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Define ingroup, outgroup, and reference group, and provide examples to illustrate your definitions.
  What will be an ideal response?

Question 2

The __________ states that when people from divergent groups are exposed to each other, favorable attitudes and behavior develop when certain factors are present.
  a. relational hypothesis
 b. social behavior thesis
 c. contact hypothesis
 d. functionalist perspective

Question 3

The Islamic notion of jihad, meaning struggle, is a core belief. The_____ Jihad is believed to be the internal struggle against sin within a person's heart.
  a. Greater
  b. Primary
  c. Lesser
  d. Tertiary

Question 4

Define primary and secondary groups and describe how these concepts relate to one another.
  What will be an ideal response?

Question 5

What happens when individuals meet someone who does not conform to their preexisting stereotypes?
  a. They abandon the stereotypes and accept the person for who he or she is.
 b. They ignore any behavior that contradicts the stereotype.
 c. They ignore the person completely.
 d. They change their ideas about the stereotypes they held.

Question 6

The Islamic faith is based on the_____the holy book of the Muslims, as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel at the command of God. It reveals that it is up to God, not humans, to determine which individuals are deserving of punishment and what kinds of violence are justified under various conditions.
  a. Torahb. Old Testament
 c. Talmud d. Qur'an

Question 7

Distinguish between groups, aggregates, and categories from a sociological perspective.
  What will be an ideal response?
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Answer to q. 1

All groups set boundaries by distinguishing between insiders who are members and outsiders who are not. Sociologist William Graham Sumner coined the terms ingroup and outgroup to describe people's feelings toward members of their own and other groups. An ingroup is a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity. An outgroup is a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility. Distinguishing between our ingroups and our outgroups helps us establish our individual identity and self-worth. Likewise, groups are solidified by ingroup and outgroup distinctions; the presence of an enemy or hostile group binds members more closely together. Group boundaries may be formal, with clearly defined criteria for membership. Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may encourage social cohesion among members, but they may also promote classism, racism, sexism, and ageism.

Ingroup members typically view themselves positively and members of outgroups negatively. These feelings of group superiority, or ethnocentrism, are somewhat inevitable. Ingroups provide us not only with a source of identity but also with a point of reference.

A reference group is a group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member. Reference groups help explain why our behavior and attitudes sometimes differ from those of our membership groups. For most of us, our reference group attachments change many times during our life course, especially when we acquire a new status in a formal organization.

Answer to q. 2


Answer to q. 3


Answer to q. 4

Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term primary group to describe a

small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face,

emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time. We have primary

relationships with other individuals in our primary groupsthat is, with our

significant others, who frequently serve as role models. In contrast, a

secondary group is a larger, more specialized group in which the members

engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of


Answer to q. 5


Answer to q. 6


Answer to q. 7

A social group is a collection of two or more people who interact

frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a

feeling of interdependence. An aggregate is a collection of people who

happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in

common (such as several people waiting for a traffic light to change). A

category is a number of people who may never have met one another but

share a similar characteristic (such as education level, age, race, or

This verified answer contains over 620 words.

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JNASTY123 Author
4 years ago
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