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wrote...
Posts: 776
2 months ago
If finger and toe get infections, if I am a white blood cell, and would like to know on where I should go and which parts of body controls this decision.

Does anyone have any suggestions?
Thanks in advance for any suggestions

"White blood cells serve the sole job of killing infections"
Ref : https://protectingpatientrights.com/blog/what-is-the-difference-between-a-bacterial-infection-and-a-viral-infection/
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wrote...
Educator
2 months ago
Hi

Macrophages circulate the bloodstream nonstop. They engulf any pathogens entering the bloodstream from the injury and present bits and pieces of the pathogen on their surface. White blood cells also circulating in the blood have the ability to engulf foreign objects, but can also become activate if they sense other cells are infected, like the macrophage. This is because macrophage secrete proteins that white blood cells pick up on.

It's a complicated process and a lot goes on during an infection!
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wrote...
2 months ago Edited: 2 months ago, oem7110
Referring to following video, I would like to know on how Macrophage tracks Bacteria intelligently, what kind of approach is being used on tracking.  Furthermore, once bacteria are found, what process control the number of Macrophage comes to inflected area to protect body in order to control just enough Macrophage (not too much or too little) into this inflected area to do the job, that is a communication within body cells, what process performs this task?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)


wrote...
Educator
2 months ago
Here's the recruitment process:

At sites of infection, macrophages that have encountered microbes produce cytokines, such as Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Interleukin-1 (IL-1), that activate the endothelial cells of nearby venules to produce selectins, ligands for integrins, and chemokines.  Selectins mediate weak tethering and rolling of blood leukocytes, such as neutrophils on the endothelium; integrins mediate firm adhesion of neutrophils; and chemokines increase the affinity of neutrophil integrins and stimulate the migration of the cells through the endothelium to the site of infection.  Blood neutrophils, monocytes, and activated T lymphocytes use essentially the same mechanisms to migrate to sites of infection.

Image Link: https://biology-forums.com/index.php?action=gallery;sa=view;id=1496

This animation should answer your questions perfectly Downwards Arrow

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wrote...
2 months ago Edited: 2 months ago, oem7110
Referring to following statement, I would like to know on how T cells receiving alert and how much amount of T cells would be received order moving to the site of infection area, who do play a role on this decision management?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)


Helper T Cell
   Activate Cytotoxic T cell and B cell
   T cells move to the site of infection
   T cells recognize the foreign antigens on the surface of the APSs.
   The helper T cells stimulate the production of antibodies by plasma cells.

Cytotoxic T cell
   Destroy pathogens by phagocytosis
   Only recognize viral antigens outside the infected cells
   T cells move to the site of infection
   T cells recognize the foreign antigens on the surface of the APSs.
   The cytotoxic T cells destroy pathogens by inducing the apoptosis.

B cell
   Produce and secrtet antibodies to destroy the pathogens
   Recognize the surface antigens of bacteria and viruses.
   B cells do not move to the site of infection.   
   The B cells produce specific antibodies to different pathogens, by recognizing the antigens in the circulation system.   

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320182585_Difference_Between_T_Cells_and_B_Cells
Post Merge: 2 months ago

In order to avoid too much T cells moving to the site of infection area, I would like to know on how T cells receiving alert and how much amount of T cells would be received order moving to the site of infection area.
wrote...
Educator
2 months ago Edited: 2 months ago, bio_man
Hi oem7110 ... From what I understand, you'd like to know the threshold required after cytokines have been released to illicite a t-cell response? In other words, if one cytokine were released hypothetically, you're curious if it's enough to active a t-cell?



Several different cell types coordinate their efforts as part of the immune system, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, mast cells, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. Each of these cell types has a distinct role in the immune system, and communicates with other immune cells using secreted cytokines. Macrophages phagocytose foreign bodies and are antigen-presenting cells, using cytokines to stimulate specific antigen dependent responses by B and T cells and non-specific responses by other cell types. T cells secrete a variety of factors to coordinate and stimulate immune responses to specific antigen, such as the role of helper T cells in B cell activation in response to antigen. The proliferation and activation of eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils respond to cytokines as well.
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wrote...
2 months ago
Referring to following image, the limitation of communication is based on following factors, I would like to know on how long cytokines last for life time and how far cytokines can be covered between cells.  If I am white blood cell in lung, I might not able to receive any cytokines signals from toes.



Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)
wrote...
Educator
2 months ago
If the infection occurs in your hand, for example, it would generate a localized response. Therefore, white blood cells in the lungs would not be affected.
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wrote...
Educator
2 months ago
Check this out

https://biology-forums.com/index.php?action=gallery;sa=view;id=40002

The lymphatic system plays a major role in immunity
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wrote...
2 months ago
I would like to know on whether blood circulates around the body through Lymphatic System or blood vessel alone, on the other words, my heart is located in US and my finger is located in Canada, if blood must to go to finger, do Lymphatic System like custom department between countries? For example, blood pumps from heart (US) flows through blood vessel (high way in US) and get through Lymphatic System (custom department) and flows through blood vessel (high way in Canada) and finally reach finger (Canada), would it be correct concept on understanding blood flow across the body?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)
wrote...
Educator
2 months ago
No, sir. Blood circulates throughout blood vessels only. Lymph is collected by the lymphatic system to be recycled back into the bloodstream. Lymph consists of interstitial fluid that is similar to blood plasma but with a lower protein concentration, lymphocytes and macrophages.

What happens is that since blood pressure is so high, blood vessels namely the capillaries leak water, forming "interstitial fluid". This excess water needs to re-enter the bloodstream, so it's collected by the lymphatic vessels. Once fluid enters the lymphatics it's called "Lymph."
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wrote...
2 months ago
Referring to following image,  I would like to know on what cause this kind of meat growth on skin, would it any signals relate to health of lymphatic system?
Do you have any suggestions?
 Thank you very much for any suggestion


wrote...
Educator
2 months ago Edited: 2 months ago, bio_man
That's called a skin tag, and it's not caused by your immune system at all. It comes from constant rubbing of the skin, for example, from a shirt collar.
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