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3 weeks ago
Cloning is the process of creating genetically identical organisms. One simple method of cloning is called artificial embryo twinning. In this process, an early stage embryo is separated into two groups of cells. Each group of cells is then allowed to develop. The embryos are then implanted into the surrogate mother. Each embryo is genetically identical to the other.

Some pregnancies in humans have a similar result.

Explain how identical twins are formed.

Compare and contrast the natural formation of identical twins to the artificial embryo twinning process.

Explain how the formation of identical twins or the process of artificial embryo twinning differs from the formation of fraternal twins.
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3 weeks ago
Explain how identical twins are formed.

when one egg is fertilised and then splits into two cells. the twins share one placenta and amnitoic sac
they have the same genes, same sex, look exactly alike


Compare and contrast the natural formation of identical twins to the artificial embryo twinning process.

1. Twins are formed naturally unlike artificial embryo twinning that are artificial in nature and occur in Petri Dish. Identical twins are considered as natural clones.
2. Twins result from the natural splitting of one zygote or the fertilization of two ova while artificial embryo twinning are manually separated of a early embryo into separate  cell and allowing each cell to divide on its own.
3. Twins are naturally born altogether (almost at the same time) as opposed to clones that are usually created at a much later time.


Explain how the formation of identical twins or the process of artificial embryo twinning differs from the formation of fraternal twins.


Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins.

In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

Artificial embryo twinning uses the same approach, but it is carried out in a Petri dish instead of inside the mother. A very early embryo is separated into individual cells, which are allowed to divide and develop for a short time in the Petri dish. The embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother, where they finish developing. Again, since all the embryos came from the same fertilized egg, they are genetically identical.


Pregnancy occurs when a sperm gets fused with an egg to form a zygote. Twin pregnancy occurs in two methods. After the process of fertilization and formation of zygote, it divides into two forming identical twins. Zygote is nothing but group of few cells and formation of identical twins happens at the early stages of pregnancy. In this case, two babies would have exactly the same set of genes and chromosomes. These babies will be of same complexion, color and they are very much alike. One out of three twin pregnancies belongs to that of identical twins and the balance two are of non-identical ones.

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