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sam3359 sam3359
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Explain how primary deviance progresses to secondary deviance according to labeling theory.
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Criminological Theory: A Brief Introduction


Edition: 4th
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studyinnursestudyinnurse
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More questions for this book are available here
  • Labeling theory centers on how society interprets and reacts to socially unacceptable behavior and how this will affect the future for the individual who is engaging in the criminal behavior.
  • Primary deviation-Initial acts of deviance and how these initial acts will be socially received are important.
  • Primary deviations are these initial acts of deviance that lead to negative reactions from those in authority who devalue delinquent youth.
    • Negative reactions cause a ripple effect where others begin to see this designated stereotype upon a delinquent individual that blocks positive opportunities
  • The process of labeling necessarily involves a power dynamic that pronounces the inequality between those who have the status and opportunities to assign labels and those who are labeled.
  • After acquiring a deviant label, others view and interact with them in such a manner that further misbehavior is expected.
  • Continued participation in delinquency and crime is called secondary deviation.
  • Therefore, secondary deviation is the outcome of social construction of crime through the labeling process and the importance of self-concept.


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