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Anonymous snowman123
wrote...
A month ago
The higher-level functioning of the brain is associated mostly with grey matter, which is located
Question 1 options:


on the cerebral cortex and contains cell bodies, axons and dendrites.


in some inner regions of the brain and contains cell bodies, axons and dendrites.


on the cerebral cortex and contains long myelinated axons.


in some inner regions of the brain and contains long myelinated axons.

A baby goes through several stages of development, beginning as a fertilized egg.
Below are some stages during the emergence of a human embryo. The correct order of the stages that occur during the emergence of an embryo is ___, ___, ___, and ___.
gastrula
zygote
morula
blastocyst
(Place the four digits in order in the space provided.)
Question 2 options:



Release of excessive amounts of the mineralocorticoids, can be caused by a tumor in the adrenal gland or increased growth of normal cells affecting the adrenal cortex, leading to unusually high blood pressure.
An adrenal gland tumor causing high blood pressure is because
Question 4 options:


of an increase in ADH production


of an decrease in ADH production


aldosterone promotes reabsorption of sodium ions and water into the body


aldosterone promotes loss of sodium ions and water from the body

Action potentials in neurons are also known as "nerve impulses" and are a temporal sequence of action potentials. A neuron that emits an action potential, or nerve impulse, is often said to "fire".  A nerve impulse occurs when
Question 5 options:


the resting transmembrane potential is constant at -70mV


the transmembrane potential becomes less than the resting potential


K+ diffuse out of the neural fibre


Na+ diffuse out of the neural fibre


Which of the following pathways correctly shows the sequence of stimulations initiated by the hypothalamus that leads to the production of the long-term stress hormone?
Question 6 options:


hypothalamus → spinal cord → adrenal medulla that produces epinephrine


hypothalamus → posterior pituitary → adrenal cortex that produces cortisol


hypothalamus → anterior pituitary → adrenal cortex that produces cortisol


hypothalamus → spinal cord → adrenal medulla that produces norepinephrine

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Multiple sclerosis is a disorder characterized by the breakdown of the myelin sheath around axons in the central nervous system. The absence of a fully functional myelin sheath causes
Question 7 options:


abnormal functioning of the sodium-potassium exchange pump


an increase in the amount of saltatory conduction


an attack on the Schwann cells by the immune system


neural impulses to travel more slowly than normal

Use the following information to answer the next question.
Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a chemical that interferes with the production of ATP in a cell.  DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat.
 
The resting potential of a neuron treated with DNP would be _____mV.
(Record your answer in the space provided)
Question 8 options:



Prolonged exposure to a very loud sound of a particular frequency results in selective hearing loss.  For example, frequent exposure to the sound of jet engines would cause this form of deafness.  After the deafness occurs, a person would no longer hear any sound having the same frequency as an engine.  Sounds of higher or lower frequencies would still be heard.
A likely explanation for this form of hearing loss is that
Question 9 options:


the hearing mechanism undergoes sensory adaptation to the sound.


the hair cells at a particular location on the organ of Corti have been destroyed.


the tympanum no longer vibrates in response to the sound.


the ossicles no longer move because of damage from the sound.

If you have placenta previa, it means that your placenta is lying unusually low in your uterus, touching or covering the cervical opening. Which of the following statements about the placenta is incorrect?
Question 10 options:


Viruses can pass through the placenta to the fetus.


It plays a role in the transport of nutrients and waste products.


It allows antibodies to pass to the fetus.


It prevents alcohol from passing through the fetus.

Neurons are information messengers. They use electrical impulses and chemical signals to transmit information between different areas of the brain, and between the brain and the rest of the nervous system. In a neuron, the _____ transmits signals to the next neuron or to an effector and the ______ receives signals from other neurons.
Question 11 options:


axon     dendrite


dendrite     axon


cytoplasm    nucleus


nucleus     cytoplasm

Which of the following response are controlled by impulses from the sympathetic nervous system
bronchiole dilation
decreased heart rate
increased secretion of gastric juices
depressed levels of epinephrine in the blood
elevated levels of epinephrine in the blood
(Record your two-digit answer in lowest-to-highest numeric order in the space provided)
The following graph shows estrogen and progesterone levels during a menstrual cycle.  Use this graph to answer the question which follows.

On which day does the luteal stage end on?
(Record your answer in the space provided)
The following are some sentences bout feedback systems and homeostasis
An example of positive feedback is constriction of blood vessels in the hands caused by a decrease in body temperature.
A positive feedback system maintains equilibrium.
An example of negative feedback is shivering caused by a decrease in body temperature.
A negative feedback system reverses the stimulus that causes the effect.
A positive feedback system reinforces the stimulus that causes the effect.
Which statements about homeostasis and feedback systems are CORRECT?
Question 14 options:


1 and 2


3, 4 and 5


1, 2 and 3


2 and 3

Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone have opposing effects on bone tissue, one hormone causing bone to release calcium ions and the other causing it to absorb them. These are examples of of antagonistic hormones.
What is example of another pair of hormones
Question 15 options:


insulin and glucagon


testosterone and estrogen


norepinephrine and epinephrine


aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone



The following is a diagram showing the structure of the eye.

The parts of the eye which provide protection and support are the
Question 16 options:


choroid, aqueous humour and vitreous humour


sclera, aqueous humour and vitreous humour


sclera, cornea and vitreous humour


choroid, vitreous humour and ciliary muscle


By day 5, the blastocyst is about 70-100 cells. The    i    layer of the blastocyst forms the    ii    , and the     iii    cell layer of the blastocyst forms the    iv  . Choose the row that is most correct to fill in the blanks.
Row
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
A.
outer
embryo
inner
placenta
B.
outer
placenta
inner
embryo
C.
inner
embryo
outer
placenta
D.
outer
placenta
inner
embryo

Question 17 options:


A


B


C


D

The four phases of the menstrual cycle in order are ___, ___, ___, and ___.
egg moves to uterus
menstruation
thickening of uterus
ovulation
(Place the numbers in order in the space provided)
Use the following information to answer the next question.

An action potential is occurring in a nerve fibre. After the threshold, what is happening to the ion flow at the position 1 on the graph?
Question 19 options:


Na+ are flowing out


ion levels are stable


K+ are flowing in


Na+ are flowing in


K+ are flowing out


What is the purpose of excitatory neurotransmitters?
Question 20 options:


Open potassium ion channels causing depolarization of postsynaptic neural membranes


Open sodium ion channels causing depolarization of postsynaptic neural membranes


Open sodium ion channels causing hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic neural membranes


Open potassium ion channels causing hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic neural membranes

Which of the following correctly identifies the sequence of actions after movements of the The pituitary hormone that controls the release of testosterone is
Question 22 options:


prolactin


vasopressin


follicle-stimulating hormone


luteinizing hormone


stapes strike the oval window on the fluid-filled cochlea?
Question 21 options:


pressure waves → basilar membrane moves → hair cells relay message → stereocilia bend against tectorial membrane → auditory nerve


basilar membrane moves → pressure waves → stereocilia bend against tectorial membrane → hair cells relay message → auditory nerve


pressure waves → basilar membrane moves → stereocilia bend agains tectorial membrane → hair cells relay message → auditory nerve


basilar membrane moves → pressure waves → hair cells relay message → stereocilia bend against tectorial membrane → auditory nerve


The spinal cord brings infomation between the brain and the peripheral nervous system, it also
Question 23 options:


carries impulses which regulates breathing rates and the heart.


is the control centre for some reflex actions.


coordinates skeletal muscles fine movements.


controls the production of digestive secretions, as it functions as the control centre.

A drug sold under the name Contergan was prescribed for nausea in pregnant women. Also known as Thalidomide, its use during pregnancy has been stopped because it caused which of the following problems in the children that were born
Question 24 options:


personality disorders


decreased birth weight


reduced intellectual ability


unhealthy or absent appendages


The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscles, the heart, and some glands during times of stress and of relaxation. It is involuntary, what are the two parts of the brain that control it
Question 25 options:


hypothalamus and medulla oblongata


hypothalamus and thalamus


medulla oblongata and thalamus


medulla oblongata and pons

The ______________and the______________ release norepinephrine to start the fight-or-flight response.
Question 26 options:


adrenal medulla          parasympathetic nervous system


adrenal cortex            sympathetic nervous system


adrenal medulla        sympathetic nervous system


adrenal cortex          parasympathetic nervous system


In the process of sexual reproduction,    i    cells fuse and result in a    ii    zygote.  The statement above is completed by the information in row:

Row
i.
ii.
A.
two haploid
diploid
B.
three haploid
triploid
C.
two diploid
diploid
D.
four haploid
tetraploid

Question 27 options:


A


B


C


D


 The    i    is/are connected to the    ii    by a funnel-shaped structure known as the cervix. The statement above is completed by the information in row:
Row
i.
ii.
A.
Oviduct
Uterus
B.
Ovaries
Vagina
C.
Vagina
Ovaries
D.
Uterus
Vagina

Question 28 options:


A


B


C


D

The process of spermatogenesis occurs in the    i    of the male and results in the production of    ii    haploid male gametes.  The statement is completed by the information in row:
Row
i.
ii.
A.
testes
2
B.
ovary
2
C.
testes
4
D.
ovary
4

Question 29 options:


A


B


C


D

Page 29 of 42

The menstrual cycle is the shedding of the uterine lining that would otherwise have housed a growing embryo in pregnancy. Menstrual cycles will cease at the time of pregnancy. The reason for this is the continued presence of the hormone
Question 30 options:


FSH


progesterone


hCG


estrogen

The order of organ development in fetuses isn't always exactly the same. Humans all start from the same general blueprint, but some organs start to form around the same time, and some grow faster than others. However, the development of all the organ systems is completed by the end of the third trimester of fetal development. The last systems to reach maturity are the
Question 32 options:


digestive and nervous systems


circulatory and nervous systems


excretory and respiratory systems


respiratory and digestive systems


Use the following information to answer the next question.
Neural pathways that connect the CNS and spinal cord are called tracts. Ascending tracts run from the spinal cord to the brain while descending tracts run from the brain to the spinal cord. These structures work in coordination to perform functions like receiving and transmitting stimili, integrating stimuli and conducting and responding to stimuli.  The structures in this pathway are as follows:
Sensory neurons
Sensory receptors
Motor neurons
Interneurons
The correct order in which the above structures function in a neural pathway is____, ____, ____, and ____.
(Record your four-digit answer in the space provided)
Question 33 options:



The two hormones manufactured by the adrenal medulla are _____ and ______.
Question 34 options:


aldosterone   cortisol


epinephrine   norepinephrine


norepinephrine    calcitonin


epinephrine   renin

The grey matter of the brain consists of ______ neurons while the white matter of the brain consists of ______ neurons.  This statement is completed by the which combination of words?
Question 35 options:


unmyelinated    myelinated


myelinated    myelinated


myelinated    unmyelinated


unmyelinated     unmyelinated

When the body doesn't have enough insulin, symptoms such as excess urination, thirst, lack of energy and fatigue occur. The reason there is fatigue and a lack of energy is that
Question 36 options:


body cells do not absorb glucose from the blood


body cells burn glucose supplies too rapidly


there are inadequate glucose levels in the blood


the kidneys excrete too much glucose

Identify the principal effect of thyroxine?
Question 37 options:


stimulates the growth of muscless, connective tissue and long bones


increases the rate of metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates


stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete TSH


lowers the concentration of calcium ions in the blood


Based on this grouping: ovary, follicle, egg, which of the following best matches?
Question 38 options:


scrotum, testis, sperm


uterus, ovulation, egg


egg, menstruation, uterus


sperm, conception, zygote

During the first trimester, the fetus is most susceptible to damage. One of the most damaging and avoidable teratogens that affect the development of the brain and  spinal cord of a developing fetus is
Question 39 options:


X-rays


radiation


cigarette smoking


alcohol

Read the statements below and identify which one describes the function of a component of a reflex arc?
Question 40 options:


Sensory receptors receive stimuli from interneurons.


Motor neurons conduce impulses from interneurons to effectors.


Sensory neurons gather information from effectors.


Effectors act as integration centres.

IVF is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology. The procedure can be done using a couple's own eggs and sperm. A baby produced as a result of in vitro fertilization is known as a
Question 41 options:


embryo


clone


fetus


test-tube baby

One method of contraception involves the use of artificial hormones to prevent ovulation. These hormones inhibit the release of   i    and mimic    ii    . The statement given above is completed by the information in which row?
Row
i.
ii.
A.
FSH and LH
progesterone
B.
progesterone and estrogen
FSH
C.
progesterone
FSH and LH
D.
LH
estrogen and progesterone

Question 42 options:


A


B


C

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Replies
Anonymous
wrote...
A month ago
#9

the hair cells at a particular location on the organ of Corti have been destroyed.

#20

Open sodium ion channels causing depolarization of postsynaptic neural membranes
Anonymous Author
wrote...
A month ago
thank you.
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