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psychology-a-journey-coon-5th-tb

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Contributor: foufa21
Category: Psychology and Mental Health
Type: Lecture Notes
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Chapter 1: Thinking Critically About Psychology and Research Methods MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Regarding the study of psychology, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes. b. The word psychology is thousands of years old and comes from ancient Greek roots for mind and study. c. The field of psychology can help one to better understand him or herself and others. d. Psychology is a static field that is based to a large extent on commonsense theories of behavior. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Death Valley | Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Concept 2. One of the reasons to study psychology is to a. understand ourselves and others better. b. learn how to manipulate others for personal gain. c. utilize it in combination with the field of astrology in predicting human behavior. d. have the answers to all of life’s questions. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Death Valley | Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Concept 3. The word psychology comes from the roots psyche and logos, which mean respectively a. behavior and science. b. brain and science. c. mind and knowledge or study. d. personality and knowledge or study. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 4. Psychology is best defined as the a. empirical study of the human personality. b. study of individual differences in the group behavior of humans and animals. c. scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes. d. scientific study of the relationship between mind and body. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 5. Which of the following is the best description of the field of psychology? a. the study of human origins, evolution, and cultures b. the scientific study of overt behavior and mental processes c. a natural science integrating physiology and neurology d. the deductive study of forms and functions of human groups ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 6. Behavior is best described as a. anything a person does. b. only those things a person does that everyone can see. c. only those things which can be recorded by a camera. d. those things that a person intentionally does, excluding all behaviors that occur accidentally. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 7. According to your psychology textbook, which of the following activities would be considered “behavior”? a. A student feels sad because of her grade. b. A student daydreams in class. c. A teacher writes an assignment on the board. d. All of these would be considered behaviors. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Concept 8. Overt behavior includes a. anything a person does. b. things a person does which cannot be seen by others. c. only those things that can be observed. d. hidden, private, internal thoughts. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 9. Covert behavior involves a. anything a person does. b. only those things a person does which another person can see. c. only those things which can be recorded by a camera. d. hidden, private, internal thoughts. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Fact 10. Which of the following behaviors can best be described as overt behavior? a. watching a TV game show b. thinking about the answer to a contestant’s question c. being sad that the contestant answered incorrectly d. wondering if there are any frozen waffles left in the freezer ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Application 11. Which of the following is the best example of covert behavior? a. blinking in response to a light b. imitating a friend’s gesture c. remembering a pleasant experience d. rapid eye movements while sleeping ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Application 12. Professor Reed asked her introductory psychology students to give an example of a covert behavior. Which of the following would be an example of a covert behavior? a. daydreaming about the coming weekend b. sneezing into a handkerchief c. gesturing to someone to come over to the group d. telling the class to be quiet by saying “shhh” softly ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Application 13. Professor Windham asks her general psychology students to give an example of an overt behavior. Which of the following would be an example of an overt behavior? a. feeling happy that class is almost over b. daydreaming about the coming weekend c. gesturing to someone to come over to the group d. remembering the definition of overt behavior ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.1 KEY: Application 14. Psychologists would best be described as a. scientists who conduct research. b. practitioners who apply psychology to solve problems in fields like education and medicine. c. teachers. d. scientists, practitioners, and/or teachers. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.2 KEY: Concept 15. All psychologists do which of the following? a. They all conduct research to discover new knowledge. b. They all apply psychology to solve problems in mental health, education, medicine, or business. c. They are all teachers who pass on knowledge of psychology to their students. d. They all rely on critical thinking and information gained from scientific research. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.2 KEY: Concept 16. Empirical evidence has shown which of the following statements to be TRUE? a. Some people are left-brained and some are right-brained. b. Subliminal advertising does not really work. c. Men and women communicate very differently. d. All of these statements have been shown to be true. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 17. Empirical evidence has shown which of the following statements to be TRUE? a. Some people are left-brained and some are right-brained. b. Subliminal advertising really does work. c. Men and women do not communicate very differently. d. Commonsense theories are usually the basis for most of our psychological theories today. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 18. Regarding commonsense theories of behavior, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Commonsense theories tend to work best after the fact. b. Commonsense theories tend to be vague and inconsistent c. Commonsense theories are most often based on empirical evidence. d. Commonsense statements often depend on limited personal observations. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 19. A commonsense approach to psychology a. is the most reliable. b. is often contradicted by empirical evidence. c. is the basis for most psychological theories. d. provides information that is specific and consistent. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 20. Which of the following descriptions of common sense is FALSE? a. “Strike while the iron is hot” and “haste makes waste” would both be considered commonsense statements. b. Commonsense statements tend to work best after the fact. c. Common sense requires planned and systematic observations. d. Common sense often involves vague and inconsistent pieces of information. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 21. The research conducted by psychologists involves a. the validation of commonsense beliefs in predicting everyday experiences. b. the systematic use of commonsense beliefs in solving new problems. c. gathering information through direct observation. d. a reliance on subjective opinions and rationalizations. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 22. As an experimental psychologist, Dr. Kandis utilizes information gained through direct observation and measurement. Dr. Kandis is using a. introspective data. b. subjective data. c. a scientific hypothesis. d. empirical evidence. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 23. Scientific observation is based on the a. gathering of introspective data. b. utilization of personal, subjective data. c. utilization of commonsense theories and everyday personal experiences. d. gathering of empirical evidence. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 24. An empirical investigation that is structured to answer questions about the world in a systematic and intersubjective fashion is called a(n) a. scientific observation. b. interpretative research. c. investigative analysis. d. experiential analysis. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 25. When a psychologist uses scientific observation, these observations must a. involve logic and commonsense reasoning. b. be conducted using animals rather than humans. c. be carefully planned and able to be confirmed by more than one observer. d. involve all of these. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 26. When observations are reliably confirmed by more than one observer, this is referred to as a. multimodal. b. intersubjective. c. multidisciplinary. d. correlational. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 27. Dr. Santel is conducting a study in which she will use five different observers to reliably confirm the observations within her study. Thus, Dr. Santel’s scientific observations would be considered a. multimodal. b. intersubjective. c. multidisciplinary. d. correlational. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 28. When scientists want to find out if there is empirical evidence, they utilize data, which is defined as __________ facts. a. commonsense b. deduced c. observed d. inferred ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 29. In order to find out whether “the clothes make the man” or whether “one can’t judge a book by its cover,” researchers scientifically observe people who are well dressed and people who are not and determine who fares better in a variety of situations. The information that these researchers gained would be considered __________ evidence. a. intuitive b. introspective c. empirical d. commonsense ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 30. To find out whether it really is “the thought that counts” when giving a gift, Gino and Flynn (2011) asked gift recipients to rate how much they would appreciate getting a gift they requested as opposed to one chosen by the gift giver. According to the empirical evidence gathered, these researchers found that the a. recipients were more appreciative of a requested gift. b. recipients were more appreciative of an unrequested gift. c. recipients were equally appreciative of the gift whether requested or unrequested. d. gift givers believed that recipients would be significantly more likely to appreciate a requested gift. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 31. Gino and Flynn (2011) wanted to find out whether people prefer to receive a requested gift, an unrequested gift, or money as a gift. According to the empirical evidence gathered, these researchers found that the gift recipients a. preferred a requested gift. b. preferred an unrequested gift. c. preferred money as a gift. d. showed an equal preference for all three types of gifts. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 32. An expert tells you that “you can catch a cold by not wearing a coat when it is cold.” You would a. accept his statement since you remember catching a cold after you forgot your coat. b. accept his statement because it is based on commonsense reasoning. c. ask him to list additional experts that support his theory. d. ask to see the empirical evidence that supports his theory. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application 33. Psychology is different from the fields of history, law, and business because psychology relies on which of the following to answer questions about behavior? a. anecdotal evidence b. scientific observations c. commonsense reasoning d. direct philosophic inquiry ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept 34. A systematic process for answering scientific questions is called a. a research method. b. a scientific deduction. c. the induction method. d. the analytical method. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact 35. Which of the following is NOT a reason that some topics in psychology are difficult to study? a. It would be unethical to study the topic. b. There is no practical way that the research can be conducted. c. There is no suitable research method available to study the topic. d. There is a lack of interest in understanding some aspects of human behavior. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 36. Which of the following is the best description of a research method? a. an intuitive process by which cause and effect can be established b. a systematic process for answering scientific questions c. any experiment that lacks a control group d. an investigative observation that relies on commonsense reasoning ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 37. It may be difficult to study the difference in academic achievement between children who do and do not eat breakfast at a boarding school because a. it is impossible to monitor. b. the scientists would have to rely on the children’s self-reports. c. it is unethical to require that some children not eat breakfast. d. some children do not like to eat breakfast. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 38. Which of the following statements concerning psychological research is TRUE? a. The use of the EEG showed that some people never dream. b. To conduct psychological research, one must systematically gather data. c. The research method is rarely used in psychological research. d. Ethical concerns in psychological research are rarely an issue. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 39. The goals of psychology are to a. develop effective methods of psychotherapy and cure mental illness. b. describe, understand, predict, and control behavior. c. research, infer, summarize, and publish. d. compare, analyze, and control human behavior. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Fact 40. Which goal of psychology involves naming or classifying behaviors and is based on making a detailed record of scientific observations? a. description b. understanding c. prediction d. control ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 41. A psychologist who observes a child for a week and writes a report that identifies and classifies the child’s behavior is working toward the goal of a. description. b. understanding. c. prediction. d. control. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 42. In a survey conducted on October 26, researchers find that 55 percent of the registered voters favor the passage of the school bond issue. These survey results illustrate which goal of psychology? a. description b. prediction c. understanding d. control ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 43. Why questions refer to which of psychology’s goals? a. description b. understanding c. preservation d. control ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Concept 44. The psychological goal of understanding behavior is achieved when a. control over behavior is made possible. b. a careful description of behavior is made. c. psychologists can explain why a behavioral phenomenon occurs. d. empirical evidence is obtained. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Fact 45. If you are conducting research to determine why people tend to be more aggressive when they are uncomfortable, then you are attempting to meet which goal in psychology? a. prediction b. description c. control d. understanding ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 46. John’s poor performance in reading was found to be due to visual discrimination problems. This determination of the cause for his poor reading performance illustrates which goal of psychology? a. description b. prediction c. understanding d. control ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 47. Research on “bystander apathy” reveals that people often fail to help when other possible helpers are nearby due to a “diffusion of responsibility.” Explaining this perplexing problem meets which goal of psychology? a. description b. prediction c. understanding d. control ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 48. Which goal of psychology is illustrated by a psychologist seeking to discover why sociopaths tend to repeat their destructive behavior? a. understanding b. prediction c. description d. control ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 49. When current knowledge about an individual and his or her environment can be used to accurately forecast behavior at another time or in another setting, which scientific goal has been achieved? a. description b. understanding c. prediction d. control ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Fact 50. An industrial psychologist uses psychometric tests and interviews to select the best candidate for a specialized task. The psychologist’s work directly illustrates which goal of psychology? a. description b. understanding c. prediction d. control ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 51. Students who do well on an intelligence test tend to do well in their school grades. This ability of the IQ tests to forecast future school success illustrates which goal of psychology? a. description b. prediction c. understanding d. control ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 52. You are less likely to receive help if you have car trouble on a busy freeway than if you have car trouble on a sparsely traveled two-lane highway. Your ability to foretell your likelihood of receiving help illustrates the goal of a. description. b. prediction. c. understanding. d. control. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 53. For most psychologists, control refers to a. punishment of unwanted responses. b. legal limitations on the use of conditioning principles. c. techniques for reducing personal freedom of choice. d. altering conditions that influence behavior. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Fact 54. A psychologist uses systematic desensitization to assist his client in overcoming a phobia. This illustrates the goal of a. description. b. prediction. c. control. d. understanding. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 55. An engineering psychologist helps redesign a car to make it safer and more fuel efficient. The psychologist’s work reflects which of psychology’s goals? a. description b. prediction c. control d. understanding ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 56. An environmental psychologist helps redesign a college dorm to reduce feelings of crowding. The psychologist’s work reflects which of psychology’s goals? a. description b. control c. prediction d. understanding ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 57. Which question below relates most directly to the goal of controlling behavior? a. Do men and women differ in intellectual abilities? b. How can child abuse be prevented? c. Why does a blow to the head cause memory loss? d. Does depth perception occur when an individual has only one eye? ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Psychology-Behave! OBJ: 1.1.4 KEY: Application 58. In achieving the psychological goals of describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling behavior, Dr. Aron uses the scientific method and a. uncritical acceptance. b. intuitive common sense. c. introspective analysis. d. critical thinking. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.1 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 59. Critical thinking is used in psychology to evaluate theories by collecting a. introspective analyses. b. empirical evidence. c. intuitive data. d. expert opinions. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.1 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 60. Critical thinking involves a. using conventional wisdom and common sense. b. a reliance on the opinions of experts. c. a willingness to actively reflect on ideas. d. all of these. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.2 KEY: Concept 61. Dannon is using a type of reflection that involves the support of beliefs through scientific explanation and observation. Dannon is using __________ thinking. a. critical b. transductive c. deductive d. creative ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.2 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 62. In her psychology classes, Dr. Murphey uses problem-based learning cases in order to enhance her students’ abilities to actively reflect, analyze, and evaluate information about real-life cases involving troubled marriages and caring for elderly parents. Dr. Murphey is attempting to increase her students’ a. transductive reasoning skills. b. commonsense reasoning. c. correlational skills. d. critical thinking skills. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.2 KEY: Application 63. Critical thinking includes which of the following questions? a. What authority is making the claim? b. What test of this claim has been made? c. Are the tests based on a long-accepted “truth”? d. How can this event be explained by using one’s commonsense reasoning? ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.3 KEY: Concept 64. Critical thinking does NOT involve which of the following questions? a. How good is the evidence? b. What was the nature and quality of the tests? c. Has any other independent researcher duplicated the findings? d. How are the findings related to commonsense beliefs? ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 65. Two research studies are conducted on the effects of body piercing on self-esteem. One study found that body piercing increased self-esteem, while the other one found a decrease in self-esteem. If you are a critical thinker, you would a. reject both studies since conflicting results were obtained. b. compare the credentials of the psychologists that conducted the studies. c. compare how each study was conducted. d. accept the one that best fits within your frame of reference. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.3 KEY: Application 66. When people use critical thinking, they a. validate conventional wisdom. b. constantly revise their understanding of the world. c. give greater weight to the overall amount of evidence than specific credible facts. d. show such a strong conviction to their beliefs that they rarely admit they are wrong about their ideas. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.4 KEY: Concept 67. Critical thinking does NOT include which of the following? a. the use of empirical testing b. a balance between healthy skepticism and an openness to new ideas c. a constant revision of one’s view of the world and the ability to admit one can be wrong d. a strong reliance on the conventional wisdom of experts mixed with a healthy dose of common sense ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.4 KEY: Concept 68. Critical thinking includes which of the following? a. a strong reliance on commonsense reasoning b. the sincere and convincing testimony of a recognized expert c. the ability to admit that one can be wrong about one’s ideas d. being persuaded more by the amount of evidence presented ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Critical Thinking-Take It with a Grain of Salt OBJ: 1.2.4 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 69. Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior is called a. psychoanalysis. b. pseudopsychology. c. social learning. d. humanism. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 70. Pseudopsychologies are types of unfounded beliefs held without evidence or in the face of falsifying evidence. These unfounded beliefs are referred to as a. superstitions. b. empirical evidence. c. intersubjective data. d. deductions. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 71. Which of the following are types of superstitions? a. psychodynamic theories b. pseudopsychologies c. structuralism and functionalism d. humanistic theories ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 72. According to your textbook, which of the following is considered to be a pseudopsychology? a. cognitive psychology b. behaviorism c. Gestalt psychology d. astrology ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 73. According to your textbook, which of the following is NOT a pseudopsychology? a. psychoanalysis b. palmistry c. phrenology d. astrology ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 74. Which pseudopsychology was popularized by Franz Gall in the nineteenth century? a. palmistry. b. phrenology. c. graphology. d. astrology. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 75. Which of the following popularized the pseudopsychology known as phrenology? a. Wilhelm Wundt b. Max Wertheimer c. Franz Gall d. Edward Titchener ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 76. To assess your personality, a phrenologist would want to a. study your handwriting. b. study the lines on your palm. c. examine the shape of your skull. d. record your brain waves with an EEG. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 77. Which pseudopsychology mistakenly listed the part of the brain that controls hearing as a center for “combativeness” within a person’s personality? a. astrology b. palmistry c. graphology d. phrenology ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 78. The outdated theory that personality is revealed by the shape of one’s skull and the bumps on the head was called a. palmistry. b. phrenology. c. phenomenology. d. graphology. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 79. Jane goes to a phrenologist. What can she expect from this pseudopsychologist? a. He will predict her future by reading the lines on her palms. b. He will explain her personality traits by feeling the bumps on her skull. c. He will explain her personality traits by analyzing a copy of her handwriting. d. He will explain how her life is influenced by the position of the stars and planets at her birth. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application 80. The fortune teller who studies your palm carefully before announcing that great fortune is in your immediate future is practicing a. palmistry. b. phrenology. c. graphology. d. forensic psychology. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 81. To assess your personality, a person who practices palmistry would want to a. study your handwriting. b. examine the bumps on your head. c. study the lines and creases on your palm. d. place you into a trance-like state. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 82. To assess your personality, a graphologist would want to a. study your handwriting. b. examine the shape of your skull. c. study your palm. d. record your brain waves with an EEG. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application 83. Jay pays $5.00 to have a personality profile made through an analysis of his handwriting. Jay has just wasted his money on the pseudopsychology known as a. graphology. b. dyslexia. c. phrenology. d. palmistry. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application 84. Graphology has been shown to be valuable for a. assessing personality traits. b. selecting people for jobs. c. detecting forgeries. d. all of these. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact 85. Regarding graphology, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. In the past graphology has been mistakenly used to determine who should be given bank credit or who should serve on juries. b. Graphologists score close to zero on tests of accuracy in rating personality. c. A graphological society concluded that handwriting analysis should not be used to select people for jobs. d. Graphology cannot be used to detect forgeries. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 86. The most popular pseudopsychology holds that the positions of the stars and planets at the time of one’s birth determine personality traits and affect behavior. This pseudopsychology is called a. astronomy. b. astrology. c. palmistry. d. phrenology. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 87. Which of the following pseudopsychologies is based on a zodiac map invented several thousand years ago in an ancient civilization called Babylon? a. astrology. b. graphology. c. palmistry. d. phrenology. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 88. Rose is using an astrology program on her computer. By using this pseudopsychology computer program, she is trying to a. explain her personality by having the program analyze a scanned copy of her handwriting. b. explain how her life is influenced by the position of the stars and planets at her birth. c. predict when the next lunar eclipse will occur so she can view it with her telescope. d. analyze the latent content of her dreams. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.1 KEY: Application 89. In describing pseudopsychologies, it can be said that they a. give the appearance of science but are actually false. b. have constantly changed over time as their followers have sought new evidence. c. have followers who are skeptical critics of their own theories. d. are characterized by all of these statements. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Concept 90. Regarding pseudopsychologies, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Pseudopsychologies are skeptical of their own theories and look for contradictions. b. Pseudopsychologies have changed little over time. c. Pseudopsychologies give the appearance of being scientific but are actually false. d. Pseudopsychologies are types of superstitions. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 91. According to your textbook, astrology a. has repeatedly been shown to have no scientific validity. b. has scientific validity if you correct for planetary drift. c. is a useful guide for making personal decisions. d. is only valid in very specific and unusual situations. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact 92. Regarding the popular pseudopsychology of astrology, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. If astrologers are asked to match people with their horoscopes, they do significantly better than would be expected by chance. b. Astrologers have failed to scientifically explain why the positions of the planets at birth affect a person’s future or why the moment of birth is more important than the moment of conception. c. When the people in a study were sent a full 10-page horoscope of a famous mass murderer, 94 percent accepted it as their own. d. One study of more than 3,000 predictions by famous astrologers found that only a small percentage were fulfilled. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 93. Regarding the popular pseudopsychology of astrology, which of the following statements is TRUE? a. In a famous test, astrologers were able to accurately distinguish murderers from law-abiding people based on their horoscopes. b. A connection has been found between one’s astrological sign and leadership, physical characteristics, and career choices. c. Couples whose astrological signs are compatible have a lower divorce rate than those couples with incompatible signs. d. Since astrology was first set up, the zodiac has shifted in the sky by one full constellation with most astrologers simply ignoring the shift. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 94. Regarding the popular pseudopsychology of astrology, which of the following statements is TRUE? a. A study of more than 3000 predictions by famous astrologers found that a significant number of the predictions were fulfilled. b. No connection has been found between one’s astrological sign and leadership, physical characteristics, intelligence, or career choices. c. Couples whose astrological signs are compatible have a lower divorce rate than those couples with incompatible signs. d. In a famous test, astrologers were able to accurately distinguish murderers from law-abiding people based on their horoscopes. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 95. In a comparison of pseudopsychologies and valid psychological principles, which of the following statements is FALSE? a. Pseudopsychologies are more of a nuisance and rarely do any harm. b. Valid psychological principles are based on observation and evidence, not opinions. c. Astrology’s popularity shows that many people have difficulty separating valid psychology from systems that seem valid but are not. d. The pseudopsychology of graphology has been mistakenly used to determine who is hired, given bank credit, or selected for juries. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact 96. With respect to astrology, palmistry, and phrenology, it can be said that a. all are pseudopsychologies. b. none is subject to the Barnum effect. c. they rarely appear to work due to the confirmation bias. d. astrology is the only system with a scientific basis. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.2 KEY: Fact 97. Systems, such as astrology and graphology, enjoy wide popularity because of their a. uncritical acceptance. b. scientific basis. c. accuracy in predicting people’s future behavior. d. cost. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 98. When people read their horoscopes, they often believe these flattering descriptions of themselves, a tendency referred to as a. the Barnum effect. b. astrologer’s dilemma. c. the confirmation bias. d. uncritical acceptance. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 99. An elderly lady is greatly impressed by an astrologer who describes her as physically vigorous, innovative, and artistically creative. Her reaction to this flattering description is an example of a. uncritical acceptance. b. the confirmation bias. c. the Gall effect. d. the confusion of cause and effect. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Application 100. When a person remembers or notices only things that back up his or her expectations and forgets the rest, he or she is experiencing a. the Barnum Effect. b. the confirmation bias. c. astrologer’s dilemma. d. uncritical acceptance. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Concept 101. Even when an astrological description contains a mixture of good and bad traits, it may seem accurate because the person remembers or notices the parts of the description that confirms his or her expectations and forgets the rest. This illustrates a. the Barnum Effect. b. the confirmation bias. c. the astrologer’s dilemma. d. uncritical acceptance. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 102. Sid believes his dreams forecast the future. He describes all the dreams that came true in the last month. His friend Joey asks him about all the times his dreams did not come true. Sid’s tendency to remember the times his dreams came true and forget the times they did not is known as a. the confirmation bias. b. the Barnum Effect. c. the observer effect. d. critical thinking. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Application 103. Lindsay’s friend answered a magazine ad that claimed that her personality could be analyzed by a computer using her birth sign. She tells Lindsay that her computer-generated profile was very accurate and that Lindsay should send in her money and her birth date to the company. Lindsay should a. write the company and request the names of satisfied customers in her area. b. find a good phrenologist instead. c. know that good astrological readings cannot be done by computers. d. consider that her friend may have been taken in by a confirmation bias. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Application 104. Many television viewers are impressed by “psychic mediums” who pretend to communicate with the deceased friends and relatives of audience members. Typically, the viewers will remember the apparent “hits,” or correct statements made by the “mediums,” while ignoring the “misses,” or incorrect statements. This tendency is referred to as a. the Barnum effect. b. the confirmation bias. c. the astrologer’s dilemma. d. uncritical acceptance. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 105. The more general the prediction a fortune teller or palmist makes, the more believable are the results. This fact has been called the a. Guilford effect. b. phenologist’s fallacy. c. Barnum effect. d. Gall fallacy. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Fact 106. If one reads all 12 of the daily horoscopes found in newspapers for several days, one will find that the predictions made are so general that they will fit events that happen every day as well as being applicable to anybody regardless of their sign. This illustrates the a. Guilford effect. b. phenologist’s fallacy. c. Barnum effect. d. Gall fallacy. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Pseudopsychologies-Palms, Planets, and Personality OBJ: 1.3.3 KEY: Application 107. To be scientific, our observations must be a. systematic. b. intuitive. c. haphazard. d. related to common sense. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 108. The scientific method is NOT based on which of the following? a. a careful collection of evidence b. accurate descriptions and measurements c. repeatable results d. theoretical projection and intuitive analysis ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 109. Which of the following is a form of critical thinking based on a careful collection of evidence, accurate descriptions and measurements, precise definitions, controlled observations, and repeatable results? a. intuitive analysis b. the introspective method c. the scientific method d. theoretical projection ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact 110. Which of the following is NOT one of the six elements of the scientific method? a. making observations b. intuitive analysis c. proposing a hypothesis d. theory building ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact 111. Which of the following is NOT one of the six elements of the scientific method? a. defining a problem b. gathering evidence c. publishing results d. consensus review ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 112. Which of the following is one of the six elements of the scientific method? a. publishing results b. critiquing anecdotal evidence c. consensus review d. survey analysis ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact 113. The six steps of the scientific method include observation, defining a problem, proposing a hypothesis, testing they hypothesis, publishing the results, and a. cost-benefit analysis. b. anecdotal analysis. c. theory building. d. consensus review. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.1 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 114. An industrial-organizational psychologist is studying video game designers. This psychologist carefully questions game designers about how much stress they experience. These interviews would constitute the first step in the scientific method referred to as a. making observations. b. testing the hypothesis. c. theory building. d. defining the problem. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application 115. After an industrial-organizational psychologist made his initial observations regarding the stress experienced by game designers, he began the second step in the scientific method, which involved a. theory building. b. defining the problem. c. testing the hypothesis. d. critiquing anecdotal evidence. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 116. When psychologist Kyle Conlon and his colleagues reviewed previously published studies before beginning their own research on weight loss and noted that both goal-focused and achievement-focused approaches were popular, they were completing which step in the scientific method? a. making observations b. testing a hypothesis c. theory building d. defining the problem ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 117. After reviewing previously published studies, psychologist Kyle Conlon and his colleagues wanted to know “Will people lose more weight if they maintain a goal focus or if they maintain an achievement focus?” At this point in their research, Conlon and his colleagues were completing which step in the scientific method? a. publishing their own results b. testing a hypothesis c. building a theory d. defining the problem ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 118. The predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about what is controlling a behavior is called a(n) a. theory. b. law. c. hypothesis. d. experiment. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Fact 119. Your best friend passes you in the school hallway and glares at you without speaking. You think, “Now, why did she do that?” One possible explanation could be that she saw you flirting with her boyfriend. Within the framework of the scientific method, this possible explanation for your friend’s behavior will remain tentative until it is tested by your asking your friend why she did not speak. Thus, this tentative, possible explanation would be considered a(n) a. theory. b. operational definition. c. hypothesis. d. relative certainty. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application 120. An industrial-organizational psychologist has been asked to identify the ways in which high-stress and low-stress game designers are different. The psychologist comes up with the tentative explanation that the degree of control over one’s work determines the designer’s stress level. This tentative explanation, which must be tested, would constitute which step in the scientific method? a. theory building b. operationally defining the problem c. proposing a hypothesis d. gathering evidence through observations ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application 121. A set of exact procedures used to represent a particular concept is called a(n) a. abstract definition. b. operational definition. c. case study. d. theory. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Fact 122. In order to permit scientific study, covert behaviors are a. estimated. b. not included in the analysis. c. prevented from interfering with the experiment. d. operationally defined in terms of overt behavior. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Concept 123. The researcher stated that in his experiment, “frustration is described as any interruption of the subject before he or she finishes the timed puzzle.” This description is considered to be a(n) a. estimated value. b. theoretical element. c. operational definition. d. hypothesis. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application 124. The researcher stated that in his experiment, aggression will be described as “the number of times a frustrated individual insults the person who prevented his or her work on the puzzle.” This description is considered to be a(n) a. estimated value. b. theoretical element. c. operational definition. d. hypothesis. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 125. Three research assistants were assigned the task of counting the number of times a particular student exhibited inattentive behaviors during a 30-minute math class. The first research assistant counted five inattentive behaviors, the second recorded eight, and the third observed only two. Assuming the three research assistants are equally accurate in what they observed, the most likely explanation for this discrepancy in recordings would be that the inattentive behavior a. was not the correct hypothesis. b. was not observed for a long enough period of time. c. was not operationally defined. d. would require at least five observers for an accurate count. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.2 KEY: Application 126. A group of researchers used an electronically activated recorder to track people’s conversations, counting the number of words spoken in a day by women and the number of words spoken by men. In determining whether women talk more than men, these researchers used the recorder during which step in the scientific method? a. gathering evidence to test the hypothesis b. theory building c. defining the problem d. proposing a hypothesis ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 127. To determine whether weight loss is easier when you maintain a goal focus, Conlon and his colleagues assigned participants to one of three weight loss groups, goal-focused, achievement-focused, and no-focus control. Each group met for 12 weekly meetings and had access to a special website. At this point in their research, Conlon and his associates were completing which step in the scientific method? a. disseminating their results b. building a theory c. defining the problem d. gathering evidence to test their hypothesis ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 128. When one designs a system of ideas so that concepts and facts are interrelated in such a way that existing data is summarized and future observations can be predicted, then this system of ideas is known as a(n) a. hypothesis. b. theory. c. commonsense statement. d. operational definition. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 129. If there were not theories in psychology, the situation might be characterized as a. lacking a consistent methodology for doing research. b. an overwhelming collection of disconnected facts. c. a rich array of theoretical notions regarding behavior but with few facts to support them. d. a single, unitary approach to understanding behavior. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Concept 130. Theory building is important in psychology because it a. prevents excessive reliance on empiricism. b. reduces the need for hypothesis testing. c. relies heavily on naturalistic observation. d. provides explanations and guides future research. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Concept 131. Four developmental psychologists have been conducting separate research into the patterns of language development of deaf children. They meet in Chicago to discuss, summarize, and, hopefully, interrelate their conclusions from their published works and propose future research on this topic. Within the framework of the scientific method, these psychologists would most likely be a. proposing a hypothesis. b. hypothesis testing. c. operationally defining terms. d. theory building. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 132. Conlon and his colleagues conducted an experiment and found that goal-focused individuals lost more weight than did either achievement-focused or no-focus control individuals. These researchers also found that goal-focused individuals were more committed to reaching their goal weights. They interpreted their results as consistent with the findings of other studies on motivation and relevant to the design of health intervention programs. At this point in their research, Conlon and his associates are a. proposing a hypothesis. b. hypothesis testing. c. operationally defining terms. d. theory building. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 133. An industrial-organizational psychologist conducts an experiment to determine whether having control over difficult tasks reduces stress for game designers and finds this explanation to be true. Drawing on the results of similar experiments, this psychologist explains these overall findings by creating a a. theory. b. testable observation. c. hypothesis. d. law. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 134. A researcher would disseminate the results of his or her study to the scientific community during which step of the scientific method? a. defining the problem b. hypothesis testing c. publishing results d. theoretical projection ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Concept 135. In a scholarly article in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Conlon and his colleagues described the question they investigated, the methods they used, and the results of their study comparing goal-focused and achievement-focused dieters. This part of the scientific method is referred to as a. defining the problem. b. hypothesis discussion. c. publishing results. d. theoretical projection. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 136. The results of psychological studies are published in professional journals because scientific information must always be a. summarized into a principle or law. b. converted into an operational definition. c. validated by common sense. d. publicly available. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 137. The results of a study become more credible when other researchers a. define them. b. replicate them. c. accept them. d. relate them to common sense. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 138. Dr. Johan read a journal article that discussed the results of a study on the conversational patterns of men and women that was conducted with college student participants. He decides to repeat this experiment using middle-aged and older adults. In regard to the original study, Dr. Johan’s study will be considered a(n) a. operational revision. b. replication. c. confirmation bias. d. double-blind study. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 139. Research reports begin with a very brief summary of the study and its findings. This is known as the a. abstract. b. introduction. c. method. d. discussion review. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact 140. Kelly is writing a paper on conformity for her psychology class. In order to find the research articles she needs for the paper, the first step for her would be to get an overview of each of the articles that come up in her computer search. She should first read which part of each article? a. abstract b. introduction c. method d. discussion review ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 141. Which section of a research report provides background information by reviewing prior studies on the same or related topics to the current one being investigated? a. results b. introduction c. method d. discussion ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact 142. In which section of their research report in Science did Mehl and his colleagues describe their research question regarding whether women talk more than men and then provide background information on this topic by reviewing prior studies on this subject? a. results b. introduction c. method d. discussion ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 143. In their research report published in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Conlon and his colleagues described their research question regarding whether goal-focused or achievement-focused dieters would lose more weight, and they provided background information on their topic by reviewing prior studies on motivation and weight loss. This part of their research report is called the a. results. b. introduction. c. method. d. discussion. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 144. Which section of a research report tells how and why observations were made and describes the specific procedures used by the researchers to gather data? a. discussion b. introduction c. results d. method ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 145. In which section of the research report did Dr. Trenton list the specific procedures he used to gather evidence to test his hypothesis? a. discussion b. introduction c. method d. results ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 146. A psychologist wishes to repeat an experiment in a rural school that was originally conducted in an urban school setting. In order to repeat the specific procedures used to gather the data, this psychologist should pay close attention to which section of the original research report? a. discussion b. introduction c. method d. results ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 147. In which section of a research report is the outcome of the investigation presented with data being graphed, summarized in tables, or statistically analyzed? a. results b. introduction c. method d. abstract ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact MSC: * (New Question) 148. In a journal article, the researcher reported that statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the study. This outcome from the investigation would be found in which sections(s) of the research article? a. results b. introduction c. method d. all of these ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application 149. The implications of the study and proposals for future research would be found in which section of a research report? a. results b. introduction c. method d. discussion ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Fact 150. In the final section of his research report, Dr. Zetta described the results of his study in relation to his original research question, explored implications of his study to health education, and proposed further studies to be conducted. This section of Dr. Zetta’s report is called the a. epilogue b. summary c. method analysis d. discussion ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.3 KEY: Application MSC: * (New Question) 151. Deception, invasion of privacy, and lasting harm are considerations in the a. justification for conducting single-blind and double-blind experiments. b. control of dependent variables in a field experiment. c. determination of the degree of placebo effect. d. ethics of behavioral research. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.4 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 152. Which of the following presents an ethical problem in behavioral research? a. deception b. self-fulfilling prophecies c. the placebo effect d. the correlation/causation problem ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.4 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 153. Milgram’s study of obedience to authority, in which subjects thought they were shocking other subjects, raised questions about which two ethical concerns? a. deception and voluntary participation b. voluntary participation and lasting harm to subjects c. lasting harm to subjects and deception d. confidentiality and invasion of privacy ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Scientific Research-How to Think Like a Psychologist OBJ: 1.4.4 KEY: Concept MSC: * (New Question) 154. To prevent ethical abuse in psychology research, a. psychologists have begun to use only computer models for research rather than human or animal subjects. b. psychologists use only animal subjects in research. c. role-play experiments have taken the place of those experiments requiring deception. d. psychology departments have ethics committees to act as

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