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hawkmom52 hawkmom52
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3 years ago
Which one of the following statements best describes contextual views of learning?
  a. Information stored in long-term memory is highly interrelated, such that everything is either directly or indirectly connected with everything else.
  b. Learners can tackle complex tasks more successfully when they have familiar concrete tools to assist them in their efforts.
  c. Practice in applying principles of deductive and inductive reasoning leads to more logical thought processes in a variety of contexts.
  d. People of all agesbut especially young childrenlearn most effectively when they can relate a new concept to their own experiences.

Ques. 2

Jennifer was given a random list of 20 words to study. Jennifer was then asked to recall as many of the words as she could remember in a free recall task. Consistent with verbal learning research, which of the following orders is Jennifer most likely to recall the words in?
  a. Random order
  b. The same order the words were presented in
  c. In categories organized by the words' meanings
  d. Alphabetical order

Ques. 3

Sarah needs to learn how to spell 40 words for a spelling test tomorrow. Sarah wants to perform as well as she possibly can on the test. Based on findings from verbal learning research, which one of the following would be the best advice to give Sarah?
  a. Spell each word at least 5 times, saying the letters silently to yourself.
  b. Spell each word at least 5 times, saying the letters out loud.
  c. Spell the words until you know them all perfectly.
  d. Spell the words until you know them all perfectly, and then continue to practice spelling them several more times.

Ques. 4

Mrs. Pike's class is learning to spell twenty new words. They learn 5 words per day for four days (Monday through Thursday). On Friday the students are given a spelling test on all 20 words. When Mrs. Pike is grading the tests, she notices that most students remembered the words that we taught on Thursday, but not on Monday through Wednesday. Which verbal learning principle can explain Mrs. Pike's spelling test results?
  a. Primacy effect
  b. Recency effect
  c. Overlearning
  d. Proactive inhibition

Ques. 5

Harry and Sam are both taking French; Harry is also taking German, but Sam is not. Harry and Sam learn these French vocabulary words in their French class:
   head  la tte
   eye  l'il
   mouth  la bouche
   The following day, Harry learns these German vocabulary words in his German class:
   head  der Kopf
   eye  das Auge
   mouth  der Mund
   A week later the two boys are given a French vocabulary quiz in which they are asked to give the French words for head, eye, and mouth. Other things being equal, findings from verbal learning research would lead us to predict that:
  a. Due to retroactive inhibition, Harry will get a lower grade on the quiz than Sam.
  b. Due to proactive inhibition, Harry will get a higher grade on the quiz than Sam.
  c. Due to retroactive facilitation, Harry will get a lower grade on the quiz than Sam.
  d. Due to proactive facilitation, Harry will get a higher grade on the quiz than Sam.

Ques. 6

Which one of the following is the best example of serial learning?
  a. Learning how to fly a kite
  b. Learning the months of the year in order
  c. Learning French grammar
  d. Learning the capitals of European countries

Ques. 7

Which one of the following statements reflects Tolman's notion of purposive behaviorism?
  a. Organisms sometimes reinforce themselves (e.g., by feeling proud).
  b. Organisms behave in order to attain particular goals.
  c. Behavior can be altered by reinforcement, but not by punishment.
  d. When organisms discover that a particular response is no longer reinforced as it has previously been, they increase the frequency of that response for a short time.

Ques. 8

Which one of the following best illustrates Tolman's notion of a cognitive map?
  a. You study a map of Australia until you can reproduce it with considerable accuracy.
  b. You study a map of Australia but reproduce it with many distortions in shape and location.
  c. After walking around campus for a few days, you learn where buildings are in relation to one another.
  d. The concepts table and chair are more closely associated in memory than the words bed and refrigerator.

Ques. 9

Contemporary cognitive theory asserts that humans are actively involved in their own learning. This assertion is most closely aligned to which theory?
  a. Cognitive developmental
  b. Social cognitive
  c. Cognitive behavioral
  d. Cognitive neuroscience
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