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Posted by bio_man   January 28, 2023   154 views

Hippocrates (460–377 BC) postulated that the imbalance or excess of four fluids (called humors) within the body play a role in ones emotional and physical state. The chart below shows the four humors (row 1), the condition created by too much of each (row 2), and their respective emotions (row 3):


The Hippocratic theory of personality popularized the practice of bloodletting — opening a vein or applying leeches to "drain off" excessive amounts of the troublesome humor. In medieval Europe, it was common for barber-surgeons (whose professional practice relied on sharp instruments like knives and razors) to advertise their bloodletting services by posting a sign depicting a pale human arm traced with a crimson spiral of blood. (Remember that ...

Hippocrates History Europe Personality Emotions Blood Bodily Fluids
Posted in Interesting Facts
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Posted by bio_man   December 16, 2022   2439 views

The stress response exists for the purpose of survival. When we experience stress, our sympathetic nervous system activates, blood pressure and heart rate increase, and often we begin to sweat. These physiological reactions prepare us for "fight or flight." Our bodies are at optimal physical performance and alertness levels, and we are therefore optimized for survival in a physically challenging situation. Sometimes we use this physiological activation to our advantage: Consider a champion weightlifter who, prior to lifting an extremely heavy weight, "pumps himself up." By doing this, the weightlifter is attempting behaviorally to elicit a stress response from his brain and body in order to achieve the highest level of physical performance ...

stress response fight or flight hormones psychology
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Posted by bio_man   December 16, 2022   2591 views

Bayer Corporation and the Public Health Committee of the American Society for Microbiology sponsored a study of hand washing in public restrooms. Researchers from the survey group hid in stalls or pretended to comb their hair while they observed over 6,000 men and women in five large cities. Their observations revealed that many people prefer a "get up and go" strategy, failing to wash their hands after using the restroom facilities. In New York's Penn Station, for example, only 60% of restroom users washed after relieving themselves. Similar rates were found in other cities: 64% of restroom users washed at a Braves game in Atlanta, 69% washed in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, 71% used soap and water in a New Orleans casino, and a laudab ...

hand washing public bathroom health human behavior psychology
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Posted by bio_man   August 16, 2022   13760 views

Human smell has often been characterized as being deficient when compared to the smell abilities of some lower organisms. Summarized below are four myths about human smell that have been contradicted by research.

Myth 1: Human smell is less sensitive than that of other animals.

Research indicates that the individual smell receptor cells in humans will respond to a single odorant molecule. The difference in overall sensitivity appears to be due to the fact that some lower organisms, such as dogs, have more smell receptors.

Myth 2: Humans have a relatively poor ability to detect changes in smell intensity.

Although earlier research indicated that the difference threshold for smell was the largest of all the senses, more recent research, carefully ...

Physiology Sense of Smell Senses Perception Nose
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Posted by Biology Forums   August 8, 2022   14172 views

Do animals see the same way we do? Do some animals have better vision than humans? The senses of animals have evolved to give members of the species an optimum chance for survival. Here are a few examples:

Some animals, such as cats, have a reflective surface ( tapetum) on the back of the eye behind the sensory receptors (left image above). When light first enters the eye, some light is detected by the sensory receptors. The light not detected by the sensory receptors continues onto the reflective surface at the back of the eye. This light is then reflected outward toward the sensory receptors, providing a second opportunity for detection. This feature produces two results. First, the outward reflection results in the shining of the cat's ey ...

Eye Anatomy Comparison Animals Humans Rods Cones Cats Fish
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