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Here are the answers for SCIN 132 Ex 4 (for whoever needs them) :)
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ACTIVITY 1:  Metabolism and Thyroid Hormones – Part 1   Answers
1.   The baseline metabolic rate (BMR) of the normal rat was approximately ________ ml O2/kg/hr.   1687
2.   True or False:  The BMR of all three rats was approximately the same before treatment with thyroxine, TSH, or propylthiouracil.         False
3.   Which rat had the fastest basal metabolic rate (BMR)?    Normal rat
4.    Why did the BMR’s differ between the normal rat and the surgically altered rats?   Because the other 2 rats had either had the thyroid or pituitary gland surgically removed. And this is  important part in hormone secretion to raise or lower
5.   If an animal had been thyroidectomized, what hormone(s) would be missing in its blood?    Thyroxine and Calcitonin
6.   If an animal had been hypophysectomized, what effect(s) would you expect to see in the hormone levels in its blood and in its BMR?   The metabolic rate would go down with no pituitary gland to produce THS
ACTIVITY 1:  Metabolism and Thyroid Hormones – Part 2
7.   True or False:  The thyroxine injections caused a goiter in the normal rat.   False
8.   After the thyroxine injection, the BMR (in ml O2/kg/hr) of the thyroidectomized rat was approximately
a.   1700
b.   1800
c.   1900      
d.   2000   C
9.   True or False:  The term euthyroid means that the amount of thyroid hormone present in that specific animal is within the normal range.      True
10.   What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the normal rat’s BMR?   The metabolic rate increased to 2000, which was higher than the baseline
11.   What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the thyroidectomized rat’s BMR? 
How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?
Was the dose of thyroxine in the syringe too large, too small, or just right?    The metabolic rate was increased to 1910 which was not as high as the baseline.
Metabolic rates were raised to reach normal rates, even though still lower than baseline. It has a pituitary gland so some hormones are still there. The dose was too large
12.   What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the hypophysectomized rat’s BMR?  How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?  Was the dose of thyroxine in the syringe too large, too small, or just right?    It raised the metabolic rate but not as high as the thyroidectomized or normal rats. The rat has it’s thyroid but no pituitary gland, it is lowest on the metabolic rate. The dose was too large
ACTIVITY 1:  Metabolism and Thyroid Hormones – Part 3
13.   The hormone TSH is synthesized in and secreted from
a.   the hypothalamus.
b.   the anterior pituitary gland.         
c.   the posterior pituitary gland.
d.   the thyroid gland.   B
14.   The letter “S” in TSH stand for the word ___________________ _.    Stimulating
15.   What was the effect of TSH injections on the normal rat’s BMR?   The metabolic rate went up and the baseline was a lot lower
16.   What was the effect of TSH injections on the thyroidectomized rat’s BMR?  How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?  Why did this happen?   Metabolic rate did not really go up, just a little above baseline. Without a thyroid to stimulate, TSH not very effective
17.   What was the effect of TSH injections on the hypophysectomized rat’s BMR?  How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?  Why did this happen?    The metabolic rate went up, and higher than thyroidectomized rat, but lower than normal rat. This is trying to level out to what would be normal. Metabolism is the same because it is not exactly right, but trying with hormones to level it out
ACTIVITY 1:  Metabolism and Thyroid Hormones – Part 4
18.   The hypophysectomized rat, before receiving any injections, was
a.   hypothyroid.
b.   euthyroid.         
c.   hyperthyroid.
d.   none of the above.   A
19.   True or False:  The effect of the chemical propylthiouracil (PTU) is to inhibit the production of thyroxine in the thyroid gland.    False
20.   What was the effect of PTU injections on the normal rat’s BMR?    It slowed the metabolic rate, compared to normal baseline. PTU inhibits production of thyroxine.
21.   What was the effect of PTU injections on the thyroidectomized rat’s BMR?  How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?  Why did this happen?    It slowed down, but not as much as the normal rat. The thyroidectomized rat is not as affected because it has no thyroid
22.   What was the effect of PTU injections on the hypophysectomized rat’s BMR?  How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat’s BMR?  Why did this happen?    Not really any overall effect. because the parts that should have been affected were already removed.
ACTIVITY 2:  Plasma Glucose, Insulin, and Diabetes Mellitus
23.   True or False:  The hormone insulin is secreted from the pancreas into the small intestine in order to help the digestion of starch into glucose.         False
24.   The primary difference(s) between type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus is the following:
a.   A person with type 1 diabetes suffers from a lack of insulin.
b.   A person with type 2 diabetes usually has a sufficient amount of insulin but the cells of the body do not respond appropriately to it.
c.   The medicine primarily used to treat the two forms of diabetes are quite different.
d.   All of the above are correct.   D
25.   A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of approximately _____ mg/dl or less is considered normal.   110
26.   If the FPG levels of a patient, on three successive days, are 114, 125, and 120, the healthcare provider will inform that patient that she/he appears to
a.   be normal.
b.   have impaired or borderline impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake by cells.
c.   have diabetes mellitus
d.   need several more FPG levels determined.   B
27.   What is a glucose standard curve, and why did you need to obtain one for this experiment?     This is for a point of reference for converting optical density to glucose measurement in milligrams/deciliter or mg/dl
It is needed to measure fasting plasma, glucose levels and diagnose presence or absence of diabetes milliliters
28.   Which patient(s) had glucose reading(s) in the diabetic range? 
Can you say with certainty whether each of these patients has type 1 or type 2 diabetes?   Why or why not?    Patients 1 and 5
Yes I can determine which has type 1 or 2
Type1- if the pancreas is not producing sufficient insulin
Type 2- if the cells in the body are unresponsive to circulating insulin
29.   Describe the diagnosis for patient 3, who was also pregnant at the time of this assay.   I could be gestational diabetes.
30.   Which patient(s) had normal plasma glucose reading(s)?   Patient 1
31.   What are the lifestyle changes these patients with normal plasma glucose readings might recommend to the borderline impaired patients?    To follow a strict diet to keep the glucose readings in check. Check with doctor for a medical recommended diet.
ACTIVITY 3:  Hormone Replacement Therapy
32.   Hormone replacement therapy refers, in this lab simulation, to
a.   the administration of estrogen.
b.   the administration of calcitonin.   
c.   the administration of both estrogen or calcitonin.   C
33.   In this lab simulation, the T-score of the rat treated with estrogen for 7 days was _______.   -1.68
34.   True or False:  A woman after she goes through menopause should discuss hormone replacement therapy with her healthcare provider.         True
35.   A person with osteoporosis
a.   has a reduced quantity of bone.
b.   has a decreased bone mass.   
c.   has an increased susceptibility to bone fractures.
d.   all the above are correct.   C
36.   Why were ovariectomized rats used in this experiment? 
How does the fact that the rats are ovariectomized explain their baseline T-scores?    Each has a baseline T score of -2.61 indicating osteoporosis
37.   What effect did the administration of saline injections have on the control rat?   The baseline T score of the control rat was -2.61, after 7 days of saline injections the T score was a little higher -2.84
38.   What effect did the administration of estrogen injections have on the estrogen-treated rat?  What effect did it have on bone density?   The estrogen treated rat was able to get in range of just bone thinning. This would mean estrogen injections are helping
39.   What effect did the administration of calcitonin injections have on the calcitonin-treated rat?  What effect did it have on bone density?   The injection helped some, but the osteoporosis is still there. The estrogen injections seemed to be better
40.   What are some health risks that postmenopausal women must consider when contemplating estrogen hormone replacement therapy?     There is a risk of: Uterine, breast, colorectal cancer, and an increased chance of small cell lung cancer.
ACTIVITY 4:  Measuring Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) Hormones
41.   The hormone cortisol is
a.   synthesized in and secreted from the adrenal gland.
b.   very important in the body’s response to stress.   
c.   influenced by the amount of ACTH in the blood stream.
d.   All the above are correct.   D
42.   The cortisol level of patient 3 was ________ mcg/dl.   40.08
43.   The ACTH level of patient 4 was ________ pg/ml.   96.48
44.   True or False:  The hormone CRH is a tropic hormone that comes from the pituitary gland and affects the adrenal gland.       True
45.   Which of the patients would most likely be diagnosed with Cushing’s disease?  Why?    Patients 2,3, and 5
because they all had increased levels of Cortisol and ACTH
46.   Which two patients have hormone levels characteristic of Cushing’s syndrome?  Why?   Patients 3 and 5
Increased cortisol or hypercortisolism  if the increase is caused by an adrenal gland tumor
47.   Patient 2 is being treated for rheumatoid arthritis with high doses of prednisone.  How does this information change the diagnosis?   This is when a glucocorticoid hormone such as prednisone is used to treat the rheumatoid arthritis. This is also known as steroid diabetes which results in hyperglycemia. Cushing’s disease can also be iatrogenic
48.   Which patient would most likely be diagnosed with Addison’s disease?   Why?   Patient 4 because the Cortisol level is low and ACTH is high. This is signs of primary adrenal insufficiency. Low cortisol caused by damage to the anterior pituitary, and ACTH is elevated to compensate

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Here are the answers for SCIN 132 Ex 4 (for whoever needs them) :)
Dec 15, 2011

wow thanks.. if i could help feel free to ask:)



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