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A week ago
 Which of the following mutational changes would you predict to be the most deleterious to gene function? Explain your answer.
1.   Insertion of a single nucleotide near the end of the coding sequence.
2.   Removal of a single nucleotide near the beginning of the coding sequence.
 3.   Deletion of three consecutive nucleotides in the middle of the coding sequence.
4. Deletion of four consecutive nucleotides in the middle of the coding sequence.
5.   Substitution of one nucleotide for another in the middle of the coding sequence.
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A week ago
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I select: Removal of a single nucleotide near the beginning of the coding sequence.

This causes a frameshift, and is the worst, especially at the beginning. Generally, this type of mutation occurs when the addition or loss of DNA bases changes a gene's reading frame. A reading frame consists of groups of 3 bases that each code for one amino acid. A frameshift mutation shifts the grouping of these bases and changes the code for amino acids. The resulting protein is usually nonfunctional. Insertions, deletions, and duplications can all be frameshift mutations.

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