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A week ago
Explain the main points of Anomie/Strain Theories.  What is Institutional Anomie Theory?
Textbook 
Introduction to Security: Operations and Management
Edition: 5th
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These theories do not use the "place" or location to explain crime. Instead, they posit that the entire value system and socio-economic structure of the modern U.S. economy promotes deviance and crime. In essence, it looks at the cause of crime in macro-micro approach, arguing that society values lead to individuals experiencing "strains" that lead to crime. One heavily used strain-based theory is Robert Merton's Five Modes of Adaptation. Originally created by 1938, Merton proposed that crime and deviance was the result of "an acute disjunction between the cultural norms and goals and the socially structured capacities of members of the group to act in accord with them." This disjunction or unintended latent consequence of the U.S. culture has created a sense of normlessness on how to reach these goals, where, in some cases, individuals become innovators and engage in criminal activities to reach these goals. Although Merton's theory has undergone several modifications, the resulting strain or anomie theories are based on the premise that crime and deviance is the product of two elements: (1) the goal orientation of modern day society, which is based on economic success; and (2) the available means to achieve those goals. A more refined definition of strain is Messner and Rosenfeld's (1997) institutional anomie theory.  Messner and Rosenfeld define the "American Dream" as the "commitment to the goal of material success, to be pursued by everyone in society, under conditions of open, individual competition."  They also propose that crime exists in higher rates in the United States because the economy dominates over other social institutions that create norms and controls, such as the family, education, and polity (the government or political restraint of the market economy).
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