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Describe the structure of a nucleotide. What is its significance in relation to DNA and RNA?

What are the bases for DNA? RNA? Include how they pair up.

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2 months ago
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Describe the structure of a nucleotide. What is its significance in relation to DNA and RNA?

What are the bases for DNA? RNA? Include how they pair up.

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules in all life forms on Earth. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three subunit molecules: a nitrogenous base, a five carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group. They are also known as phosphate nucleotides.

Difference in DNA and RNA on the basis of structural difference in nucleotide

There are 5 types of nucleic acids in which 3 are common in DNA and RNA i.e,adenine, cytosine, guanin and there is a difference between the two bases:

Thymine is a pyrimidine and has one ring. It bonds with adenine in DNA. Thymine is not found in RNA.

Uracil is also a pyrimidine. It bonds with adenine in RNA; it is not found in DNA.

Each nucleobase on a nucleotide strand of DNA attaches to its partner nucleobase on a second strand: adenine links to thymine, and cytosine links to guanine. This linking causes DNA's two strands to twist and wind around each other, forming a variety of shapes, such as the famous double helix.

In RNA, adenine and uracil (not thymine) link together, while cytosine still links to guanine. As a single stranded molecule, RNA folds in on itself to link up its nucleobases.
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2 months ago
Nucleotide is a building block of nucleic acid and it is made up of three basic molecules; which are

Nitrogenous base- These are either purines (adenine and guanine) or pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). In DNA the nitrogenous base consists of adenine,cytosine, guanine and thymine while in RNA the bases are adenine uracil cytosine and thymine.

pentose sugar - This sugar is either ribose or deoxyribose depending on whether it is DNA or RNA ribose and deoxyribose differ in that the deoxyribose is less one oxygen atom to the second atom

Phosphate group - This basically a PO43- group

The arrangement of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) determines the structure of the proteins that are being synthesized in the cell

Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are very important molecules in the living organisms. They control and determine hereditary characteristics between generations. They are able to do so through their nucleotides which are their basic bulding blocks. The sequence of nucleotides in an nucleic acids codes for protein structures that get sysnthesized in the cell
2 months ago
Nucleotide are the sub-units that are linked to frame the nucleic acids riboflavin acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic corrosive (DNA), which fill in as the cell's storehouse of genetic information. made out of three suburbanite molecules: a nitrogenous base, a five-carbo3n su3gar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at lea3st one phosphate gathering. They are otherwise called phosphate nucleotide. A nucleoside is a nitrogenous base and a 5-carbon sugar. The sugar can be ribose, which is found in ribonucleotides and RNA, or deoxyribose, which is found in deoxyribonucleotides and DNA. The main contrast between these two sugars is that deoxyribose has one less oxygen molecule than ribose. The five carbon iotas in the sugar are numbered successively.

DNA nucleotide :-

DNA is comprised of molecule4s called nucle4otides.

DNA is the poly4mer of deoxy ribonucleotides.

- >basic building block of DNA is the nucleotide. The nucleotide in DNA comprises of a sugar (deoxyribose), one of four bases (cytosine (C), thymine (T), adenine (A), guanine (G)), and a phosphate.

- >Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidine bases, while adenine and guanine are purine bases.

Nucleotide structure of a RNA:-

- >RNA is a polymer of ribonucleotides.

- >Each nucleot3ide in RNA contains a ribose sugar, with carbons numbered 1' through 5'.

- >A base is connected to the 1' position, when all is said in done, adenine (A),cytosine (C), guanine (G), or uracil (U).

- >Adenine and guanine are purines,cytosine and uracil are pyrimidines

A man's DNA contains malformation about their legacy, and can some of the time uncover whether they are in danger for certain diseases. DNA tests, or genetic tests, are utilized for an assortment of reasons, including to diagnose generic disorders
2 months ago
Nucleotides are the phosphate esters of nucleosides, and are made up of 3 components:

(1) Nitrogenous base: There are 2 types of nitrogenous bases-

(2) A five carbon sugar: Nucleotides have 2 types of sugars-

Ribose sugar
Deoxyribose sugar
(3) An ion of phosphoric acid.

Significance of nucleotides:

Nucleotides are the building blocks of nuclic acids.
The nucleotides in the DNA, and RNA codes for the protein structures synthesized within the cell.
Several nucleotide acts with the enzymes to catalyze biochemical reactions.
Nucleotides are the energy currency of cells.
Nucleotides also acts as biological regulators.
2 months ago
Nucleotide is composed of sugar, base, and a phosphate group that plays a crucial role in the bonding within the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

DNA is composed of nucleic acids and each monomeric unit of nucleic acid comprises of a base, ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. There are five nitrogenous bases, namely adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. In DNA uracil is not present rather it is found in RNA in place of thymine.

Thymine has a methyl group present at 5th carbon along with a carbonyl group at carbon-4 and 2 respectively. Uracil differs from thymine only by the absence of methyl group on C-5. The sugar is either in ribose or deoxyribose form. The lack of hydroxyl group at C-2 position makes the ribose a deoxyribose, which is present in DNA, whereas, RNA has ribose sugar.

The sugar and the base are joined together to form a nucleoside through glycosidic bond. The bond is formed between N-9 of base and C-1 of sugar. The presence of additional phosphate group on C-5 of ribose converts nucleoside into nucleotide. The phosphate group is responsible for the formation of phosphodiester bond in DNA and RNA. The 5' and 3' end have a free phosphate and hydroxyl group respectively. The backbone of DNA and RNA is formed by the phosphodiester bond. This linkage helps in determining the primary structure and base pairing through hydrogen bonds provides the secondary structure. Double helix is the secondary structure and is generally found but rarely in RNA molecule.
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