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FNES lec

New York University : NYU
Uploaded: 2 weeks ago
Contributor: jkmas1234
Category: Education
Type: Lecture Notes
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Filename:   FNES lec.docx (407.26 kB)
Page Count: 9
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Transcript
Defining the Field Child Development -- Field of study in which researchers from all areas come together to understand children Who has a stake in child development? -- Anyone who works with or helps children What Develops? Physical Development -- Growth in size, strength, & muscle coordination Cognitive Development -- Changes in how children perceive world, think, remember info, & communicate Socioemotional Development -- Changes in how children interact with others & manage their emotions Biopsychosocial Approach Development influenced by interaction of various factors: Biological Psychological Social General Themes Nature & Nurture -- The biological & environmental forces that govern development The Role of Neuroscience -- The study of the structure & function of the brain & nervous system 36671251333400Diversity & Multiculturalism -- Investigating how cultures & cultural values impact society Positive Development & Resilience -- Increasing research in positive psychology Theories of Child Development Researchers gather observations & facts about children. Researchers develop theories to organize facts. What Is a Theory, & Why Are Theories Useful? Theory -- An explanation of how facts fit together Why are theories useful? Summarize facts as currently known Allow prediction of future behavior Provide guidance Stimulate new research Provide filters for identifying relevant information Psychoanalytic, Behavioral, & Social Learning Theories Psychoanalytic Theory: Focus on structure of personality & how conscious & unconscious thoughts influence behavior & development Best Known Theorists: Sigmund Freud said the mind consists of three basic components: the id – primitive instincts, fully unconscious the ego – rational thought the superego – ethics, morals, conscience Constant state of conflict between the three components Psychosocial Theory -- A revision of Freud’s theory – Erikson focused more on healthy child development. Erik Erikson proposed eight stages of psychosocial development. Behavior Theories Responses to unobservable & immeasurable concepts proposed by psychoanalytic theories Focus on observable conditions & behaviors Best Known Theorists: John Watson (1878–1958) Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Dogs UCS – unconditioned stimulus (smell of food) UCR – unconditioned response (salivation) NS – neutral stimulus (bell ringing) NC becomes conditioned stimulus & UCR becomes conditioned response B.F. Skinner 1904–1990 Operant Conditioning Learning comes through reinforcement & punishment Reinforcement – any element in environment that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Punishment – any element in environment that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Albert Bandura (1925) Social Learning -- Learning by observing & imitating others Social Cognition -- How children think about the actions that they observe Social Learning Theory Adding to theories of classical & operant conditioning, Bandura proved children also learn by social learning: Observing Imitating Cognitive, Biological, & Contextual & Systems Theories Cognitive Theories Theories that focus on how children adjust their own understanding as they explore the world Focus on how children think & how their thinking impacts their actions Best Known Theorists: Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Cognitive Developmentalism How children adjust to their world: Mental schemes Assimilation Accommodation Stages of development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory Kids thinking is influenced by lang. & culture. Language strong tool that all use when thinking. Children take social speech spoken by people around them & turn it into their own private speech. Biological Theories Ethology A biological theory that examines the adaptive significance or survival value of behaviors. Known Theorists: Charles Darwin (1809–1882): survival of fittest III Konrad Lorenz (1903–1989): imprinting Contextual & Systems Theories Ecological Systems Theory Focuses on complex set of systems & interacting social layers that affect children’s development Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917 – 2005) Dynamic Systems Theory Uses models from math & physics to understand complex systems of development Information Processing A theoretical approach focusing on how children perceive, store, & retrieve information & on how they solve problems & communicate with others. Research in Child Development The Scientific Method Data gathered through observations Hypotheses formed & tested Conclusions drawn Revision if necessary Research Methods Descriptive Research Methods Correlational Research Methods Experimental Research Methods Methods for Assessing Development Ethics in Research with Children Descriptive Research Research methods that attempt to describe behavior – under what conditions it occurs Ex: Do children prefer blocks or books? Naturalistic observation Structured observation Interviews Questionnaires Case studies Correlational Research Methods Research methods that attempt to determine strength of a relationship between 2 or more conditions or behaviors. Ex: Do children whose parents read to them prefer blocks or books? Experimental Research Methods Researchers begin by randomly assigning subjects to either: Experimental group: receives treatment Control group: doesnt receive treatment Groups are as much alike in every way as possible except for the treatment. Not always ethical or practical to conduct experimental research. Methods Assessing Development Cross Sectional Research Studies dev. by comparing groups of children of different ages against one another at same point in time. Ex: Groups of children of different ages evaluated at the same point in time. Longitudinal Research Comparison of one group at different points in time. right1449500Ex: A group of children evaluated at age 5 & then again at age 10 & then again at age 15 Ethics in Research for Children Risks versus benefits No harmful procedures Informed consent Unforeseen consequences Confidentiality Implications of research Applications & Careers Related to Children Goals of Science Applications & careers related to children Advance knowledge for its own sake Provide information that can help people with practical challenges in life Practical Applications Careers Related to Children Family & Parenting Social Policy Officials at the local, state, & federal levels use knowledge provided by child development to improve lives of children. Education, Psychology, Counseling, & Other Uses Educators use knowledge about child development to maximize children’s learning potential. Careers Related to Children Many careers allow you to work with children or on behalf of children. School Settings Teachers & special education instructors Guidance counselors Principals Classroom aides Therapeutic Settings Psychiatrists Clinical psychologists School psychologists Counselors & social workers Many careers allow you to work with children or on behalf of children. Social Service Agencies Domestic violence shelters Boys’ & girls’ clubs Halfway houses Criminal justice/delinquency programs Other Careers: Corporations: Advertising children’s products Government Agencies Research Research Genes & Human Reproduction Each one of us began as a single cell – a fertilized egg cell Genes & Magical four- letter code Human reproduction & cell division Genes & the Magical Four-Letter Code Chromosomes -- Strands of DNA that contain gene code DNA -- 2 strands of molecules that twist around each other connected by nucleotide bases Gene -- A segment of DNA that provides instruction to structure, function, or trait Human Genome Project -- An effort to map the nucleotide bases & gene contained in chromosomes Human Reproduction & Cell Division Fertilization – union of sperm & egg Zygote – human after egg cell begins to divide Allele – alternative version of a gene; operates in pairs across matched chromosomes Mitosis – Copy division Meiosis – Reduction division Monozygotic Twins Identical twins Form when one zygote divides Dizygotic Twins Fraternal twins When 2 eggs are fertilized by 2 diff sperm cells Half-identical Twins - form when one single egg divided before being fertilized by 2 different sperm cells Sex Chromosomes The 23rd pair of chromosomes specialized to determine the sex of the child Sex chromosomes designated as X & Y chromosomes, each comes from one parent Male – Fertilized egg has XY chromosome Female – Fert egg has XX chromosome How Traits & Genetic Abnormalities Are Inherited Dom - Rec Traits Chrom Abnormalities Prenatal Screen/ Gen Test Dominant - Recessive Traits Dominant-Recessive Relationships --To express a rec trait, the indvl needs to get 2 rec alleles – 1 on each chrom. Dominant Gene Diseases -- Individuals only need one dominant allele to inherit the trait. Recessive Gene Diseases -- Individuals must inherit 2 recessive alleles – 1 from each parent – to show the trait. X- linked (sex-linked) Traits -- differ in rate of occurrence between male & female Polygenic Traits -- are influenced by any different genes Chromosome Abnormalities Down syndrome A genetic disorder that occurs when there is an extra 2lst chromosome Low IQ, facial defects, heart problems, & shortened life span Sex chromosomes Abnormalities Abnormalities in number of sec chromosomes are among most common of all human genetic disorders. Abnormalities occur in about 1 in every 500 live births Prenatal Screening & Genetic testing Ultrasonography (ultrasound) Images of the fetus inside the mother’s womb – produced by sound waves Used to help monitor fetal growth & fetus defects Amniocentesis Procedure used to detect chromosomal & genetic abnormalities in the fetus A needle is inserted in the mother’s abdomen & cells are withdrawn from the mother’s amniotic fluid Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) A catheter is inserted into uterus & cells are taken to test How Genes & Environments Interact G x E Interaction -- The interacting effects of genetics & environment on development of traits & characteristics Range of Reaction, Canalization, & Niche-Picking Range of Reaction Genotype – The Genetic code inherited Phenotype --The Observable trait shown Range of reaction -- The range of possible phenotypes that exist for a particular genotype Canalization -- Genetic limits on the effects of the environment Niche-Picking -- The tendency to pick activities & environments that fit with our genetic predispositions Probabilistic Epigenesis --Likelihood that specific environmental cond. will activate specific genes that lead to specific outcomes (smoking + lung cancer gene = increased outcome)’ Behavior Genetics, Heritability, Shared & Nonshared Environments Heritability -- Estimate of the degree of genetic influence for given trait or behavior Shared environments -- Experiences & aspects of environment that shared across individuals who live together Nonshared Environment -- Experiences & aspects of the environment that differ across people How is Heritably Estimated? Twin Studies -- Comparisons b/w measmt. of idnt & frat twins, used to guess gen role to traits & characteristics Adoption Studies -- Comparisons b/w measmt. of kids & adoptive & bio parents used to estimate gen contribution Heritability of Complex Characteristics Heritability of Cognitive Skills Probably the most extensively studied behavioral trait is intelligence. A variety of cognitive skills have a significant hereditary component Heritability of Personality & Temperament Genetics is an important influence on personality & temperament. j Prenatal Development -- The development of an organism before (pre) its birth (natal) Conception -- Process of fertilization where sperm cell combines with egg cell to create a new organism Ovulation -- Release of an egg (ovum) from the female ovary Differentiation -- Occurs during cell division in which each new cell committed to becoming a particular structure Stages of Prenatal Development The Germinal Stage: Conception – 2 weeks The 1st stage of prenatal development: Implantation The Embryonic Stage: Weeks 3-8 The 2nd stage of prenatal development: Miscarriage Stillbirth Cephalocaudal pattern Proximodistal pattern Critical periods Organogenesis The Fetal Stage: Week 9 – Birth (38-40 weeks) The third & final stage of prenatal development Teratogens: Health Risks for the Baby Teratogens -- Any substance or condition that might disrupt prenatal development & causes birth defects Premature -- Babies born earlier or smaller than average Preterm Birth -- Births that occur before 37 weeks of gestation Low Birth weight -- Weigh less than 5 ½ pounds at birth (2 pounds lighter than average) Alcohol, Cocaine, & Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy Alcohol -- can be catastrophic. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -- syndrome of birth defects caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) -- range of physical &/or neuropsychological deficits due to alcohol Cocaine Retards growth can cause preterm birth, & malformations in brain, intestines, & genital – urinary tract. Cigarette Smoking Smoke contains more than 450 diff harmful chemicals, inc. nicotine, carbon monoxide, & cyanide. These chemicals damage placenta, reduce the blood supply, oxygen, & nutrients available to the fetus. The Mother’s Health & Age Mother’s Age -- Low-birth babies born to mothers’ underage of 15 & over 44 years of age. Mother’s Health -- If a woman is carrying an infectious disease while pregnant, it can endanger the fetus. Herpes HIV/AIDS The Role of Fathers More important for fathers to be emotional support and attend to pregnant mothers cravings. Babies are more likely to be preterm & low in birth weight when they have fathers who are teenagers. These babies are more likely to have lower Apgar scores & they are more likely to die. Miscarriages & birth defects occur likely when fathers work in settings that expose them to pesticides/ chemicals. The Process of Birth Stages of Birth Stage 1 – Dilation -- The gradual opening of the cervix caused by labor contractions. Stage 2 – Delivery -- The baby actually moves through the birth canal. Stage 3 – Afterbirth -- The placenta & other membranes are delivered through the birth canal. Cultural Differences Surrounding Birth The general biology of giving birth is the same for all human beings. The way that the birthing process is approached varies considerably across cultures. Modern Birthing Practices in the United States: Choices & Alternatives Birth Attendants – Certified nurse-midwives (Qualified prof. who helps pregnant woman in delivering a baby Doula – assistant who provides physical and emotional support during childbirth Prepared Childbirth -- Classes or training to educate about labor & delivery Pain Relief During Labor & Delivery -- Epidural anesthesia Birthing Complications: Something Isn’t Right Malpresentation -- Improper positioning of the fetus in the mother’s uterus. Fetal Distress -- A condition that indicates that the fetus is at risk. Here’s the Newborn! Apgar Test – conducted at 1 & 5 minutes after birth; to identify newborns who at risk & need medical attention. Test measures Heart rate Respiration Muscle tone Color Reflex irritability Becoming a Family: Psychological Adjustments to Having a Newborn The Transition to Parenthood Adjusting It usually takes about 6 months to adjust to a new baby (although time may vary). Transition to parenthood often brings front any issues that new parent has with his own parents. The transition is easier if the new parents are realistic in their expectations. Becoming the Big Brother or Sister An older sibling may have a difficult time with a new baby. Increases in whininess Sleeping difficulties Withdrawal Clinginess Aggressive behaviors j Infants at Risk: Prematurity Prematurity -- Preterm birth - birth before 37 weeks’ gestation, or more than 3 weeks before expected due date. Low Birth Weight -- less than 3 ½ pounds at birth (4 lbs lighter than average). Greater potential for health risks. Small for Gestational Age with Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) Born below 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Greater potential for serious health risks. Infants at Risk: Mortality Deaths that occur between birth and 1 year of age. Infant mortality is related to poor or absent prenatal care, teenage pregnancy, poor nutrition, risky health behaviors during pregnancy, and higher rates of prematurity and low-birth weight births. Prenatal Care: Having a Healthy Baby Access to and appropriate use of good-quality prenatal care results in healthier babies. Another important component of prenatal care is education which can increase the mother’s knowledge. Growth of the Body and Brain Structure of the Brain and Nervous System The brain & nervous system are structures that give rise to all of our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. The most complicated organ in the body, the brain is one of the first structures to form. The brain and the spinal cord together form the central nervous system. Neurons – specialized cells that process information and allow communication in the nervous system. Dendrites receive information Axons electrical impulses that receive information Myelin sheath – insulation the axon and helps increase how to communicate Forming the Brain and Nervous System Synapses – Space in which things form and which impulses act thru Synaptogenesis -- 1 form of neuron growth in which dendrites & axons expand to form contns w neurons. Myelination -- A form of neuron maturation in which the fatty insulation grows around the axons. Programmed Cell Death – Process by which neurons die in periods of migration & heavy synaptogenesis. Physical Growth, Sleep Patterns, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Physical Growth At birth, average newborn weighs 7 ½ pounds. Infants double weight by 5 months. Sleep Patterns During the first month, newborns spend two-thirds of their time sleeping. Co-sleeping – Practice where infants and young children sleep with one or both parents. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Sudden death of infant before one year of age. Death not explained by autopsy/ medical history Feeding and Nutrition Nearly all health officials agree that breast milk provides the best form of nutrition for most infants. Colostrum – A thick, yellowish substance in breast mild containing important antibodies. Babies who are breastfed are at a lower risk for a variety of conditions. Sensory Capabilities Basic Components of Vision How clear is their vision? Visual acuity –ability to see fine detail. Infants reach 20/20 by 6-12 months. Researcher estimate that visual acuity in newborns is somewhere between 20/150 and 20/600. Can they see different color? Color vision is relatively mature by 6 months. How deep is that drop? Early depth perception. Depth perception is available by the time infants learn to crawl. How Well Do Infants Hear? Even before birth, fetuses react to loud noises. By 6 months infant reply to range of sounds including rattles, voices, songs, & environmental noises. Smell and Taste After birth, their facial expressions show that newborns react to certain odors in manner similar to adults. Infants show taste preferences immediately after birth, even before their first feedings. Motor Development Reflexes: The Infant’s First Coordinated Movements Reflexes -- Involuntary movements that are elicited by environmental stimuli. Rooting reflex -- If you touch a newborn’s cheek, the infant’s head will turn in the direction of the touch. Sucking Reflex -- If anything touches an infant’s lips, the infant automatically begins to suck. Grasping Reflex -- When object touches infant’s palm, baby’s fingers will wrap around object & grip. Voluntary Movements: The Motor Milestones Gross Motor Development -- Process of coordinating movements with the large muscles in the body. Fine Motor Development -- Process of coordinating intricate movements with smaller muscles. Proximodistal: Palmar grasp Pincer grasp Tripod grasp Stepping reflex Cultural Differences in Early Experience Parenting practices differ across cultures. Infants in some cultures receive more vigorous physical stimulation than do babies in other cultures. Toilet Training Toilet training develops from interaction of physical maturity, cognitive understanding, cues & feedback from environment, & motivation. Most toddlers gain voluntary control and coordination over the muscles that control their bladder and bowel movements by the time they are 18 to 24 months old Perceptual Development Perception -- The cognitive process of organizing, coordinating, and interpreting sensory information. Robert Fantz and the Early Work in Testing Visual Preferences Frantz conducted research to determine whether perception of diff forms was innate or learned. To study humans Fantz used a looking chamber. Preferential-looking technique A simple but powerful procedure that researchers have since used to investigate infant perception. Habituation – Dishabituation Research Habituation-Dishabituation Technique Technique used to test infant perception. Infants are shown a stimulus repeatedly until they respond less (habituate) to it. Then a new stimulus is presented. Habituation -- tendency of infants to reduce responses to stimuli that are presented repeatedly. Dishabituation - recovery or rise in infant’s response when familiar stimulus is replaced by new 1 Explaining Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Constructivist View Piaget as a Child Prodigy Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland. & as kid showed an early intellectual flair & interest in nature. He was only 10 years old when he published his first article. After earning his Ph.D. at 21, Piaget became interested in psychology. Constructivism and Interaction with the Environment Constructivist view – view that people construct their own knowledge & understanding by using what they already know & understand to interpret new experiences. Scheme -- An organized pattern of physical or mental action. Organization -- tendency to add separate elements into increasingly complex higher-ordered structures. Adaptation -- The process of changing a cognitive structure in order to understand the environment. Assimilation -- process of bringing new objects or information into a scheme that already exists. Accommodation -- process of changing old schemes or creating new ones to better fit understood info. Equilibration -- dynamic process of moving between states of cognitive disequilibrium and equilibrium. Reflective Abstraction -- Noticing and thinking about the implications of information and experiences. Piaget’s Stage 1: Sensorimotor Thought (Birth to 2 years) Sensorimotor Thought - thought that is based only on sensory input and physical (motor) actions. Symbolic(Representational)Thought -- ability to form symbols/mental images that stand for objects/event Object Permanence -- fact that objects, events, & people continue to exist even when they are out of a child’s direct line of sensory input or motor action. Learning to Communicate What is Language? Three key features distinguish human language: Language has semanticity. Language is productive. Language has the quality of displacement. Language - random system of symbols that is rule-governed & allows contact about things in time/ space. Learning Theory: Language as a Learned Skill Learning Theory - lang. is skilled behavior that kids learn thru operant training, imitation, & modeling. Imitation and modeling are important. Parents and caregivers reinforce closer approximations to real words/phrases. Provide models of more advanced language. Nativist Theory: Born to Talk Nativist Theory -- sees language as innate human skill that develops when language input triggers a language acquisition device in the brain. Language Acquisition Device (LAD) - brain process specific for learning & processing language. Criticisms: concerns the kind and amount of linguistic input and feedback. Interaction Theories: Cognitive and Social Interactionist Approaches Cognitive Approach: Language Depends on Cognition Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory sees language as ability that depends on whole cognitive growth. Social Interactionist Theory -- language growth comes from contact of bio & social factors & contact is required. Early Communication: How Language Starts Perceptual Skills Social Interactions From Crying to Words: Speech Production Semantics: Words and Their Meanings Early Communication: The Nature of Early Words Holophrases: single words used to express an entire idea. Telegraphic speech: includes only words essential in getting meaning across, leaving out unessential words.

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