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## Question 1

According to Piaget, there are three significant equilibration points, each ushering in a new stage of development. When do they occur?
a.   18 months, ages 5 to 7, and late childhood
b.   18 months, late childhood, and adolescence
c.   6 months, 18 months, 24 months
d.   infancy, toddlerhood, preschool
e.   18 months, ages 5 to 7, adolescence

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## Question 2

The following are examples of Piaget's concept of equilibration. Analyze two of the following scenarios, identifying in each one:
a) the source of disequilibrium,
b) a change in skill or understanding (the accommodation taking place),
c) the resulting new skill, concept, or level of understanding.

Baby scenario: Baby Warren can get applesauce to his mouth with his hand pretty efficiently. But now he tries to eat with a spoon. He scoops up the applesauce successfully, but what goes to his mouth is the spoon handle; the applesauce goes onto his forehead. Later, after weeks of practice, he can eat successfully with the spoon.

Preschool scenario: Emily sees some groups of numbers on a gravestone (1899–1950). She assimilates them (attempts to understand them based on what she already knows about numbers grouped that way). Then she looks perplexed and says, "But you can't really call them up, can you, if they're dead?" Her mom helps her out by explaining how dates are written.

College scenario: As Ravi begins reading his textbook, he "knows" that in cognitive development we form our first operations in the "formal operations" stage. But now he reads that children first develop operations in the Concrete Operations stage. After some thought and rereading, he learns the correct sequence.

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## Question 3

The following are examples of Piaget's concept of equilibration. Analyze two of the following scenarios and identify in each:

a)   The source of disequilibrium
b)   The accommodation taking place
c)   The resulting new scheme

•   Baby Natalie can feed herself applesauce with her fingers with relative ease. Her mother introduces the spoon and encourages Natalie to feed herself. Natalie dips the spoon in the applesauce but turns the spoon on the way to her mouth and the applesauce drips off. After some practice Natalie learns how to keep the applesauce on the spoon.
•   Eli sees some groups of numbers on a gravestone (1899-1950). He appears to be thinking about the numbers and his lips are moving and he is speaking under his breath. Then he looks perplexed and says, "But you can't really call them can you, if they are dead?" Eli's turns to his mom for clarification.
•   Alonzo begins reading his textbook and knows from his high school psychology class that cognitive development begins with the "formal operations" stage. While skimming his text he discovers that children first develop operations in the Concrete Operational stage. He carefully reads the section on cognitive development.

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