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AP BIOLOGY - EVOLUTION MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAM
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1.   Which of the following principles is NOT part of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection?
A.   Evolution is a gradual process that occurs over long periods of time.
B.   Variation occurs among individuals in a population.
C.   Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation.
D.   More individuals are born than will survive.
E.   Individuals that possess the most favorable variations have the best chance of reproducing.

2.   If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then
A.   it is evolving to adapt to environmental changes
B.   the frequency of alleles is changing with each generation
C.   mutations, immigration, and selective mating are changing allele frequencies
D.   it is not evolving and allele frequencies remain the same with each generation
E.   homozygous recessive individuals are less fit

3.   For a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the recessive allele
A.   increases with each generation until it reaches 50%
B.   decreases with each generation until it reaches 25%
C.   remains the same in every generation
D.   decreases due to negative selection pressure on homozygous recessive individuals
E.   increases due to the occurrence of new mutations

4.   Which of the following is probably the best explanation for the fact that Antarctic penguins cannot fly, although there is evidence that millions of years ago their ancestors could do so?
A.   Penguins live on land and feed in the water; therefore they have no need to fly.
B.   The Antarctic home of penguins is flat and barren; therefore there is no place to fly.
C.   Ancestral penguins without large wings were better able to swim and feed in the water; therefore they passed their genes for shorter wings structure onto their offspring.
D.   Ancestral penguins did not use their wings for long periods of time; therefore today’s penguins have only tiny, nonfunctional wings.
E.   The cold and wind of Antarctica make flight impossible; therefore penguins that live there have lost the ability to fly.

5.   The appearance of a fertile, polyploidy individual within a population of diploid organisms is a possible source of a new species. If this individual is capable of reproducing to form a new population. Scientists would consider this to be an example of
A.   allopatric speciation
B.   sympatric speciation
C.   polygenic inheritance
D.   genetic drift
E.   Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

6.   If a population that contains 16% homozygous recessive individuals (blue eyes), and 84% individuals with brown eyes (homozygous dominant and heterozygotes), what is the frequency of the dominant allele in the population?
A.   0.6
B.   0.4
C.   0.32
D.   0.64
E.   0.8
7.   What is the only factor that can change allele frequencies in populations to produce adaptive evolutionary change?
A.   mutation
B.   gene flow (immigration)
C.   non-random mating
D.   genetic drift
E.   selection

8.   In certain Native American groups, albinism due to a homozygous recessive condition in the biochemical pathway for melanin is sometimes seen. If the frequency of the allele for this condition is 0.06, which of the following is closest to the frequency of the dominant allele in this population? (Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.) (99:54)  
A.   0.04
B.   0.06
C.   0.16
D.   0.36
E.   0.94
 
9.   How does natural selection affect the frequency of mutations?
A.   Under conditions of high selection pressure, beneficial mutations occur more frequently
B.   Natural selection does not affect the frequency of mutations
C.   All mutations increase when selection pressure is high
D.   When there is no selection pressure, mutations do not occur
E.   Mutations occur less frequently when selection pressure is high

10.   Genetic drift is increased by all of the following EXCEPT
A.   small population size
B.   bottleneck effects when the population size is greatly reduced, then recovers
C.   founder effects when a small number of individuals are isolated and reproduce to form a new sub-population
D.   movement of individuals from one isolated population to another
E.   genetic isolation of small groups within a population

Questions 11–12.  In a certain flock of sheep, 4 percent of the population has black wool and 96 percent has white wool. Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium  (94:49.50)

11.   If black wool is a recessive trait, what percentage of the population is heterozygous for this trait? (94:49)
A.   4%
B.   20%
C.   32%
D.   64%
E.   80%

12.   What percentage of the population is homozygous for white wool? (94:50)
A.   20%
B.   40%
C.   64%
D.   80%
E.   96%
___________________ ___________________ __
 
13.   All of the following are required for natural selection to create evolutionary change in a population EXCEPT
A.   variation in size or health of genetically identical individuals that is caused by environmental factors
B.   genetic variation exists in a population
C.   individuals that have superior traits produce more offspring than less fit individuals
D.   genes that produce superior traits are passed to offspring
E.   differential survival and reproduction exist
14.   In a small group of people living in a remote area of Kentucky, there is a high incidence of “blue skin”, a condition that results from a variation in the structure of hemoglobin. All of the “blue-skinned” residents can trace their ancestry to one couple, who were among the original settlers of this region. The unusually high frequency of “blue skin” in the area is a example of  (99:44)
A.   mutation
B.   genetic drift
C.   natural selection
D.   sexual selection
E.   heterozygote advantage
15.   The genotype frequencies for the black hair locus are 25% homozygous dominant (BB), 71% heterozygous (Bb), and 4% homozygous recessive (bb). This information shows that
A.   the dominant phenotype is less fit
B.   there may be a heterozygote advantage
C.   the recessive allele will disappear in a few generations
D.   the population is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
E.   individuals with the homozygous dominant genotype produce more offspring
16.   The wing of a bat, the flipper of a whale, and the forelimb of a horse appear very different, yet detailed studies reveal the presence of the same basic bone pattern. These structures are examples of  (94:07)  
A.   analogous structures
B.   homologous structures
C.   vestigial structures
D.   balanced polymorphism
E.   convergent evolution
 
17.   Some varieties of the bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, are now resistant to penicillin.  These varieties of bacteria most probably developed as a result of… (90:50)  
A.   selection
B.   hybrid vigor
C.   coevolution
D.   adaptive radiation
E.   convergent evolution
18.   Which of the following statements best describes the effect of a genetic drift on the gene frequencies of a population? (90:73)
A.   Genes enter a population through immigration, thus changing gene frequencies
B.   Genes leave a population through emigration, thus changing gene frequencies
C.   Chance alone can cause significant changes in gene frequencies of small populations
D.   Mutations over time cause gene frequencies to change
E.   Selection against one allele causes gene frequencies to change
19.   Which of the following is a correct statement about mutations?
A.   They are a source of variation for evolution.
B.   They drive evolution by creating mutation pressures.
C.   They are irreversible.
D.   They occur in germ cells but not in somatic cells
E.   They are most often beneficial to the organisms in which they occur.
20.   Although the seal and the penguin both have streamlined, fish-like bodies with a layer of insulating fat, they are not closely related. This similarity results from…  (94:28 modified)  
A.   convergent evolution
B.   adaptive radiation
C.   homologous evolution
D.   coevolution
E.   analogous evolution

 
Questions 21–22.  Use the following information to answer the questions below. A large population of laboratory animals has been allowed to breed randomly for a number of generations. After several generations, 49 percent of the animals display a recessive trait (aa), the same percentage as at the beginning of the breeding program. The rest of the animals show the dominant phenotype, with heterozygotes indistinguishable from the homozygous dominants.
21.   What is the estimated frequency of allele a in the gene pool?
A.   0.51
B.   0.49
C.   0.70
D.   0.30
E.   0.07
22.   What proportion of the population is probably heterozygous (Aa) for this trait?
A.   0.07
B.   0.42
C.   0.51
D.   0.09
E.   0.21
___________________ ___________________ __
23.   All of the following are criteria for maintaining a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving a gene that has two alleles except
A.   gene flow from other populations must be zero.
B.   there should be no natural selection.
C.   the frequency of all genotypes must be equal.
D.   matings must be random.
E.   populations must be large.
24.   In a Hardy-Weinberg population, the frequency of the a allele is 0.4. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
A.   0.16
B.   0.20
C.   0.60
D.   0.48
E.   cannot tell from the information provided
25.   In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of a recessive allele for a certain hereditary trait is 0.20. What percentage of the individuals in the next generation would be expected to show the dominant trait? (90:61)  
A.   8%
B.   16%
C.   32%
D.   64%
E.   96%
26.   The bones of a human arm are homologous to structures in all of the following EXCEPT a  (90:01)  
A.   whale flipper
B.   bat wing
C.   butterfly wing
D.   bird wing
E.   frog forelimb


Questions 27.  Milkweed is a common field plant that produces a cardiac glycoside which, like digitalis, stimulates heart contractions. The synthesis of this compound ensures the survival of this plant species because the glycoside is toxic to most herbivores with a notable exception — the monarch butterfly.
Female monarchs lay their eggs on milkweed and the resulting larvae (caterpillars) feed on milkweed leaves. An enzyme produced by the caterpillars allows them to ingest and store the toxin without ill effects. After pupation, adult monarchs emerge with a conspicuous bright orange and black banding pattern and retain the toxin glycoside in their systems.
Viceroy butterflies are almost identical to monarchs in possessing the conspicuous banding pattern. However, viceroys cannot metabolize and store the toxic glycoside  (90:118.120)
27.   The banding pattern of viceroy butterflies is an example of… (90:120)  
A.   mimicry
B.   homology
C.   polymorphism
D.   mutualism
E.   commensalism

___________________ ___________________ __
 
28.   Which of the following is most often associated with the elaborate courtship rituals conducted by many birds? (90:14)
A.   species recognition
B.   migration
C.   feeding responses
D.   altruism
E.   kin selection
29.   The different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands are believed to have arisen as a result of natural selection acting on populations of finches that had experienced (02:04)
A.   convergent evolution
B.   gene flow
C.   the bottleneck effect
D.   geographic isolation
E.   hybrid sterility
30.   The difference in cricket calls among sympatric species of crickets are examples of  (90:51)
A.   habitat isolation
B.   temporal isolation
C.   physiological isolation
D.   behavioral isolation
E.   geographical isolation
31.   Which of the following is an example of convergent evolution?
A.   similar amino acid sequences of hemoglobin in humans and chimpanzees
B.   similar bones in the forelimbs of horses and bats
C.   similar body shape of dolphins and fish
D.   different beak shapes of Galapagos finches
E.   similar plant species on islands and the nearest continent
 
32.   Which of the following best supports the statement that mitochondria are descendants of endosymbiotic bacteria-like cells? (99:13)
A.   Mitochondria and bacteria possess similar ribosomes and DNA.
B.   Mitochondria and bacteria possess similar nuclei.
C.   Glycolysis occurs in both mitochondria and bacteria.
D.   Both mitochondria and bacteria have microtubules.
E.   Neither mitochondria nor bacteria possess chloroplasts.
33.   Fossils of some intermediate forms have not been found because
A.   new types of organisms can appear suddenly without progressive changes determined by natural selection
B.   fossils are very rare; fossils of only a small fraction of all species have been found
C.   all fossils are the same age
D.   species produced by punctuated equilibrium do not leave fossils
E.   the ages of many fossils are not calculated correctly
34.   For some traits (such as birth weight in mammals), natural selection favors individuals that are average and the extremes are selected against. This is know as
A.   diversifying selection
B.   directional selection
C.   adaptive radiation
D.   disruptive selection
E.   stabilizing selection
35.   A species is defined as
A.   a population of organisms similar in size, shape, and color
B.   a group of organisms that live in the same habitat
C.   a population of organisms that are able to interbreed
D.   a population of organisms that have the same number of chromosomes
E.   a population of organisms with a common ancestor
 
36.   The condition in which there are barriers to successful interbreeding between individuals of different species in the same community is referred to as  (99:08)  
A.   latent variations
B.   sterility
C.   structural differences
D.   geographic isolation
E.   reproductive isolation
37.   How does artificial selection produce rapid changes in the phenotype of organisms?
A.   By changing the frequency of alleles and selecting for new combinations of traits
B.   By stimulating the species to increase the production of new mutations
C.   By changing the number of chromosomes
D.   By selecting only dominant genotypes
E.   By allowing individuals with all genetic combinations to survive and reproduce equally
38.   The studies of changes between black and light color in populations of the peppered moth show that
A.   natural selection can quickly change allele frequencies and common phenotypes in a population
B.   species can always adapt to environmental changes
C.   predators prefer light colored moths
D.   dark colored moths are physiologically superior to light colored moths
E.   natural selection produces irreversible changes
39.   The embryonic development of vertebrates provides evidence for evolution because
A.   each organism passes through the entire evolutionary history of its species as it develops from a fertilized egg to a full grown individual
B.   the more recently species have shared a common ancestor, the more similar their embryological development
C.   a small number of mutations can convert the embryo of one species into another species
D.   the DNA sequences of embryos change as they develop
E.   unrelated organisms can develop from very similar embryos
 
40.   DNA sequences can be used to determine the evolutionary relationships of species because
A.   organisms with similar anatomy will develop similar DNA sequences by convergent mutations
B.   DNA sequences for proteins never change, so two species that have the same protein will have the same DNA sequence
C.   natural selection causes organisms that live in similar environmental conditions to have the same mutations in their DNA sequences
D.   mutations occur randomly in DNA at a steady rate, so the number of DNA difference is equivalent to the time since a pair of species that shared a common ancestor
E.   recombination moves DNA sequences to related species

Questions 41–45. A moth’s color is controlled by two alleles, G and g, at a single locus. G (gray) is dominant to g (white). A large population of this species of moth was studied, and the frequency of the G allele in the population over time was documented as shown in the figure below. In 1980, a random sample of 2,000 pupae was collected and moths were allowed to emerge. (02:106.110)  

 
41.   During which of the following time periods could the population have been in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the G locus? (02:106)  
1.   1960-1964
2.   1965-1972
3.   1973-1980

A.   1 only
B.   2 only
C.   3 only
D.   1 and 3 only
E.   1, 2, and 3
42.   Assuming that the population was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for the G locus, what percentage of moths in the natural population was white in 1962? (02:107)  
A.   2%
B.   4%
C.   8%
D.   20%
E.   64%
43.   Assuming that the population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the G locus, what percentage of the gray-colored moths that emerged in 1980 was heterozygous? (02:108)  
A.   0%
B.   25%
C.   33%
D.   67%
E.   100%
44.   Assuming that the population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the G locus, what was the frequency of allele G in the moths that emerged in 1980? (02:109)  
A.   0.33
B.   0.50
C.   0.67
D.   0.75
E.   1.00
45.   Which of the following is the most likely reason for the observed differences in the frequency of the G allele between 1965 and 1972? (02:110)  
A.   emigration of white moths from the population
B.   chance
C.   selection against the gray phenotype
D.   speciation
E.   mutation
 
46.   S. L. Miller's classic experiment demonstrated that a discharge of sparks through a mixture of gases could result in the formation of a large variety of organic compounds. All of the following gases were used in this experiment EXCEPT  (90:45)
A.   hydrogen
B.   methane
C.   ammonia
D.   oxygen
E.   water vapor
47.   In certain species crosses, such as that between the horse and the donkey, offspring are produced, but they are usually sterile. The most common explanation of this result is that (73:66)  
A.   the chromosomes of the two species differ too much to pair properly in meiosis
B.   the two species differ too much in behavior to be able to mate successfully
C.   embryological development in the two species are incompatible
D.   hormonal differences between the two species prevent proper development of the sex organs or gametes
E.   antibody formation in the offspring produces sterility

Questions 48–50. From the terms listed below, choose the term that best fits the description in each numbered phrase. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all. (86:86.89)
A   Founder effect
B   Kin selection
C   Competitive exclusion
D   Adaptive radiation
E   Convergent evolution
48.   The evolution of several species from a single species, each occupying a different niche  D  (86:86)
49.   The establishment of a genetically unique population through genetic drift  A  (86:88)
50.   The independent development of similarities between unrelated groups resulting from adaptation to similar environments  E   (86:89)

 
BONUS QUESTIONS
1.   All members of which of the following groups have the greatest number of characteristics in common? (90:29)  
A.   Class
B.   Order
C.   Family
D.   Genus
E.   Phylum
Questions 2–5. From the fields listed below, choose the field that has provided each of the following pieces of evidence that biological evolution has occurred. Each field may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A.   Comparative biochemistry
B.   Comparative anatomy
C.   Comparative embryology
D.   Geographical distribution
E.   Paleontology
2.   Archaeopteryx is an extinct feathered reptile. E
3.   Peripatus has claws like an insect and paired nephridia (excretory organs) like a segmented worm. B
4.   Most human diabetics can use insulin derived either from pigs or from humans. A
5.   During early development, a human fetus has a tail and gill arches. C

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AP BIOLOGY - EVOLUTION MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAM
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This is very helpful.


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Thank you so much for this, life saver!


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you have no idea how much this helps me Smile


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Thank you so much for this, life saver!
Anytime Bro!


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Smile this is amazing


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how can i get the answers?


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how can i get the answers?

Full member status depends on how much time you spend on the forum (i.e. # of hours online + posts + contribution + reputation + plus my acceptance).

If you do not want to put in the effort, you can either donate and it opens up to you automatically Smile

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how do i dwnld the answers


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I tried to register but it won't let me, I don't know why!!!  Sad
Is there any way that I can get the answers for this?


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Hardy- Weinberg Principle-Shows that if the population is large, the process fo inheritance does not by itself cause changes in allele frequencies. Relative proportions of allels and genotypes in successive generations will always be the same with these 5 conditions:
1. random mating
2. no net mutations
3. large population size
4. no migration
5. no natural selection


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To get answers you have to be a member and then be active with this program. It will show you.


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antigen- a molecule, usually a protein or a carbohydrate that is recognized as foreign by cells of another organism's immune system
-dozens on the surface of human blood


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5 factors responsible for evolutionary change:
-non random mating
-mutation
-genetic drift
-genetic flow
-natural selection


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