? Correct an easterly wave Which of the following represents a typical count of confirmed tornadoes for a year in the United States? Correct 1,000 Which of the following statements does NOT correctly describe the U.S. distribution of midlatitude cyclones? Correct More occur in the summer than in the winter. Which of the following would be a common diameter for a tornado? Correct 100 meters Which stage of a thunderstorm is associated with the coexistence of updrafts and downdrafts? Correct mature stage Which type of cloud is the associated with a thunderstorm? Correct cumulonimbus Worldwide, hurricanes have caused more loss of life than tornadoes. Correct TRUE Chapter 8 ________ is a location in Anarctica where paleoclimatologic research is being conducted. Correct Dome C "Continentality" is a term most closely associated with which climatic type? Correct D A capital W means the same thing as a lowercase w in the Köppen climatic classification. Correct FALSE A Cfa climate exists on the southeastern coast of the United States. Which climate type exists on the southwestern coast of the United States? Correct Csa A climograph Correct can be used to classify climate. A major feature of the mediterranean climate is a dry winter. Correct FALSE A moulin is an opening into which meltwater seeps into an ice sheet. Correct FALSE A prime characteristic of tropical wet climates is the low average annual temperature range. Correct TRUE A small island on the Equator would most likely be classified ________. Correct Af Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere and the maximum precipitation in its Csa climate type falls in the month of ________. Correct June City A and City B are located far apart at the same latitude. City A has a much greater annual temperature range than City B. The most likely explanation for this fact is that City A. Correct is in a more continental climate than City B. Currently, ________ is rising, partly because of the melting of glaciers. Correct sea level Decreasing sea ice seems to be affecting the polar bear population. Correct TRUE Deserts are arid; steppes are ________. Correct semiarid For many centuries before the present one, scholars believed that the world had ________ climatic zones. Correct 5 For the ENTIRE last 10,000 years Earth temperatures can be characterized as ________. Correct warm and fairly steady For the most part, the Af climates are the windiest on Earth. Correct FALSE Global climate models are used to anticipate future climates. Correct TRUE Global warming is expected to be greatest in the midlatitudes where humans generate most of the greenhouse gases. Correct FALSE Great distances from oceanic moisture sources and blockage of moist flow by topography are both associated with dryness in the ________ Desert. Correct Central Asian he Köppen system of climate classification is based on ________. Correct temperature and precipitation Icecap climates often have very strong winds blowing off of their surfaces. Correct TRUE In an Af climate, what time of day is precipitation most likely? Correct at mid-afternoon In midlatitude desert (BWk) climates, the ________ temperature is greater than in subtropical desert (BWh) climates. Correct annual range of In mountainous areas, which term refers to the vertical zone of "frozen land" at high elevation? Correct tierra helada In North America, the steppe climate is far more extensive than the desert climate. Correct TRUE In terms of general location of a climate, in what place would one expect to find a humid continental climate in the U.S.? Correct the Great Lakes (Buffalo, New York) In the Arctic, sea ice coverage Correct has dramatically declined in recent decades. In the BS climatic types the "S" stands for ________. Correct steppe In the Df and Dw climates, winter precipitation mainly originates from ________. Correct midlatitude cyclones In the highland or H climates latitude is a less important factor than altitude and exposure as a climate control. Correct TRUE In the tropical humid climate, precipitation is mainly ________. Correct convective In the tropical monsoonal climates, summer is NOT the warmest season because summer has ________. Correct increased cloudiness In the western United States the oceanic influence of the Pacific Ocean does not penetrate very far beyond the coastline. Correct TRUE In tropical regions the "winter" season is merely the ________ period. Correct low Sun It is possible for a desert to receive more precipitation than a humid region and still be arid. Correct TRUE Latitude seems to be the most important control of highland climates. Correct FALSE Lifting of the trade winds by mountains causes the tropical wet climate to be developed farther poleward on east-facing coasts than on west-facing coasts. Correct TRUE Looking at the world climate map, there are more square kilometers of A climates in ________ than in any other region. Correct Africa Mediterranean climates experience dry summers because of ________. Correct the position of subtropical high pressure Mediterranean climates receive almost all their precipitation from cyclonic storms. Correct TRUE Of the main Köppen climate zones, ________ is the only one that does not occur in the Southern Hemisphere. Correct D On the "hypothetical continent" showing climate types, it is obvious that factors other than latitude help to make the patterns. Correct TRUE On which continent is the intertropical convergence furthest from the Equator in the summer season? Correct Asia Over the ENTIRE past 70 million years there has been ________. Correct a global cooling Precipitation is very regular and about the same from month to month in the C climates. Correct FALSE Presently, the most widely used classification system was derived by ________. Correct Wladimir Köppen Rainfall is absent in Cfb climates in the summer. Correct FALSE Satellite images show Arctic lands becoming ________. Correct greener Some E climates give rise to tundra vegetation. Correct TRUE Steppe climates can be thought of as occupying transitional positions between deserts and ________. Correct humid climates Study of global warming indicates that humans are causing some of it. Correct TRUE Subtropical deserts are so dry because of ________ associated with the presence of the STH's. Correct subsidence The ________ climatic type has, by far, the smallest annual temperature range of any climatic type. Correct Af The A climatic zone is universally rainy throughout its extent on Earth. Correct FALSE The ancient Greeks were well aware of the actual nature of the climates near the Equator. Correct FALSE The ancient Greeks were well aware that different places on Earth had different climates. Correct TRUE The area most closely associated with D climates is ________. Correct Canada The B climates are the only group in the Köppen system to be categorized by the lack of moisture. Correct TRUE The BWh climate is "caused" by the Correct subtropical highs. The classic marine west-coast climate is the ________. Correct Cfb The climate classification used by the textbook is the Correct modified Köppen climate classification. The concept of climate involves almost continuous variation of temperature and other variables. Correct TRUE The current rise in global sea level can be attributed to ________. Correct melting of glaciers The desire to simplify, organize, and generalize the vast array of climatic data into a comprehensible system that helps us understand the distribution of climates over Earth leads to ________. Correct classification The difference between midlatitude and tropical deserts is the prevalence of lower winter temperatures in the midlatitude. Correct TRUE The driest desert in the world is the Atacama in Chile. Correct TRUE The E climates are, by definition, summerless. Correct FALSE The greatest day-to-day and seasonal contrasts of climate are found in the ________ climates. Correct middle latitude The Greek classification of climate included Correct all of the above. The hottest places on Earth are ________. Correct not correctly described above The humid subtropical (Cfa) climatic type is usually located on the western sides of continents. Correct FALSE The Köppen system of climate classification is based on ________. Correct temperature and precipitation The largest absolute difference between the coldest and hottest ever recorded at one location is more than 1100°C (150°F). Correct TRUE The lowercase letter symbolizing "moist, with no dry season" in the Köppen classification system is ________. Correct f The lowest temperature ever recorded was recorded in Antarctica. Correct TRUE The main reason for the occurrence of subtropical deserts around the world is ________. Correct locations of anticyclones The maximum poleward extent of Af climates is found ________. Correct on east coasts of continents The maximum poleward extent of tropical wet climate is along the west coasts of continents. Correct FALSE The mediterranean climate occurs in the eastern portions of the continents. Correct FALSE The midlatitude steppe fits into the Köppen classification as ________. Correct BSk The modified Köppen climate classification as used in the textbook includes ________ major climate groups. Correct 6 The most extensive of all the A climates is the tropical savannah. Correct TRUE The mountain, or H climates, exhibit ________. Correct vertical zonation The one-year record rainfall took place in a ________ climate type. Correct monsoon The poleward limits of the Aw climate are approximately equivalent to Correct poleward maximum migration of the ITC. The presence of the cold Humboldt current and the Andes Mountains help to create the coastal ________ Desert. Correct Atacama The text makes frequent use of ________ which are charts showing average monthly temperatures and precipitation amounts. Correct climographs The three climate zones of the classical Greeks were "torrid", "temperate", and "________". Correct frigid The tropical monsoon climate bears a letter classification of Correct Am. The tropical savanna has three seasons. Correct TRUE The United States exceeds China in the per capita amount of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere. Correct TRUE The world record for greatest precipitation received in a single year is on the order of ________ centimeters. Correct 2,600 The world's greatest annual average temperature range is in a Dfd climate in ________. Correct Yakutsk, Siberia The world's highest average annual precipitation is associated with a mountain in Hawaii where a total of CLOSEST TO ________ centimeters is received. Correct 1,000 The world's highest recorded absolute temperature was in the United States. Correct FALSE The world's highest recorded temperature was in Libya and closest to ________ degrees Celsius. Correct 58 The world's largest expanse of middle latitude dry climates is on the continent of ________. Correct Eurasia The world's record for greatest average annual precipitation is held by Mt. Waialeali, Hawaii. Correct TRUE The world's record lowest average annual precipitation is on the continent of: Correct South America. Throughout the ET climates, ________ is/are very prevalent. Correct radiation fogs To the Greeks, their land fell within the ________ zone in their early classification of climate. Correct temperate Tropical wet climates are the hottest on Earth. Correct FALSE Vertical zonation is particularly prominent in which region? Correct tropical highlands Which climate type is known for clear skies in the summertime? Correct Csa Which climatic type is dominated by the westerly winds throughout the year so there are frequent weather changes? Correct Dfa Which climatic type is most closely associated with the smallest average daily ranges of temperature? Correct ET Which of the following climate type takes up the most land area? Correct B Which of the following climate types is found at the highest latitudes? Correct marine west coast Which of the following climates does NOT have a summer wetter than its winter? Correct Mediterranean Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of desert climates? Correct Precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the midlatitude desert climate type? Correct a winter maximum of precipitation Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the tropical humid climates? Correct The intertropical convergence zone is rarely overhead. Which of the following is NOT a climate type found in South America? Correct D Which of the following is TRUE of the highland (H) climates? Correct All of the above are true. Which of the following would be an expected average annual precipitation total in a marine west coast climate? Correct 100 centimeters With coastal climates isotherms tend to ________. Correct parallel the coast Chapter 9 ________ is making the oceans progressively acidic.Correct Carbonic acid "Hygroscopic water" refers to all water stored beneath the Earth's surface. Correct FALSE "Sea" is a synonym for "ocean." Correct FALSE A single oscillation of the tides (from low tide to high tide and back again) takes about ________ hours. Correct 12 A single oscillation of the tides (from low tide to high tide and back again) takes about A swamp and a marsh ________. Correct are sometimes related to the infilling of a lake A wall of sea water rushing up into an embayment is called ________. Correct a tidal bore A water molecule is composed of ________ atom(s). Correct 3 About ________ percent of all evaporated moisture comes from the land surface. Correct 14 According to the textbook, our knowledge of the oceans is ________. Correct fairly limited until recently After the Great Lakes, North America's largest freshwater lake is ________. Correct Great Bear Lake All of Earth's frozen water is called the ________. Correct cryosphere An ice shelf is a flattish, tabular mass of ice unattached to the land. Correct FALSE Approximately ________ percent of all atmospheric water comes from ocean surfaces. Correct 86 Approximately ________ percent of the Earth's lake water is salty. Correct 40 Aquifers are composed of highly permeable rocks. Correct TRUE As a landscape feature, natural lakes should be viewed as temporary in the context of Earth history. Correct TRUE At any moment, most of the world's surface water is in streams and rivers. Correct FALSE Biological water (water in living organisms) constitutes what percentage of water in the Earth system? Correct less than 1% Clay has a high ________ and low ________ because it has a great many, small interstices. Correct porosity, permeability Clay is both ________ and ________. Correct porous, non-permeable Earth's "world ocean" contains ________ cubic kilometers of salt water. Correct 1.32 billion Europe's longest river is the ________. Correct Volga Geographically speaking, the most important currents ________. Correct are the flows making up the oceans' general circulations Glaciers comprise about two percent of the total moisture on Earth. Correct TRUE GRACE is a German/NASA project that monitors ________. Correct groundwater levels Ice floats on liquid water. Correct TRUE Ice has the important characteristic of being less dense than liquid water. Correct TRUE Ice, when it is frozen year-round in the ground, is termed ________. Correct permafrost If all of Earth's glacial water was converted to liquid, the amount would be sufficient to supply the world's main rivers for ________ year(s). Correct 900 In a year, farmers in the American Southwest use many times as much water from groundwater as is recharged to the groundwater. Correct TRUE In Las Vegas, Nevada, the groundwater supply is ________. Correct being depleted In terms of the total global supply of water, how much of it is in circulation at any one time? Correct a small percentage In terms of underground water, the waterless zone generally begins ________. Correct several kilometers under the soil In the middles of the oceans, high tides can best be described as ________. Correct bulges In the oceans, place-to-place differences in water temperature and other characteristics are most prominent ________. Correct near the surface Lake tides, at their peak, are usually no more than ________ of rise and fall. Correct 2 inches Lakes are common in areas which have been recently ________. Correct glaciated Lakes comprise about ________ percent of the globe's unfrozen freshwater surface. Correct 90 Most freshwater lakes have but one surface outlet. Correct TRUE Most of the ice of Antarctica is stored as ________. Correct an ice sheet Most of the lakes in the north central United States exist as a result of ________. Correct glaciation Most of the north Polar region is covered by ________. Correct ice pack Most water on Earth is in ________ form. Correct liquid North America's largest lake is ________. Correct Lake Superior North America's most prominent river system in terms of the area of its drainage basin is the ________. Correct Missouri-Mississippi Of the Earth's liquid water inventory, most of the fresh water is stored in the form of ________. Correct glacial ice On the oceans, there are approximately ________ high tides in 24 hours. Correct 2 Over a span of years, worldwide precipitation will equal total evaporation/transpiration. Correct TRUE Over three-fourths of the world's fresh water is held in the form of ________. Correct glaciers Part of the Ogallala aquifer can be found under Nebraska. Correct TRUE Pumping is necessary for bringing water from subartesian wells to the surface. Correct TRUE Rock through which ground water cannot run or flow is a(n) ________. Correct aquiclude Salinity is lowest in the landlocked seas of hot, dry regions. Correct FALSE Some underground ice forms in lenses or veins in the soil. Correct TRUE Spring tides are defined as those which occur after winter and before summer. Correct FALSE Streams which contain water only a fraction of the time are called ________. Correct ephemeral Surface ocean currents are caused primarily by gravity. Correct FALSE Thawing permafrost sometimes degenerates into ________. Correct wet thermokarst The ________ ice shelf is the largest on Earth. Correct Ross The "world ocean" spreads over ________ of Earth's surface. Correct three-quarters The Amazon has the greatest discharge in the world. Which river has the second greatest discharge? Correct the Zaire (Congo) The Amazon River yields about ________ percent of Earth's total freshwater discharge. Correct 20 The amount of moisture in existence is finite and remains constant over time. Correct TRUE The amount of salt content of ocean water is about ________. Correct 35 parts per thousand The Aral Sea is ________. Correct about to disappear because of the diversion rivers feeding the sea The Arctic Ocean contains about ________ percent of Earth's total ocean water. Correct 4 The average salinity of sea water is about 23 percent of its total weight. Correct FALSE The average salinity of sea water is approximately ________ percent of total mass. Correct 3.5 The deepest oceanic trenches are in which ocean? Correct Pacific The difference between swamps and marshes is mainly one of ________. Correct trees versus grassland The first ________ of the ocean depths exhibit significant differences from place to place. Correct hundred meters The Great Salt Lake in Utah is ________. Correct without a natural drainage outlet The Great Salt Lake of Utah contains most of the world's non-oceanic saline water. Correct FALSE The Indian Ocean is larger than the Atlantic Ocean. Correct FALSE The largest ice shelf on Earth approximates ________ square kilometers. Correct 100,000 The lowest temperature which is found in liquid surface seawater is approximately ________ degrees Celsius. Correct -2 The maximum time water can be excluded from the hydrologic cycle (that is, exist in "storage") is at least ________. Correct hundreds of thousands of years The movement of a wave across the surface of the ocean is a movement of ________ rather than matter. Correct energy The North and South polar ice packs ________ in size during their respective winter seasons. Correct double The ocean's surface has a uniform distribution of salinity concentration. Correct FALSE The oceans contain approximately ________ percent of all water on Earth. Correct 97 The Ogallala aquifer is a massive aquifer beneath California. Correct FALSE The reason land surfaces do not flood and oceans do not dry up as a result of imbalances in the hydrologic cycle is a process called ________. Correct runoff The Sun is associated with some of the gravity causing ocean tides. Correct TRUE The term hydrosphere describes one of the Earth's "spheres" and it includes all of the ________. Correct water in the Earth system The tides migrate following ________ course around the Earth. Correct the Moon's The tides with the maximum tidal elevation are ________ tides. Correct spring The top of permafrost is sometimes called ________. Correct the active layer The top of the saturated zone of ground water is called the ________. Correct water table The total mass of every living thing is more than half water. Correct TRUE The water table is the top of the ________. Correct saturated zone The western sides of oceans are warmer than the eastern sides. Correct TRUE The world's largest lake, fresh or saline, is ________. Correct the Caspian Sea The world's longest river also has the world's largest drainage area. Correct FALSE The world's longest river is the ________. Correct Nile There is twice as much underground water as there is surface water (lakes, streams, etc.) on Earth's land surface. Correct TRUE This sea has shrunk to one-third its former size because of human interference. Correct Aral Tides follow the moon in its revolution around Earth. Correct TRUE Water that is not found in oceans accounts for ________ percent of the world's total water. Correct 2.8 What does the textbook refer to as it describes "most of this movement is like running in place, with little forward progress involved"? Correct waves Which force supplies the energy for percolation? Correct gravity Which of the below best describes water moving through Earth material because of the influence of gravity? Correct percolation Which of the below is NOT generally accepted as an ocean name? Correct Antarctic Which of the below would do most to affect the components of the hydrologic cycle to the greatest extent for the Earth as a whole? Correct the onset of an ice age Which of the following concerning the Ogallala is FALSE? Correct It is the largest water supply in Mexico. Which of the following is found closest to the surface of Earth? Correct the zone of aeration Which of the following is NOT the name of a sea? Correct Indian Which of the following locations is known for its great tidal range? Correct the Bay of Fundy Which of the following storage locations contains the most water? Correct glaciers Which of the oceans has, by far, most of its surface south of the Equator? Correct Indian Which of the world's largest lakes is saline? Correct The Caspian Sea Within each latitudinal zone (tropical, middle, polar), sea surface temperatures are virtually uniform. Correct FALSE Within the zone of saturation is found water known as ________. Correct groundwater Chapter 10 ________ are floating plants or animals. Correct Plankton ________ is a tree which scatters its seeds only after a fire. Correct Southern yellow pine ________ is the term for the total complex of plant and animal life in an area. Correct Biota ________ is/are a common feature of the hydrology of tropical rainforests. Correct Swamps "Biomagnification" refers to the evolutionary process of animals becoming larger through time. Correct FALSE "Exotic" species are those that live in trees. Correct FALSE A carnivorous animal is a primary producer. Correct FALSE A problem with the use of biofuels is ________. Correct there is a food versus fuel debate A(n) ________ is another way in which a food chain can be conceptualized. Correct food pyramid According to the food chain concept, it takes ________ kilograms of plankton to make one kilogram of weight gain for a human. Correct 1,000 Action by microorganisms creates fixed nitrogen. Correct TRUE Amongst the biogeochemical cycles, which one can be said to operate rapidly? Correct carbon dioxide Animal wastes on the ground form a part of the ________ cycle. Correct nitrogen Animals or plants living on the sea bottom are ________. Correct benthos Animals subsisting on smaller animals are called primary consumers. Correct FALSE Approximately how many species of plants are in existence? Correct 600,000 At almost any scale, the most prominent environmental constraints on biota are exerted by various ________ factors. Correct climatic At the global scale, topographic influences are relatively unimportant to biotic distributions. Correct FALSE Atmospheric nitrogen which can be assimilated by plants is ________ nitrogen. Correct fixed Biomagnification is most closely associated with ________. Correct DDT Carbon dioxide and water and light combined to create carbohydrates is a vital portion of which cycle? Correct energy Carbon is fixed in the biosphere through ________ into carbohydrate compounds. Correct photosynthesis Compared to the others, which of the following is the "hardest to pin down"? Correct biosphere Concerning oxygen, which of the following is FALSE? Correct It helped produce the first life on Earth. Concerning the biosphere, the geographic viewpoint is most often concerned with ________. Correct distributions and relationships Considering all major biogeochemical cycles, the human input is ________. Correct making major alternations in most cycles Dentrification converts nitrates into free oxygen in the atmosphere. Correct TRUE Earth has ________ species of animals compared to the number of plant species. Correct many more Fires always endanger a tree's ability to survive. Correct FALSE Fluctuation in the photoperiod stimulates seasonal behavior in both plants and animals. Correct TRUE For about the last ________ years, Earth has had about the same balance of chemical components that now persists. Correct 1 billion Humans fit into the food pyramid as ________. Correct the apex of the pyramid If the biosphere is to function properly, its components must be ________. Correct recycled In most organisms, ________ is the most plentiful substance making up their mass. Correct water In nutrient cycles in general, minerals tend to be dispersed through ________. Correct surface and subsurface runoff In relation to wildfire, the California redwood and the southern yellow pine are ________. Correct plants that need fire to open their cones In studying environmental relationships, which of the following is true? Correct Both interspecific and intraspecific relationships need to be considered. In terms of broad distribution patterns, ________ and ________ have a particularly close correlation. Correct climate, vegetation In the concept of the food chain, the fundamental unit consists of ________. Correct plants In the food chain, a(n) ________ is another term for a consumer. Correct heterotroph In the language of the food chain, herbivorous animals are called ________. Correct primary consumers In the selva, the vegetation is ________. Correct dominated by broadleaf evergreen trees In which type of environment does the number of species tend to be the greatest? Correct places with moderate temperatures It has been calculated that about 0.1 percent of solar radiation is fixed in the biosphere by photosynthesis. Correct TRUE Linnaeus was the author of the most widely used biological taxonomy. Correct TRUE Most carbon has already been released from the Earth's crust to the atmosphere. Correct FALSE Most organisms can exist for months or more without water. Correct FALSE Most plants are able to use nitrogen directly from the atmosphere. Correct FALSE Net primary productivity is greatest on land ________. Correct in the tropics Net primary productivity is measured in ________ per year. Correct kilograms per square meter Of the biogeochemical cycles which have been interfered with by the actions of humans, which is thought to be likely to have the most far-reaching effects on the biosphere? Correct carbon Of the climatic factors, ________ is usually the most limited in its impact on biotic distributions. Correct wind Of the main nutrients in the biosphere, the one that is "fixed" inside nodules in certain plant roots is ________. Correct nitrogen Of the sum total of environmental relationships affecting plant distributions, ________ is the least predictable. Correct wildfire Of the total solar energy reaching the Earth, ________ percent is fixed by photosynthesis. Correct less than 1 Over the last century and a half, the main source of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide has been ________. Correct burning of fossil fuels Photosynthesis is a main means of fixing ________ in the ecosystem. Correct carbon dioxide Planetwide, a balance of chemicals is maintained by ________. Correct cycles Plants are eaten by ________. Correct herbivores Seasonal behavior in plants and animals is stimulated by ________. Correct photoperiodism Significant areas of rainforest are present in North America. Correct TRUE Some substances are very stable and become harmfully concentrated in the higher levels of the food chain. Correct TRUE The absence of light is an absolute limitation on terrestrial vegetation. Correct TRUE The availability of moisture to plants is largely determined by ________. Correct precipitation versus evaporation The biogeochemical cycles are considered to have been in a planetwide steady-state condition for the last ________ billion years. Correct one billion The biosphere contains more than a half a million carbon compounds. Correct TRUE The biotic nutrients are finite and limited in quantity. Correct TRUE The bottom link in the food pyramid consists of organisms called benthos. Correct FALSE The burning of fossil fuels represents a release of carbon which has been in storage for millions of years. Correct TRUE The conversion of nitrates into free nitrogen ________. Correct is accomplished by bacteria The Deepwater Horizon event was ________. Correct an explosion on an offshore drilling platform The driving force behind all life cycles in the entire biosphere is ________. Correct the Sun The Earth has approximately 15,000,000 plant species. Correct FALSE The effect of wind on plants is also known as the edaphic influence. Correct FALSE The effect of winds on life is ________. Correct a mix of positive and negative The effects of wildfire ________. Correct are usually temporary The end product(s) of photosynthesis is (are) ________. Correct carbohydrates The following DOES NOT have a sedimentary cycle. Correct oxygen The interrelated web of cycles in the world are known as biogeochemical cycles. Correct TRUE The Linnaean classification system is based mainly on ________. Correct anatomical similarities The Linnaean system of classification is ________. Correct hierarchical The Linnaean system of classification is binomial. Correct TRUE The main carbon cycle is conversion from carbon dioxide to living matter and back to carbon dioxide. Correct TRUE The main energy source for the biosphere is ________. Correct light from the Sun The main source of free nitrogen is action by soil microorganisms and plant roots on air spaces in the soil. Correct TRUE The most powerful predator in a given area sits atop the local food pyramid. Correct TRUE The mountain pine beetle has been responsible for all but ________. Correct increased nitrogen fixation in soil The original forests of Australia were composed almost entirely of various species of eucalyptus. Correct TRUE The present binomial system of biological classification was devised by ________. Correct Linnaeus The response of an organism to the amount of light it receives in a day is termed ________. Correct photoperiodism This entity has the greatest percentage of its mass as water. Correct tomatoes Water in the biosphere is a closed system. Correct TRUE Water is the source of hydrogen for living things in the biosphere. Correct TRUE What was learned from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill? Correct It was unclear if anything was learned. Which components are necessary for photosynthesis to occur? Correct carbon dioxide, light, and water Which cycle has been significantly altered by humans and is of great concern because of its implications for global warming? Correct carbon Which of the following does NOT belong with the others? Correct oxygen cycle Which of the following does NOT belong with the others? Correct terrestrial biota Which of the following does NOT correctly describe water in plants? Correct Water is created through the process of photosynthesis. Which of the following does not refer to life in the oceans? Correct vadose Which of the following is another term for a tropical rainforest? Correct selva Which of the following is NOT a source of atmospheric oxygen in the oxygen cycle? Correct decomposition of nirogen by solar energy Which of the following is NOT an example of climatic influence on the biosphere? Correct edaphic conditions Which of the following is NOT an important edaphic influence on plants? Correct supply of light Which of the following terms is the LEAST specific? Correct biota Why is the Linnaean system of limited interest to geographers? Correct not based on distributions Wildfire can be said to ________. Correct be necessary for some plant communities to thrive With respect to organic matter, water is classified as "in residence" or "in transit." Correct TRUE

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