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saranyaallu saranyaallu
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5 months ago
1.What is the difference between common-source infections and host-to-host infections. Name an example of each.

2.Name 3 functions of the activity of gut microbiota and how they can benefit human health.

3.Compare bacterial planktonic and biofilm growth, which is harder to control in terms of infection? why?
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Educator
5 months ago Edited: 5 months ago, bio_man
1.What is the difference between common-source infections and host-to-host infections. Name an example of each.

A common source infection is one that arises from a contaminated source, such as food or water.
-- Pretend a water well or river used by both humans and cattle is contaminated with a parasite to which both species are susceptible to.

A host-to-host infection is one that is transmitted from an infected individual to a susceptible one.
-- Pretend a child has chickenpox, and then infects an non-immunized child who doesn't have it.

2.Name 3 functions of the activity of gut microbiota and how they can benefit human health.

The bacteria found within one's gut helps in:

1) Digestion and metabolism, thereby preventing complications like irritable bowel syndrome. For instance, the intestinal flora is capable of fermenting indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.
2) Production of vitamins. For example, intestinal bacteria synthesize biotin, vitamin B12, folic acid, and thiamine.
3) Gut bacteria may also protect the host from pathogens; this is whey taking antibiotics for a prolonged period of time could make you susceptible to bacteria which otherwise wouldn't have harmed you.

3.Compare bacterial planktonic and biofilm growth, which is harder to control in terms of infection? why?

I'd say biofilm is harder to control than planktonic (free-slowing bacteria). Bacterial biofilms protect the microbial community from external damage and promote the persistence of chronic infections. Think of plaque growth on your teeth, that stuff is extremely difficult to remove without having to scrape it off by a hygenist. In fact, it has been shown that human macrophages phagocytize planktonic E. coli more efficiently than bacteria grown in a biofilm. Bacteria with "a biofilm" avoid phagocytosis by naïve macrophages, which creates a favorable environment for chronic infection.
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Educator
5 months ago
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