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12 years ago
Greek and Latin Root Words for Biology

a(n)- without
ab- away from
abduc- lead from
acanth- prickle
acer- without horns
acetabul- vinegar cup
aceto- acid
acin- cluster of grapes
acri- acrid, sharp
acro- summit, top
actin- ray
acust- of hearing
ad- towards
adipo- fat
adventit- coming to
aegopod- goat-foot
aestiv- summer
affer- carrying to
agrest- rural, wild
agro(st)- field
al(i)- wing
alb- white
allant- sausage
allium garlic
alopec- fox
altissim- tall
alve- pit, socket
ambly- blunt
ambul- walk
ammo- sand
amnio- fetal envelope
amoeb- change
amphi- both
amplex- clasping
ampulla- flask
amygdala- almond shaped organ
amyl- starch
an- without
ana- up, back, again
anatol- east
Anagallis- delightful
anchus- bend, bay
andr- male
anemo- wind
angi- vessel
angul- angle
angusti- narrow
ankylo- stiff jointed
annu- annual
anomo- lawless, irregular
anser- geese
ante- before
antho- flower
anthro- human
anti- against, opposite
antr- cave
apo- separate, from
aqua- water
aguilin- eagle-beaked
arach- spider
arbor- tree
arc- arch
arch(ae/i)- ancient
arct(i/o)- north, bear
are- space
areni- sandy
arg(en/lyr)- silver
arthro- joint
artic- jointed
artio- even-numbered
arundin- reed-like
asc- sac
asper- rough
aspid- shield
ast(e)r- star
astrag- dice (originally a knuckle bone)
ater, atra- black
Atlas= a Titan(mythical giant) who supported the world on his shoulders
atr(ium)- vestibule
Atropos= one of the Fates who cut the thread of life
aur- ear, gold
austral- southern
auto- self
aux- grow
avi- bird
axi- axis
azyg- unpaired    baca- small berry
baccatus- berried
baena- walking
balan- acorn
barb- beard
basi- at the bottom
bat(is) skate, ray
bdella- ******
bell- pretty
bi- two
bi(ola)- life
blast- germ
bore- north
botry- small bunch of grapes
bov- ox
brachi- arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
branch- gill
brevi- short
brizo- to nod
bromo- oats, broom, shadow
bronch- windpipe
bucca- mouth cavity
bulbos- bulbous
bulla- bubble, flask
bullat- wrinkled
buno- hill
bursa- pouch, purse   caduci- temporary
caec- blind
caerul- sky blue
caespit- tufted
calam- reed, aspen
calc- stone
calli- beautiful
callos callous
calor- heat
calyx cup, chalice
camp- field
campanula bell
cani- dog
cap(it)- head
capill- hair
capsella- small box
card- heart
carin- keel
cam- flesh
carotid- producing stupor
carp- seed, wrist
cary- nut
cata- down
cauda- tail
cav- hollow
centi- hundred
ceph(al)- head
cera(s)(t)- horn
cerc- horns, lobes, short tail
cerebro- brain
cerv- neck
ch(e)ir- hand
chaero- to please
chaet- bristle
chamae- on ground
chel- turtle
cheno- goose
chiasm- crossing
chil- lip
chlamy- outer garment
chlor- green
choan- funnel
chondr- cartilage
chord- cord
chorion membrane
chrom- colour
chrys- golden
chyl- fluid
chym- juice
cili- eyelash
ciner- ashen, grey
cipit- head
circum- around
cirr- tentacle (originally curl)
cl(e)ist- closed
clad- branch
clast- broken
clav- key
cleid- key
cleithr- bar, key
clin- bed, recline
cloaca sewer
coccus berry, grain
cochl- shell
coel- hollow
col(on) large intestine
coll- neck
collat- borne together
columella little column
com- with
commis- sent out
communis- colonial
commutat- changed
compact- compact
compress- flattened
con- with
conch- shell
condyl- knuckle
cono- cone
contra- opposite
convolvo- to entwine
copro- dung
cora(xlg)- raven
corb- basket
cord- heart
corium- leather
corn- horn
coron- crown
corp- body
cort- bark
cost- rib
cotyl- cup
crani- skull
crass- thick
crep- shoe
cribi- sieve
cric- ring
crispus curled
crist- crest
crosso- fringe, tassel
cru(rals)- shank
cruci- cross-like
crypt- hidden
cten- comb
cusp- lance, point
cuti- skin
cyan- blue
cycl- circular
cyno- dog
cyst- capsule
cyt- cell

dactyl- finger
dasy- shaggy
deci- ten
decid- falling off
decuss- cross banding
deka- ten
delph- womb
delphis- dolphin
demi- half
dendr- tree
dent- tooth
derm- skin
dero- persisting
desmo- band
deut- second
dextro- right
di(a)- two
dia- through
didym- twin
digit- finger
dino- terrible
diplo- double
dipso- thirst
dissect- deeply cut
dodeca- twelve
don't- tooth
dors- back
drom- quick running
dubi- doubtful
dulci- sweet
duo- two
dur- hard    echino- spiny
echis- viper
eco- house
ecto- outside
effer- carrying away
effusus- loosely spreading
ejacul- throw out
elasmo- plate, flat
elat- tall
-ell- diminutive
embio- living
embol- thrown in
endo- inside
engy- narrow
ensi- sword
entolenter- inside
eo- dawn, east
epi- upon
equi- horse, equal
erect- upright
erythr- red
esculent- edible
ethm- sieve
eu- well, very
eury- wide
ex- out of
exiguus- slender
exo- outside
extens- draw out
extra- beyond
extrins- coming from    fab- bean
falc- sickle-shaped
fallax- false
fasc(ic)- bundle
fatuus- foolish, useless
feli- cat
fer- carry
ficar- fig-like
fil- thread
fistul- hollow, tube
flacc- flabby
flav- yellow
flexu- wavy
flocculus- lock of wool
fluitans- floating
foen- hay
foetid- foul smelling
foli- leaf
fontan- fountain
foramen- opening
fornix- vault
fovea- shallow round depression
fruticans- shrubby
fund- to pour
furc(ul)- fork

gal- milk
gale- weasel
gall- of France
gangli- knot
gano- shining
gast(e)r- stomach, pouch
gemin- twins
gemm- bud
genu- knee, joint
geranium- crane
gerro- shield
gladi- sword
glen- socket
glia- glue
glom(er)- half of yam
glo(ss/tt)- tongue
glut- sticky
gl(uly)c- sweet
glypt- carved, engraved
gnaph- wool
gnath- jaw
goni- angle
gono- seed
gracil- slender
gram- of grass
gymn- naked
gyn- woman
gyr- turning    haem- blood
hal- salty
hallu(x/ci)- big toe
hamat- hook
haplo- single, simple
hasta(t)- spear-tip shape
hect- hundred
heira- hawk
helios- sun
helminth- worm
helo- wart
hemi- half
hepa(r/t)- liver
hepta- seven
hetero- different
hex- six
hibem- winter
hippo- horse
hirsut- hairy
hispid- bristly
histri- actor
holo- complete, whole
homo- man, same
homal- flat
hormon- that which excites
hortens- of gardens
humus- ground
hyal- glassy
hydr- water
hyemal- winter
hyo- U-shaped
hyper- above
hypo- beneath    ichthy- fish
-ida- like
-idae- ending of zoological family names
ileum- twisted
impar- unpaired
in- in, not
-in- diminutive
-inae- ending of zoological sub-family names
incarnat- flesh coloured
incis- cutting in
incus- anvil
inermis- unarmed
inflexis- rigid
infra- under
inter- between
intra- within
iod- violet
-iola- diminutive
iris- rainbow
iso- equal
iter- passage

jug- yoked together
jungoljunc- to bind
ket- ketone
kilo- thousand

labi- lips
labyrinth- tortuous passage
lacer- torn
lacrim- tears
lact- milk
lacuna- space
laevo- left
lagena- flask
lamella- leaf, layer
lan(at)- wool
lanceol(at)- lance-shaped
lati- broad
lecith- egg yolk
lemm- skin, husk
lens- lentil, bean
leo(n)- lion
lepid- scale
lepto- slender
leuc- white
levator- lifter
lign- wood
ligul- strap-shaped
lin- line
ling- tongue
lip- fat
lith- stone
log(y)- discourse
loph- crest
lumen- cavity
luna- moon
lupus wolf
lute- yellow
lymph- clear water
lysis- loosen    macr- large
macula- spot
magni- large
maj- greater
mala- cheek
malleus- hammer, mallet
mamma- breast
mandib- lower jaw
manu- hand
maritim- of the sea
marsupium- pouch
masseter- chewer
mast- nipple
mat(e)ri- mother
maxi- large
maxill- jaw
maxim- greatest
meatus- passage
medi- medium
medull- marrow
mega- large
mel(l)i- honey
melan- black
menin(x,g)- membrane
meno- moon
mer- part
meso- middle
meta- after
micro- small
milli- thousand
min- smaller
minim- smallest
mirabile- wonderful
miss- sent
mito- thread
mixi- mingle
moll- soft
monil- string of beads
mono- one
montan- of mountains
morph- form
motor- mover
multi- many
mural- walls
muri- mouse
myo- muscle, mouse
myri- countless
myx- mucous
myz- ******    na(rls)- nose
necro- dead
necto- swimming
nema- hair
nemoral- in woods
neo- new
nephr- kidney
neur- nerve
nictitat- winking
nigr- black
non- not
nona- nine
noth- spurious
notho- southern
noto- back, south
nu(clx)- nut
nuch- back of neck
nucle- little nut
nud- naked
nulli- none
nutans- nodding

obtect- concealed
obturat- closed
obtusi- blunt
occiden- Western
occip- back of head
oct- eight
odont- tooth
odor- fragrant
oecious- house of
oed- swollen
oen- wine
oesoph- gullet
officinal- used in medicine
-oid- like
olecran- skull of elbow
oleo- oily
olfact- smelling
oligo- few
oliva- olive
omaso- paunch
oment- fat skin
omm- eye
omo- shoulder
omphalo- navel
onto- existing
oo- egg
op(t)- eye
operculum- little cover
ophi- snake
ophthalmo- eye
opistho- behind
opoter- either
or- mouth
orbi- circle
orch- testicle
oriental- Eastern
ornith- bird
ortho- straight
os(ti)- mouth
os(s/t)- bone
ostrac shell
ot- ear
ovi- sheep
ovo- egg
oxys, oxus- sharp, pointed    pachy- thick
palae- old
palli(um)- mantle
pallid- pale
palustri- in marshes
pan- ali
par(a)- near
parie- wall
parvi- little
patella- small dish
patens- spreading
pect(or)- chest
pectin- comb-like
ped- foot, child
pellucid- shining through
pene- almost
pent- five
per(i)- through, beyond
peregrin- foreign
peri- around
persic- peach
petr- rock
phaeo- dark
phag- eat
phalan(g/x)- close formation of troops
phalar- shining
phanero- visible
pher- carry
phil- love
phloe- tree bark
phor- carry
pho(s/to)- light
phragm- fence
phren- diaphragm, mind
phyl- tribe
phyll- leaf
physa- bladder
physio- nature
phyto- plant
pil- hair
pinea- pine cone
pinnat- feather-shaped
pisum- pea
pisc- fish
plac- plate, tablet
plagio- oblique
plan- flat
platy- flat, broad
plec(o/t)- twist, pluck
plesio- near
pleth- full
pleur- side
plex- interwoven
plica- fold
plum- feather
pneu(mo/st)- air, lung
pod- foot
pogo- beard
polio- grey
polit- polished
poll(ex)- thumb
poly- many
pons- bridge
porc- pig
porphyr- purple
porta- gate
post- after
potam- river
potero- drinking cup
praeco- early
pratens- in meadows
pre- before
prim- first
pro- in front of
proct- anus
procumbens- lying flat
profund- deep
proliger- bear offspring
prom- first
proso- front
prostratus- lying flat
prot- first
prunus- plum
psamma- sand
pseud- false
psycho- mind
psychro- cold
pter- wing, fern
ptyal- sahva
pubescens- downy
pubi- sexually mature
pulmo- lung
pungens- pungent
pusill- very small
pygo- rump
pyl- gate
pyo- pus
pyro- heat, fire
pyrus- pear    quadr- four
quarter- four
quin(t/que)- five

rach- spine
radi- root
ram- branching
ran- frog
rapa- turnip
raph- seam
rect- straight
reflex- bent back
ren- kidney
repens- crawling
reptans- crawling
retic- network
retina- little net
retro- behind, backward
rhabd- rod
rhach- spine
rhage- tear, rent
rhin- nose, snout
rhiz- root
rhodo- red
rhynch- snout
-rrh- flow
rode- gnaw
rogos- wrinkled
rostr- beak, prow
rota- tum, wheel
rub(e)r- red
rumen- throat

sacchar- sugar
saccul- little sac
sacr- sacred
sagitta- arrow
sal- salt
sanguini- bloody
sapon- soapy
sarc- flesh
sativus- cultivated
saur- lizard
scala- ladder
scalene- uneven
scaph- anything hollow, bowl, ship
schizo- split
scler- hard
scop- gaze, small owl, broom, shadow
scut- shield
scyph- cup
seba- tallow, wax
sect- cut
segetum- in cornfields
selen- moon
sella- saddle, seat
semi- half
sept- seven, wall
ser(olu)- any body fluid
serot- late
serrat- saw-toothed
set- hair
sex- six
simi- monkey
sinus- hollow, bay
sipho- tube
sol- sun
soma- body
somni- sleep
specios- showy
sperm- seed
sphen- wedge
sphinct- closing
spinos- spiny
spondyl- vertebra
squalid- squalid
squam- scale
squarros- spreading at tips
stae(rlt)- fat
sta(silt)- standing
steg- covering
stell- star
steno- narrow
stereo- solid
steril- sterile
stern- breastbone
stom- mouth
strat- layer
strept- twisted
strictus- upright, stiff
strigos- having stiff bristles
stroph- turning
styl- column
sub- below
sucr- sugar
sulc- furrow
super- beyond
supin- lying back
supra- above
sutur- seam
sym- with
syn- with
syrin(glx)- pipe
sys- with    tachy- fast
tact- touch
taenia- ribbon
talus- ankle
tapetum- carpet
tard- late
tarsus- ankle
tect- covered
tegmen- covering
tel (e/o)- far, end
teleo- complete
temno- cut
tenacul- holding
tentor- spread like a tent
tenuis- slender
ter(ti)- three
teres- round
tetr- four
textilis- of textiles
thalam- chamber, bed
thalass- sea
theca- case
thel- nipple, female
therm- heat
thero- breast, mammal
thyreo- large shield
tinctori- of dyes
torn- cut
tomentos- densely woolly
torpe- numb
toxo- arrow, dart
trab- beam
trachy- rough
trago- goat
trans- across
trapez- four sided, table
trema- hole
tremulans- trembling
tri- three
trich- hair
trivialis- trivial
troch- wheel
trop- turning
troph- feed
tussi- cough    uliginosus- in marshes
-ul- diminutive
ulo- wooly
ultra- above
umbilic- navel
un- one
unc- hook
ungui- nail, claw
ungul- hoof, claw
urens- bum
uro- tail
urs- of bears
utricul- little skin bag
uv(ela)- grapes
_____________________________ ___________

vagina- sheath
vagus- wandering
vas- vessel
velum- veil
ven- vein
ventr- belly
verd- green
veris- true
verm- worm
vern- spring
versi- various
vesic- blister
vesper- evening, western
vill- shaggy hair, velvet
virens- green
visc- organs of body cavity
vita- life
vitell- yolk
vitr- glass
vora- devour
vulgaris- common
vulp- fox

xanth- yellow
xen- stranger
xer- dry
xiphi- sword
xyl- wood

zo- animal
zon- girdle
zyg- yoke
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