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docx - 2019-04-07T190723.323
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Chapter 1-4 Multiple mental disorder diagnoses can be made on Axes_____. b. I and II _____ is the only axis of the DSM-IV-TR that is dimensional in nature. c. Axis V Tarantism and St. Vitus' dance are terms used to describe d. a mass madness of dancing ecstatically In the case study about Hans, most of Freud's information about Hans came from d. Hans' father A form of behavior therapy in which the person is asked to imagine an upsetting scene in order to produce a form of aversion conditioning is _______. d. covert sensitization In Rosenhan's original study of mental hospitalizations, the pseudopatients were detected as impostors by: a. some real patients but by no one on the hospital staff. All of the following are deterministic models of abnormal behavior EXCEPT: Select one: a. humanistic b. biological d. psychoanalytic Anxiety disorders have a lifetime prevalence rate of about ____ percent in the U.S. population. a. 30% The purpose of defense mechanisms is to ________ d. prevent anxiety-arousing impulses from entering conscious awareness All of the following are potential problems of the interview as a source of diagnostic information EXCEPT: Select one: a. the accuracy of the person's self-report b. the scoring and reliability of the test questions d. cultural factors It is the nineteenth century and you are examining a patient who can execute all normal movements and shows no detectable physical problem while in bed. Yet when she is made to get out of bed, she falls to the floor, absolutely incapable of walking. You diagnosis c. abasia Archeological investigations of skulls which show evidence of trephining indicate c. some individuals had healing around the holes, which indicates they had survived the operation. During the years between 1500 and 1700, there was a widespread preoccupation with witches and their identification and destruction in Europe. All of the following were historical conditions of the time which may have increased people's readiness to blame their woes on handy scapegoats EXCEPT: d. the Crusades ______ plays a central role in the humanistic approach. d. free will The classification system for abnormal behavior has been based in large part on the example of the value of classification in the area of _____. b. physical disease _______ is a basic procedure in psychoanalysis in which the patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind without censorship. a. Free association _____ is the belief that mind and body are separate and follow different laws. a. Dualism Diagnostic reliability _____ itself adequate for any classification system, because it is possible for a diagnosis to be _____. a. is not; reliable but invalid The intensive study of individuals and the changes in symptoms that occur during therapy is ______. Select one: a. a correlation c. epidemiological research According to Freud's analysis, Hans' fear of ______ was symbolic of his unconscious fear of _____. c. horses; his father A study of the prevalence of depression in the New Haven area would be an example of b. epidemiological research According to your text, a man in the Dobu society who had a sunny, kindly disposition and liked to be helpful would mostly be considered _____ by others of his culture. c. a little crazy In mid-nineteenth century America, ______ launched a campaign against the inhumane conditions in asylums c. Dorothea Dix In a study investigating the effectiveness of a new drug in the reduction of depressive symptoms, neither the researchers nor the participants knew which of the participants received the pills with the active ingredient and which of the participants received pills with inert ingredients. This type of study is aNo ______ study. c. double-blind All of the following are methods for examining the role heredity plays in psychopathology EXCEPT: Conditioning studies A potential long term side-effect of phenothiazine treatment of schizophrenia, ________involves rhythmical stereotyped movements and lip smacking. c. tardive dyskinesia The most highly developed structure in the human brain is the _____; it contains more than three-fourths of the neurons in the central nervous system. Select one: a. cerebral cortex b. midbrain A graphic presentation of points which represent scores on two dimensions or variables is a _____. b. scatterplot Dr. Martin wants to know if a relationship exists between parental involvement and the severity of an anxiety disorder. The best research method to answer this question would be d. a correlation When the DSM-II classification of Depressive Neurosis is compared that to the current DSM-IV-TR disorder with the same classification number, c. The DSM-IV-TR classification been significantly expanded and made more precise Galen, influenced by the earlier work of Hippocrates, proposed that ____ caused depression and poor sleep. c. too much black bile A ________ is a setting or a situation that serves as a signal that a certain response will lead to a particular outcome. c. discriminative stimulus The personality inventories usually ask the person to respond to a number of statements by _________ b. either "yes," "no" or "cannot say" responses Gergely is engaged in a behavioral therapy in which he is instructed to vividly imagine engaging his problem behavior, viewing child pornography, and then to imagine experiencing very negative consequences such as social embarrassment, loss of his job, and his parents' shame. This type of behavioral therapy is called _____. d. covert sensitization Important advances in ______ have allowed for some observations of functional and structural differences between normal and affected individuals. b. imaging the physical brain ______ is the contingent presentation of a pleasant outcome, which then strengthens subsequent responding. d. Positive reinforcement In ACT therapy, patients are taught to recognize the presence of certain bothersome emotions (such as depression or anxiety) and d. accept their occurrence without becoming overwhelmed by them Hysteria is d. a condition that includes emotional arousal and physical symptoms which seem to have no organic basis. The current system for identifying and diagnosing psychological problems is the _____. a. DSM Research has not provided strong support for the reliability or validity of ______. b. projective tests All of the following are Axis II disorders EXCEPT: a. Factitious Disorders According to Kierkegaard, when a person makes aNo ______ choice, he or she permits the self to be shaped by the demands and expectations of others Select one: a. isolated c. abbreviated d. inauthentic ______ consist of ambiguous stimulus materials about which the individual is asked to describe what they look like. d. Projective tests All of the following are traditional psychoanalytic techniques used in therapy EXCEPT: d. positive regard ANo _____ refers to instances in which an expectation of improvement is sufficient to cause improvement on some measure. placebo effect Finn suffers from long-standing respiratory difficulties, which is relevant to his development of a substance abuse disorder. He has recently been fired from his job of 6 six years, and his marriage is suffering Select one: b. III c. I d. IV The diagnostic framework of Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR is __________. c. personality disorders and mental retardation Freud's idea that emotionally distressing past experiences may be put out of one's mind is known as c. repression ______ twins have the same degree of genetic similarity as any two non-twin siblings born to the same parents. c. Dizygotic The driving force behind the oedipal conflict and its eventual resolution for a young boy is b. castration anxiety The use of the phrase mental illness was initially Select one: Introduced by psychologists who wished for psychiatry to be more respected by the medical community d. promoted by enlightened physicians seeking to reduce stigma associated with lunacy Loud noises, such as his clock's alarm, cause Cooper to startle into a state of high awareness. Just before the alarm goes off, the clock makes a light clicking noise, which initially Cooper didn't even notice. Now that he has had the clock for some time, Cooper has found that he startles into wakefulness when the clock makes the clicking noise, before the alarm even goes off. In this example, the unconditioned response is b. the state of high awareness Correct A scientist's curiosity about the workings of nature might be considered to reflect a sexual curiosity that has been redirected to a more socially acceptable and rewarding area of investigation. This is an example of a. isolation The shift from the geocentric model in physics to the heliocentric model is an example of b. a paradigm change All of the following were reasons Kraepelin linked mania and depression to form a classification of manic-depressive psychosis EXCEPT: d. there was an early onset, usually in adolescence or young adulthood A severe disorder characterized by delusions of grandeur, dementia, and progressive paralysis, and caused by a sexually transmitted spirochete is ______. a. general paresis One's conscience, according to Freudian theory, is Select one: b. the part of the intrapsychic structure which activates defense mechanisms c. the individual's internalized perception of the same-sex parent Events that almost always provide reinforcement and do not acquire their reinforcing properties through learning are called _____ reinforcers. d. primary There are __ pairs of chromosomes in human somatic cells. c. 23 The most common of all of the disturbances in sensory perception reported by hysteric patients in the nineteenth century was d. general paresis _____ developed an influential classification system for abnormal behaviors based on patterns of symptoms. b. Emil Kraepelin Hippocrates would most likely advocate which of the following as a treatment for abnormal behavior? b. moderate exercise and physical tranquility The purpose of defense mechanisms is to ________ d. prevent anxiety-arousing impulses from entering conscious awareness _____ is the belief that mind and body are separate and follow different laws. a. Dualism The classification system for abnormal behavior has been based in large part on the example of the value of classification in the area of _____. b. physical disease In mid-nineteenth century America, ______ launched a campaign against the inhumane conditions in asylums c. Dorothea Dix If all DSM-IV disorders are combined, about _____ of Americans experienced a defined disorder in the past 12 months. 26.6 The ______ is elicited by a stimulus innately. c. unconditioned response In the case study about Hans, most of Freud's information about Hans came from d. Hans' father If a diagnosis has divergent validity, d. evidence should be available to support what does not belong inside the category. The diagnostic framework of Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR is ___________. a. clinical disorders and/or other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention When the DSM-II classification of Depressive Neurosis is compared that to the current DSM-IV-TR disorder with the same classification number, c. The DSM-IV-TR classification been significantly expanded and made more precise According to operant conditioning principles, abnormal behavior a. produces reinforcing consequences in some manner _____ is the only axis of the DSM-IV-TR that is dimensional in nature. c. Axis V Axes ______ of the DSM-IV-TR represent the basic classificatory system of mental disorders. c. I and II Anxiety disorders have a lifetime prevalence rate of about ____ percent in the U.S. population. a. 30% The ______ is elicited by a stimulus which has been repeatedly paired with a stimulus that causes that response innately. a. conditioned response Shenger-Krestovnikova trained dogs to salivate when presented with a circle drawn on a card. She then found that the dogs also salivated if an ellipse, rather than a circle, was shown on the card. This is an example of c. generalization _____ is a condition that includes emotional arousal and physical symptoms that seem to have no organic basis. a. Hysteria Observed characteristics that result from the interaction between genotype and environmental influences are ____. b. phenotypes When the DSM was revised in 1968 into the DSM-II, the number of mental disorders listed was increased by percent. d. fifty It is the nineteenth century and you are examining a patient who can execute all normal movements and shows no detectable physical problem while in bed. Yet when she is made to get out of bed, she falls to the floor, absolutely incapable of walking. You diagnosis c. abasia Charles Darwin's work On the Origin of Species, published in 1857, is considered to be paradigm-shifting because it c. indicated humans are members of the family of animals Kraepelin's third category, paranoia, occurred ____ frequently than his other two symptom patterns and consisted of _____. a. less; one symptom The individual who purported all human behavior was under the influence of the stars and that this influence was accomplished through a constant flow of a magnetic fluid which fills the universe was b. Anton Mesmer According to Freud, hysteria, irrational human behavior, slips of the tongue, and dreams are d. due to unconscious motivation A graphic presentation of points which represent scores on two dimensions or variables is a _____. b. scatterplot DSM-IV-TR stands for ______. d. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, Text revised According to Freud's depth hypothesis, the largest part of the mind is the b. unconscious In the 1500s, Johann Weyer believed that b. many witches were mentally disturbed individuals who needed care and treatment You are with a group of people gathered around a tub in a room where the floor is covered with powdered glass and iron filings and from which protrude iron rods. Suddenly a man wearing a blue robe and playing music enters the room, draws near to you, and strokes you with his magnetic wand while he gazes intently at you. You are most likely c. participating in a therapeutic session with Mesmer. _____ occurs when the frequency and strength of the conditioned response tends to decrease, eventually to zero, after repeated presentations of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. b. extinction Trephining is d. The use of tools to make a sizable hole in the skull to release demon spirits. _____ considers the possibility of chance agreement in its calculation. d. The kappa statistic An imagining technique which uses variations in magnetic fields to produce 3-dimensional images of the brain or other organs is ________. a. MRI Which of the following is NOT a difficulty with the use of cultural inappropriateness alone to define behavior as abnormal? b. Some individuals deny their behavior is abnormal or distressful. Kraepelin's two major classifications of symptom patterns were ____ and _____. b. manic-depressive psychosis; dementia praecox The naturalistic approach of the Greeks proposed psychological abnormalities were caused by a. imbalances of bodily fluids _____ were episodes of apparent mass madness in which groups of people danced in the streets. c. Dance manias The brief reappearance of the conditioned response with occasional presentations of the conditioned stimulus is _____. spontaneous recovery If an illness or disease metaphor is applied to abnormal behavior, then the observed disturbances in behavior are seen as symptoms caused by some underlying physical or biochemical pathology. The Global Assessment of Functioning Scale ranges from ______. b. 1 - 100 The general finding from twin and adoption studies is that, for most behavioral traits, genes may account for about ____ of the variability between people, while environmental factors account for _____. d. half; half Whether or not a behavior is deemed culturally inappropriate depends on _____. Select one: b. the context in which the behavior is displayed. c. the number of times the behavior is emitted. d. the bizarreness of the behavior _____ therapies are among the most effective psychological interventions for a variety of psychological disorders. Select one: b. Biological c. Humanistic d. Cognitive-behavioral All of the following are potential problems of the interview as a source of diagnostic information EXCEPT: Select one: b. the scoring and reliability of the test questions c. whether the individual sought help on his own initiative d. cultural factors Axes ______ of the DSM-IV-TR represent the basic classificatory system of mental disorders. c. I and II Consistency and agreement between clinicians in terms of the use of a mental disorder label is d. diagnostic reliability Correct Why would a researcher chose to conduct a case study for an individual with a rare and unusual mental disorder? Select one: a. The findings can be accurately generalized to others c. The findings can be used to "prove" the researcher's theory d. It is a rich source of ideas about the nature of the abnormal behavior If a diagnosis has divergent validity, d. evidence should be available to support what does not belong inside the category. Correct Based on a single initial, verbal, symptom, the confederates in Rosenhan's study c. were admitted to psychiatric hospitals, and remained hospitalized from 7 to 52 days before being discharged. Correct Another term for the sexual instinct is the _______, according to Freud. c. libido Learning as the environmental selection of behavior was a view espoused by b. E.L. Thorndike To establish the effectiveness of a food reinforcer as a treatment to increase the number of polite responses for a child, a researcher first established a baseline number of polite responses, then introduced the treatment for three days. The treatment was stopped for three days before it was reintroduced and maintained. This type of controlled design is called aNo _____ design. c. single-subject Pavlov won a Nobel Prize in physiology for his work with b. digestion Sebastian believes that his physical body obeys the laws of the natural world and operates basically as a machine might operate. However, his soul is separate from the natural world and as such does not follow the laws of the natural world. This perspective is best described as: c. dualism The Law of Effect was developed by d. Thorndike and his work with cats in a puzzle box ________is a process in which a consequence, which follows a response, increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated in the same situation in the future. Select one: a. Sensitization c. Transference d. Reinforcement General paresis is characterized by delusions of grandeur, dementia, and progressive paralysis, caused by a sexually transmitted spirochete. A defense mechanism in which the anxiety-arousing memory or impulse is unconsciously but intentionally prevented from becoming conscious is called ________. b. repression In a research study, the comparison group on which the manipulation of interest is NOT performed is the _____ group. c. control In the 1500s, Johann Weyer believed that b. many witches were mentally disturbed individuals who needed care and treatment In aNo _____ design, new reinforcement contingencies are in effect for a period of time, followed by a reinstatement of the old reinforcement contingencies, and finally the new reinforcement contingencies are reapplied. Select one: b. reversal c. systematic desensitization d. discriminative stimulus For what was malarial fever therapy used? c. To create a high fever in the patient and thus kill off a spirochete infection. All of the following are Axis I disorders EXCEPT: Select one: a. Schizoid Personality Disorder c. Somatoform Disorders d. Substance-Related Disorders The organic view is based upon b. the belief that abnormal behavior is caused primarily by biological factors. The superego is a. both unconscious and conscious Mental disorders are easier to _____ than to _____. c. label; explain Psychologists usually accept a probability of _____ in 100 times as a difference unlikely to have occurred by chance and therefore reflects a real effect. d. five For the DSM-III field trials, a reliability estimate of _____ or higher indicated good agreement in the use of the diagnosis. b. .70 Operant conditioning involves _____ behaviors. a. voluntary A study suggests that approximately _____ of American adults received psychotropic medications in 2002. a. 11% _____ developed the Law of Effect. c. E.L. Thorndike If a diagnosis has convergent validity, Select one: a. evidence should be available to support what belongs inside the category. b. separations between different categories should be discernable. d. we should be able to say something about what to expect in terms of outcome. Dr. Wyatt is interested in the number of depressive symptoms his patient experiences. He had the patient take the same depression scale four times, and all four times the patient's score was a 27. The consistency in scores indicates the depression scale is a. reliable The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision is the c. current system for identifying and diagnosing psychological problems The brief reappearance of the conditioned response with occasional presentations of the conditioned stimulus is _____. c. spontaneous recovery Gemma suffers from long-standing respiratory difficulties, which is relevant to her development of a substance abuse disorder. She has recently been fired from her job of 6 six years, and her marriage is suffering Select one: a. II c. III d. IV Zsolt knew that he was a participant in a study investigating the effectiveness of a new type of therapy for panic attacks. He reported a reduction in the frequency of his panic attacks after he started meeting with a therapist once a week. However, Zsolt had not received the new therapy; the therapist just chatted with Zsolt each week. Zsolt's expectation of improvement reduced the panic attacks, which is an example of aNo b. placebo effect All of the following are characteristic of the Oedipal conflict EXCEPT b. awareness of anxiety-arousing impulses In the opening vignette, what was the evidence that Rebecca Nurse, 71 years old, was a witch? a. A group of young girls imitated every move Rebecca made. According to Freud, the basis of symptom-producing behaviors is a. sexual conflicts A committee investigation in 1784 of Anton Mesmer's therapeutic techniques a. discredited Mesmer's claims that that magnetism could relieve patients of some symptoms. In a research study, mental patients are randomly assigned to two groups. One group is given Drug X, while the other group is given a similarly shaped pill of inert ingredients. All participants are measured on their level of self-reported anxiety. In this example, the placebo is a. the inert pill When persons are unable to function adequately in their roles as student, worker, parent, spouse, or friend, they can be considered to have _____. Select one: a. a psychological disability b. a negative affect d. subjective distress For both the DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR, the results of reliability field trials _____. Select one: a. were equivalent to those in the DSM-III c. were not included d. indicated a decrease from DSM-III levels At present, there are _____ medical or biological tests that can confirm or verify the vast proportion of specific Axis I or Axis II diagnoses. no Ch. 5-8 _____ is an adaptive state for dealing with a real threat or danger, while _____ is a chronic sensation without being clearly associated with any specific stimulus. b. fear; anxiety Important factors in the degree of the stress response appear to be _____. d. the temporal and psychological contexts of its presentation _______is a model of mental disorders that proposes disorders develop when an individual with a predisposition for a disorder experiences significant psychological stress. b. Diathesis-stress model Humans are born with the innate capacity to experience _______. a. fear Correct A largely parasympathetic acute fear response is ________. d. fainting Understanding the relationship between psychological and physical factors of stress is complicated by all of the following EXCEPT: b. the difficulty in the measurement of the stress response. _______ is a therapeutic technique in which the person is made to confront the stimuli that arouse anxiety until the anxiety extinguishes. b. Flooding Another intervention for PTSD, ______, is more controversial but appears to be as effective as CBT in some comparisons. a. EMDR Chronic stressors generally produce ________ effects on mood, health, and behavior than acute stressors. b. more damaging The term _____ refers to the challenges and demands on an organism, and the effects on the organism which these challenges produce are referred to as _____. b. stressors; the stress response ______ is the division of the autonomic nervous system primarily involved in conservation of energy. b. Parasympathetic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is regulated largely by the ________. b. hypothalamus Exposure to uncontrollable or inescapable stressors can impair future learning, an effect that led Seligman (1975) to propose that uncontrollable events are the basis for _____ disorders. d. depressive Correct As opposed to chronic stressors, very intense acute events, especially those involving serious threat to life or physical safety, _____ effects on mood and behavior. d. can promote the most traumatizing Correct When a home heating unit is activated, it warms up the area until the room is hot enough to turn off the sensor which activated the system in the first place. This type of cycle, in which forces are set in operation by the original response which in turn dampens or reverses that response is called a _____. c. negative feedback loop In its listing of Bereavement, the DSM-IV-TR indicates all of the following are NOT characteristic of "normal" grief and may suggest a Major Depressive Episode EXCEPT: b. Sadness, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss The three major stress-related hormones released with sympathetic nervous system activity include ALL of the following EXCEPT: a. esteridol ______ may be conceptualized as intense, conditioned fear responses produced by unpredictable and uncontrollable traumatic events. d. PTSD The DSM-IV-TR classifies the different anxiety disorders in part based on the occurrence of the following two certain components of the anxiety symptom complex: d. panic attack and agoraphobia Increased levels of _____ made in response to chronic challenges, may damage cells in the hypothalamus and impair its ability to control the stress response. c. cortisol After hearing odd scratching and growling sounds in the dark alley by which she had to walk, Jessy's blood pressure increased and her heartbeat quickened. These activating physical reactions were most directly regulated by her: a. sympathetic nervous system One effect of the stress hormone cortisol is to suppress ______. b. immune response The medications of choice for both ASD and PTSD at this time are b. SSRIs One research method for assessing the relative importance of the predictability of stressors is ______. a. the triadic design In a recent review of over 300 empirical research studies concerning stress and human immune function conducted over the past 30 years, Segerstrom and Miller (2004) found a. chronic stressors are associated with decreased immune function in general. Hans Selye's developed a model of stress in 1936 called the b. general adaptation syndrome ______ is the term employed to refer to challenges and demands placed on the organism. b. Stressor Adriana came into her Psychology class this morning, ready to take notes over another interesting lecture. However, she notices that the instructor is actually handing out an examination, one about which Adriana totally forgot. As Adriana looks at the first page of the exam, she is most likely in Hans Seyle's ______ stage of the GAS. b. Alarm Of 119 patients at the University of Virginia Hospital who carried a diagnosis of Adjustment Disorder, over _____ had made suicide attempts. b. 60% The reliability of anxiety disorder diagnoses is ________ for most subtypes with the DSM-IV-TR criteria. d. good to excellent ______are processes whereby equilibrium or balance is maintained in a dynamic system. a. Homeostatic mechanisms Shell shock, war neuroses, combat fatigue, and combat exhaustion are all terms that refer to incapacitating psychological symptoms categorized as ______ in the DSM-IV-TR. c. PTSD The diagnosis of ASD requires that symptoms begin ______ of the trauma. a. within 4 weeks Positive stress is also referred to as _____. c. eustress In the triadic research design, if ______, the difference can be attributed to the unpredictable nature of stressor delivery- rather than its intensity, frequency, or duration. d. Yoked subjects experience more severe outcomes than Experimental subjects Nearly all cases of PTSD begin as _____. c. ASD The pituitary gland secretes a hormone called ______ hormone. c. adrenocorticotrophic All of the stressors that lead to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder can be any of the following EXCEPT: c. REM disruptions Stressors activate the _____ nervous system. d. sympathetic In the triadic research design, the experimental or master subjects. a. receive some warning signal or information predicting the delivery of the stressor In the triadic research design, the yoked subjects d. receive exactly the same intensity, frequency, and duration of the stressor as other subjects, but do not have any prior warning. In the triadic research design, the control subjects a. are present in the experimental setting but do not experience the specific stressor. Globally, one in _____ women has been beaten, abused, or forced to have sex during their lifetimes. c. Three A woman is raped in the United States every _____. d. six minutes Laid-back, less hurried, and relaxed individuals are referred to as _____ personalities. c. Type B Unpredictable electric shock has ______ in comparison to shocks of equal intensity that are preceded by a warning stimulus. c. more harmful effects ________ is a pattern of behaving that involves competitiveness, aggressiveness, hostility, and time urgency. b. Type A personality In the Framingham Heart Study, among those who were white-collar workers, _____ as many Type A participants developed CHD as Type B. d. three times The term _____ refers to the challenges and demands on an organism, and the effects on the organism which these challenges produce are referred to as _____. b. stressors; the stress response Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry and hostile over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his: Select one: c. hostility d. ambition Shell shock, war neuroses, combat fatigue, and combat exhaustion are all terms that refer to incapacitating psychological symptoms categorized as ______ in the DSM-IV-TR. c. PTSD Many of the anxiety disorders include either _______ or ________in their symptom presentation. c. panic attacks; agoraphobia Adriana came into her Psychology class this morning, ready to take notes over another interesting lecture. However, she notices that the instructor is actually handing out an examination, one about which Adriana totally forgot. As Adriana looks at the first page of the exam, she is most likely in Hans Seyle's ______ stage of the GAS. b. Alarm People who experience panic attacks, especially those that are _______, live in fear of having another panic attack. d. uncued episodes The autonomic nervous system is regulated largely by the ________. b. hypothalamus PTSD was first listed as a mental disorder in the _____. Select one: a. DSM-IV c. DSM-III For the DSM-IV-TR, bereavement is b. a V code, not a disorder On Holmes and Rahe's scale, a total score of _____ predicted a greater than two-thirds likelihood of major illness within the next two years. d. 300 The hypothalamus is in direct connection with the _______ gland, which is often referred to as the master gland. c. pituitary According to research on stress effects, rats that received a dose of tumor cells of sufficient strength to induce tumors in fifty percent of cases were less likely to develop tumors after exposure to shock if the: b. rats could control the termination of the shocks. Exposure to uncontrollable or inescapable stressors can impair future learning, an effect that led Seligman (1975) to propose that uncontrollable events are the basis for _____ disorders. d. depressive Ader and Cohen's research on saccharine paired with cyclophosphamide (CY) indicate c. previously neutral stimuli can acquire immunosuppressive properties In the resistance stage of the GAS, d. coping responses to the ongoing challenge are activated The DSM-IV-TR classifies the different anxiety disorders in part based on the occurrence of the following two certain components of the anxiety symptom complex: d. panic attack and agoraphobia According to Holmes and Rahe, _____ was assigned a value of 100 units. d. the death of a spouse _______ is a therapeutic technique in which the person is made to confront the stimuli that arouse anxiety until the anxiety extinguishes. b. Flooding _______is the portion of the nervous system that controls the functioning of many internal bodily processes such as heart rate, digestive processes, and so on. b. Autonomic nervous system Your text's authors points out that there is _____ that typical psychological debriefing interventions are effective in preventing or lessening the severity of PTSD. Select one: b. some evidence c. little or no evidence According to your text, investigators usually infer emotions from these three sources: c. verbal report, behavior, and physiological responses According to a study presented in your text, monkeys who were subjected to stressful social conditions in which they changed cagemates regularly developed _______. Select one: a. decreased natural killer cells d. atherosclerosis _______is the division of the autonomic nervous system which is primarily involved in stress or emergency reactions. c. Sympathetic nervous system The stress hormone _____ prepares the organism for emergency responding, in part by temporarily inhibiting the immune system's response to injury. a. cortisol In the triadic research design, the experimental or master subjects. a. receive some warning signal or information predicting the delivery of the stressor Chronic stressors generally produce ________ effects on mood, health, and behavior than acute stressors. b. more damaging ______ is the term employed to refer to challenges and demands placed on the organism. b. Stressor In its listing of Bereavement, the DSM-IV-TR indicates all of the following are NOT characteristic of "normal" grief and may suggest a Major Depressive Episode EXCEPT: b. Sadness, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss Humans are born with the innate capacity to experience _______. a. fear The psychological interventions that appear to be most effective treatments for PTSD are c. cognitive-behavioral therapies ________ is a general term referring to equilibrium in a dynamic system. a. Homeostasis Increased levels of _____ made in response to chronic challenges, may damage cells in the hypothalamus and impair its ability to control the stress response. c. cortisol Which of the following is NOT a stage in Han Seyle's model of stress? a. The transition stage One effect of the stress hormone cortisol is to suppress ______. b. immune response Davidson and Parker's (2001) review of the EMDR literature concluded that b. equivalent results were possible without the eye movements at all In the diathesis-stress model of mental disorders, the predisposition for a particular disorder _____. d. is considered to be biological, genetic, or psychological in origin Homeostasis is achieved when forces are set in operation by the original response which in turn dampens or reverses that response. This cycle is called a _____. c. negative feedback loop Hans Selye's developed a model of stress in 1936 called the b. general adaptation syndrome Laid-back, less hurried, and relaxed individuals are referred to as _____ personalities. c. Type B A woman is raped in the United States every _____. d. six minutes The reliability of anxiety disorder diagnoses is ________ for most subtypes with the DSM-IV-TR criteria. d. good to excellent After hearing odd scratching and growling sounds in the dark alley by which she had to walk, Jessy's blood pressure increased and her heartbeat quickened. These activating physical reactions were most directly regulated by her: a. sympathetic nervous system Recent reports from the U.S. Army indicate that about _____ of American forces completing one tour of duty in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Select one: a. 10% c. 60% All of the following are associated with the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system EXCEPT: d. sweating occurs on the palmar surfaces of the hands and feet One research method for assessing the relative importance of the predictability of stressors is ______. a. the triadic design ______ may be conceptualized as intense, conditioned fear responses produced by unpredictable and uncontrollable traumatic events. d. PTSD In the triadic research design, the yoked subjects d. receive exactly the same intensity, frequency, and duration of the stressor as other subjects, but do not have any prior warning. After discovering that the odd sounds in the dark alley were coming from a raccoon trying to get into a bag of potato chips, Jessy's blood pressure decreased and her heartbeat slowed. These calming physical reactions were most directly regulated by her: c. parasympathetic nervous system EMDR stands for _____ and is used to treat _____. a. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; PTSD ________ is a general term referring to equilibrium in a dynamic system. a. Homeostasis _______ is a therapeutic technique in which the person is made to confront the stimuli that arouse anxiety until the anxiety extinguishes. b. Flooding Recent reports from the U.S. Army indicate that about _____ of American forces completing one tour of duty in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Select one: a. 10% c. 60% All of the following are associated with the activation of the sympathetic nervous system EXCEPT: a. muscle activity and dilation of blood vessels in the stomach and intestinal tracts increases All of the following are examples of chronic stressors cited in your text EXCEPT: c. pending surgery When a home heating unit is activated, it warms up the area until the room is hot enough to turn off the sensor which activated the system in the first place. This type of cycle, in which forces are set in operation by the original response which in turn dampens or reverses that response is called a _____. c. negative feedback loop In the triadic research design, the experimental or master subjects. a. receive some warning signal or information predicting the delivery of the stressor The psychological interventions that appear to be most effective treatments for PTSD are c. cognitive-behavioral therapies Nearly all cases of PTSD begin as _____. c. ASD The diagnosis of PTSD is given about twice as often to _____ as to _____. b. females; males _______is the division of the autonomic nervous system which is primarily involved in stress or emergency reactions. c. Sympathetic nervous system A "V-code" is aNo _____. a. condition for which one might seek treatment but is not attributable to mental disorder At the beginning of a predominantly sympathetic reaction, the anterior part of the hypothalamus is inhibited to reduce parasympathetic activation and vice versa for the start of parasympathetic arousal. This process is called______. b. reciprocal inhibition In a recent review of over 300 empirical research studies concerning stress and human immune function conducted over the past 30 years, Segerstrom and Miller (2004) found a. chronic stressors are associated with decreased immune function in general. The pituitary gland secretes a hormone called ______ hormone. c. adrenocorticotrophic When individuals examine and challenge their dysfunctional thoughts about a trauma they have experienced, they are engaged in ______. Select one: a. flooding c. cognitive restructuring d. aversion therapy A woman is raped in the United States every _____. d. six minutes The reliability of anxiety disorder diagnoses is ________ for most subtypes with the DSM-IV-TR criteria. d. good to excellent The DSM-IV-TR reports that the dysfunction seen in PTSD may be especially severe and long-lasting if the precipitating stressor is a. of human origin and design Your text's authors points out that there is _____ that typical psychological debriefing interventions are effective in preventing or lessening the severity of PTSD. Select one: b. some evidence c. little or no evidence Ader and Cohen's research on saccharine paired with cyclophosphamide (CY) indicate c. previously neutral stimuli can acquire immunosuppressive properties Hans Selye's developed a model of stress in 1936 called the b. general adaptation syndrome Responses of the _______ are especially important physiological accompaniments of strong emotions. c. autonomic nervous system In the triadic research design, if ______, the difference can be attributed to the unpredictable nature of stressor delivery- rather than its intensity, frequency, or duration. d. Yoked subjects experience more severe outcomes than Experimental subjects After discovering that the odd sounds in the dark alley were coming from a raccoon trying to get into a bag of potato chips, Jessy's blood pressure decreased and her heartbeat slowed. These calming physical reactions were most directly regulated by her: c. parasympathetic nervous system Globally, one in _____ women has been beaten, abused, or forced to have sex during their lifetimes. c. Three ______ is the study of neural effects of psychological events on the immune systems. Select one: a. HPA axis responsivity b. Psychoneuroimmunology d. Type A/B componentology For the DSM-IV-TR, bereavement is Select one: a. an Axis III disorder b. a V code, not a disorder c. is not listed in its indexes One effect of the stress hormone cortisol is to suppress ______. b. immune response Bernard is an ambitious, highly competitive corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry and hostile over little things. Research suggests that Bernard's susceptibility to heart attacks may be most closely linked to his: c. hostility ______ may be conceptualized as intense, conditioned fear responses produced by unpredictable and uncontrollable traumatic events. d. PTSD Exposure to uncontrollable or inescapable stressors can impair future learning, an effect that led Seligman (1975) to propose that uncontrollable events are the basis for _____ disorders. d. depressive All of the following would be examples of physiological responses of apprehension EXCEPT: d. disorganization of speech Davidson and Parker's (2001) review of the EMDR literature concluded that b. equivalent results were possible without the eye movements at all In its listing of Bereavement, the DSM-IV-TR indicates all of the following are NOT characteristic of "normal" grief and may suggest a Major Depressive Episode EXCEPT: b. Sadness, insomnia, poor appetite, and weight loss A stress-related disorder that can be conceptualized as a strongly conditioned fear response is Select one: a. BDI c. PTSD d. Bereavement In the resistance stage of the GAS, d. coping responses to the ongoing challenge are activated The HPA axis of the stress response is made up of _____ interactions. d. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical ______ is the division of the autonomic nervous system primarily involved in conservation of energy. b. Parasympathetic nervous system The diagnosis of ASD requires that symptoms begin ______ of the trauma. a. within 4 weeks EMDR stands for _____ and is used to treat _____. a. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; PTSD In the well-functioning autonomic system, the initial amplifying effects of reciprocal inhibition are eventually reversed by ________. d. homeostatic controls The hypothalamus is in direct connection with the _______ gland, which is often referred to as the master gland. c. pituitary Homeostasis is achieved when forces are set in operation by the original response which in turn dampens or reverses that response. This cycle is called a _____. c. negative feedback loop Stressors activate the _____ nervous system. d. sympathetic The three major stress-related hormones released with sympathetic nervous system activity include ALL of the following EXCEPT: a. esteridol In the triadic research design, the control subjects a. are present in the experimental setting but do not experience the specific stressor. Humans are born with the innate capacity to experience _______. a. fear In many cases of PTSD, disturbances produced by severe stress _____. increase in severity with the passage of time Chapters 9-12 In _____, sexual interest becomes focused on non-living objects which the individual uses in sexual contexts. b. Fetishism Sadistic fantasies involve themes of _________. d. dominance and control over another person Individuals with _______ experience intense sexual arousal connected with fantasies, urges, or behaviors to observe an unsuspecting person who is naked, disrobing, or engaged in sexual activities. c. Voyeurism ANo ________ vulnerability to Schizophrenia has been demonstrated by both twin and adoption studies. a. genetic The brains of patients with Schizophrenia reveal _________that consistently distinguish them from the brains of normals. d. no specific anatomical deviations or lesions The course of Pedophilia tends to be _____, and the relapse rate appears to be _____, in those who are attracted to males. a. more chronic; higher Dixie has been fatigued, tired, and had difficulty with concentrating for the past three weeks. She is preoccupied with personal failure and her worthlessness, and blames herself for any non-positive event she encounters. She has even thought about suicide, although she doesn't have a specific plan for it. Dixie meets the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ________. c. Major Depressive Episode In terms of the size of erect penises, Masters and Johnson found _______. b. remarkably little variation ________ might explain some of the differences in schizophrenic relapse across various cultures. a. Family levels of expressed emotion The ________approach to substance abuse therapy may be likened to a combination of religious belief and group therapy. d. Alcoholics Anonymous All of the following are factors as to why treatment compliance is a constant issue with lithium EXCEPT ________. Select one: a. many bipolar patients find the manic state to be enjoyable b. long-acting versions of the medicine make it difficult to stay on schedule d. the therapeutic levels of lithium are close to the toxic levels Up to 25% of the population may have_______ Dependence; it is the most common form of substance dependence. Select one: b. Cannabis c. Nicotine d. Alcohol ____ works quickly for depression and has been shown to be superior in the treatment of severe and resistant forms of depression. b. Electroconvulsive therapy There are no ______that are effective alone in treatment of bipolar mania or psychotic depression. d. psychotherapies _______ delusions concern content that is entirely consistent with expressed mood. a. Mood-congruent Patients who received _____ reported being less troubled by psychotic symptoms and were rehospitalized at less than half the rate of those receiving treatment as usual. d. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy The essential feature of _______ is intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with prepubescent children. The diagnosis requires that the person has either acted on these urges or that they cause the person distress or interpersonal difficulty. b. Pedophilia Hypomanic Episodes tend to begin abruptly, may last from weeks to months, and are frequently preceded by or followed by a ________. Select one: a. Dysthymic Episode c. Major Depressive Episode d. Seasonal Affective Episode Which of the following is central to the diagnosis of Substance Dependence? a. continued use of the substance despite significant problems caused by the use The symptoms of _________ represent not only a lack of interest in sexual activity but, also, an active dislike and avoidance of sexual contact with a partner. a. Sexual Aversion Disorder All of the following are ways presented in the text in which a lack of contingent positive reinforcement for nondepressed behavior could come about EXCEPT ________. Select one: a. The person may have response styles that are aversive to others. c. The person may believe he or she has little control over events in life. d. The person may lack social skills necessary to obtain social reinforcements. According to the DSM-IV-TR, ________ is a persistent pattern of substance self-administration that is recurrent, compulsive, and time-consuming, creates impairment or distress, and that may result in tolerance or withdrawal. c. Substance Dependence A characteristic of psychotic language use is ________, which is repetition of words or phrases spoken by another person. a. echolalia At this point, ________ models remain the most plausible accounts for paraphilia development. d. conditioning and learning _____is a side effect that is a significant problem for some patients treated with Electroconvulsive Therapy. d. Memory loss In ________ Type Schizophrenia, there are prominent hallucinations or delusions that involve themes of persecution, and these seem to provide central focus or organization to the disorder. c. Paranoid ________ is quite high in outcome studies of depression, making the identification of effective treatments more difficult. d. Participant incompliance Bipolar II Disorder patients spend about ______ in the depressive states than Bipolar I patients. b. 40% more time In ________, there is both a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with one's assigned sex. c. Gender Identity Disorder Twin studies indicate a generally accepted concordance rate for Schizophrenia of 48%. Recent studies indicate that rate ______. a. has been consistently overstated The basic sexual response cycle ________. a. is the same for men and women Thought_______ delusions involve the false belief that others can hear or receive one's thoughts. c. broadcasting In accordance with behavioral theory, all of the following are ways in which substance use becomes conditioned EXCEPT ______. c. unconditioned responses are acquired for drug expectation in novel situations The ________ model proposes that Schizophrenia is triggered by stressful events in those individuals who have predisposition for the disorder. b. diathesis-stress model Evidence in support of the ________ has been inconsistent and there is little indication that depression is linked to levels of these neurotransmitters. d. monoamine hypothesis People with paraphilias _________. d. often do not seek treatment unless mandated by legal authorities Rates of Schizophrenia are highest in the _________social classes. b. lowest socioeconomic _______can a trigger a Manic Episode in Bipolar I Disorder patients. b. Sleep loss _______is the fear of not being able to perform sexually, which hinders sexual performance. Select one: a. Frotteurism c. Performance anxiety d. Paraphilia The androgen hormone ________plays a significant role in male sexual interest. c. testosterone In Robins (1978) review of narcotic use initiation in Vietnam veterans, the largest percentage of initiation of use occurred ______. a. in Vietnam Thought ________delusions concern the false belief that some external person or agency is placing thoughts into one's consciousness. c. insertion All of the following are required for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Substance Abuse EXCEPT _______. b. development of tolerance All of the following have been associated with continued use of alcohol in large quantities EXCEPT ______. b. cardiac arrhythmia Much of the research on genetic and biological foundations of substance abuse and dependence has concerned ______. d. Alcohol All of the following have been implicated as biological contributors the development of the unipolar mood disorders EXCEPT _______. Select one: b. decreased levels of dopamine c. sleep dysregulation d. genetics There is evidence for the role of brain _______ in the onset of bipolar cycles. c. norepinephrine ________is a specific psychological and physiological reaction to discontinuation of a substance, which can be relieved by taking the substance. b. Withdrawal The ______ was developed from an attempt to find a biological test that could serve as a marker for depression, but it is no longer considered useful. Select one: c. dexamethasone suppression test d. carbamazepine interaction test Cromwell (1993) noted that _____ of individuals with Schizophrenia have no known relative with Schizophrenia. c. 89% Other psychotic disorders in the DSM-IV-TR are distinguished from Schizophrenia in terms of ________ or ________. c. duration of the disturbance; severity of symptoms According to _________ models of addiction, repeated exposure to a drug affects the brain over time, producing adaptations in individual neurons, which in turn alter the functioning of the neural circuits in which those neurons operate a. current biological The presence of a Major Depressive Episode can occur in all of the following DSM-IV-TR diagnoses EXCEPT __________. b. Cylothymic Disorder Which of the following statements describes the relationship between male and female suicide statistics? a. Three times as many men commit suicide, but females make more suicide attempts. _______ delusions involve false beliefs that could not possibly be true, given what is known about the world. c. Bizarre Vaginismus can be effectively treated by a combination of relaxation training and _______ followed by the self-insertion of a graduated series of dilators into the vagina. a. Kegel exercises All of the following are one of the "cardinal" or "indicator" symptoms of Schizophrenia EXCEPT ________. d. grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Delirium tremens occurs in _______of strongly dependent individuals during alcohol withdrawal. a. less than 10% _______ is the most commonly diagnosed DSM-IV-TR disorder among adults; one in four females experience this disorder. d. Major Depressive Disorder Delusional ________involves the incorrect conviction that a person's spouse or sexual partner has been or is being unfaithful. d. jealousy ________ are observable traits that can serve as biomarkers for a disorder. a. Endophenotypes All of the following were stated in the text as associated with reduced sexual desire EXCEPT ________. d. increases in androgen levels The basic sexual response cycle consists of ________. d. four phases All of the following are medication classes that influence monoamine levels EXCEPT _______. Select one: a. lithium derivatives c. MAO inhibitors d. SSRIs Risk of suicide is elevated in Schizophrenia; up to _____ percent make at least one suicide attempt. d. 40 The ______ was developed from an attempt to find a biological test that could serve as a marker for depression, but it is no longer considered useful. Select one: c. dexamethasone suppression test d. carbamazepine interaction test _______ delusions are false convictions that concern the body. d. Somatic All of the following are environmental risk factors for Schizophrenia presented in the text EXCEPT ______. a. mothers' viral infection shortly after birth All of the following are brain abnormalities that have been implicated in at least some cases of depression EXCEPT _______. Select one: b. increased activity of the cerebellum c. reduced activity of the prefrontal cortex d. lowered left hemisphere activity The psychotic state of _______ Intoxication may be nearly indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia, except that the reaction disappears some three to six days after discontinuation of the drug. Select one: a. Anxiolytic b. Amphetamine c. Alcohol Schizophrenia exists in all cultures, however, the ____________ varies widely from culture to culture. c. incidence rate All of the following mood disorders are more common in females than in males EXCEPT _______. a. Bipolar I Disorder A behavioral intervention in which the pattern of substance use is modified through the use of set reinforcement rules that provide external incentives for substance use change is ________. Select one: a. cognitive-behavioral therapy b. contingency management d. the twelve-step program The pharmaceutical industry's claim that depression is caused by neurochemical imbalances ______. a. is often contradicted by the evidence Globally, a greater proportion of abstainers from alcohol are _______. d. female ________ is a term for severe psychological disturbance involving personality disorganization and loss of contact with reality. d. Psychosis Cognitive theorist Beck suggests negative thoughts about self, present, and future create a ______. d. depressive cognitive triad _________is characterized by impairment in ability to learn new information. d. Amnestic disorder ________ is now recognized as the leading cause of preventable birth defects. a. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Correct The DSM-IV-TR divides the psychosexual disorders into three general categories: __________. d. sexual dysfunctions, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders Correct In accordance with behavioral theory, all of the following are ways in which substance use becomes conditioned EXCEPT ______. c. unconditioned responses are acquired for drug expectation in novel situations The effectiveness of phenothiazine drugs to reduce schizophrenic symptoms has been well established. However _____is a problem with the use of these drugs. a. relapse Among the different subtypes of Schizophrenia, the highest levels of adaptive coping and functioning are usually found in Select one: a. catatonic type. b. paranoid type. c. disorganized type. Some families of patients with Schizophrenia show a pattern called _______, in which the serious psychopathology of the dominant parent is passively accepted by the other. Select one: b. the double bind d. marital skew _________ delusions are patently false beliefs that another person, often someone famous or of higher status or authority, is in love with the individual. a. Erotomanic Which of the following is central to the diagnosis of Substance Dependence? a. continued use of the substance despite significant problems caused by the use The __________ involves alternation between a Major Depressive Episode and a Manic Episode, nearly every day, during a one week period; the moods can alternate rapidly. d. Mixed Episode According to suicide statistics, who of the following would be more at risk to complete a suicide attempt? d. a 72 year old Caucasian man Catatonia refers to disturbances in c. motor function. Preorgasmic sexual arousal involves predominately the _______ nervous system. Select one: b. parasympathetic c. somatic d. central In terms of the size of erect penises, Masters and Johnson found _______. b. remarkably little variation ________ employs computer-assisted training in tasks such as attention, memory, and problem solving. a. Cognitive enhancement therapy Blood alcohol concentrations ______ can cause respiratory failure and death in non-tolerant individuals. d. in excess of 0.30-0.40 g/100mL The proportion of pedophiliac encounters that are homosexual is higher than the rate of homosexuality in the general population. This is because Select one: b. most homosexuals prefer children rather than adults as sexual partners. c. more homosexuals than heterosexuals are pedophiles. d. most victims are males. In psychoanalytical theory, _________is part of the process of identification whereby a person incorporates or internalizes the characteristics of others. Select one: a. attribution b. introjection c. self talk Which of the following is characterized by sexual arousal when dressing in clothing of the opposite gender? a. transvestic fetishism Delusions of _______ are false beliefs that events, people, or things in the immediate environment have a special and unique significance for the individual. b. reference The most common features of _________ Type Schizophrenia are psychomotor disturbances involving rigid immobility, excessive motor activity, echolalia, echopraxia, and unresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, often for long periods of time, c. Catatonic Korsakoff's syndrome is thought to result from a deficiency of _______, and massive doses of this may help to prevent or treat the condition. c. thiamine Earlier biological interventions for ________ included prosthetic devices, vacuum devices, a tension band, and vasodilating medications. d. Male Erectile Dysfunction In ________, there is both a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with one's assigned sex. c. Gender Identity Disorder The effectiveness of phenothiazine drugs to reduce schizophrenic symptoms has been well established. However _____is a problem with the use of these drugs. a. relapse ________ is a constellation of facial abnormalities, impairments in growth, and central nervous system problems resulting from maternal alcohol use during pregnancy. b. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome According to the APA, alcohol is involved in up to _____ of fatal automobile accidents and ______ of all murders. Select one: b. 15%; 30% c. one third; 75% d. 55%; more than one-half The ______ was developed from an attempt to find a biological test that could serve as a marker for depression, but it is no longer considered useful. c. dexamethasone suppression test The DSM-IV-TR identifies all of the following as induced disorders associated with amphetamines EXCEPT ________. Select one: a. Amphetamine Persisting Perception Disorder b. Amphetamine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction d. Amphetamine-Induced Psychotic Disorder The atypical antipsych

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What percentage of nature vs. nurture dictates human intelligence?
Votes: 75