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15. Sheldrick Elephant Orphanage
In Kenya, the Sheldrick Elephant orphanage takes care of elephants that have lost their herd as a result of poaching. In 2012, the orphanage had a population size of 387 elephants.

Over the next two years, they had 18 pregnant cows birth successfully. Three cows were lost due to complications with their pregnancies. They lost 14 more from sickness.

They found 57 elephants that required care and were able to release 12 into the wild. All of the elephants are kept in a 225 m cross times 175 m rectangular park.

Calculate the following for this population :

Population growth
Growth rate
Per capita growth rate
Population density at
beginning of the year
end of the year

17. Trumpeter Swans
Trumpeter swans were once widespread and abundant in North America. However, a combination of heavy hunting pressure and habitat lost drastically 4 reduced the species’ population down to less than 70 individuals in the wild by the mid-1930s.

By the mid-1980s, Trumpeter swans were more prevalent again in Alberta, especially near Grande Prairie.

The following graph depicts the estimated number of Trumpeter swans in Alberta, carried out at five-year intervals from 1985 to 2010.
(use the graph)
What growth pattern of the Trumpeter swan population in Alberta is being observed?
What environmental conditions allow the growth pattern that you identified?
What may cause the growth pattern that is being observed to change?

19. How does a defense mechanism (behavioural, cryptic colouration, protective colouration, mimicry) affect predation and competition?

Provide an example of a defense mechanism that you have not encountered in the course or in the online assignments. Include an image depicting the defence mechanism, describe the defence mechanism and cite your sources.

Hypothesize how this defence mechanism may have evolved over time due to pressure from predation and/or competition.

20. Giraffes are herbivores found in Africa. They prefer to eat twigs and leaves from acacia trees. This type of producer–consumer relationship can be described as a predator–prey relationship or parasitism.

1. how the interaction between giraffe and acacia tree can be a predator–prey relationship
2.what instance the giraffe–acacia tree relationship would be parasitic
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2 months ago
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I've included the solution to question #15. See if it also gives you insight to answer the other one on your own.

Post Merge: 2 months ago

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2 months ago
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