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Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell) - Chapter 3
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Biology: Concepts and Connections, 6e (Campbell)
Chapter 3
The Molecules of Cells


Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Lactose intolerance is the inability to
A) produce milk proteins.
B) produce lactose.
C) digest cellulose.
D) digest lactose.
E) digest milk fats.

Answer: 
Topic:  Opening Essay
Skill:  Factual Recall


2) Lactose intolerance
A) is common in people of all ages, from infancy to adulthood.
B) is most common in people of European descent.
C) can currently be treated by gene therapy to treat the underlying cause.
D) does not affect the consumption of beverages made from soy or rice.
E) is a fatal disease with no known treatment.

Answer: 
Topic:  Opening Essay
Skill:  Factual Recall


3) Organic compounds
A) always contain nitrogen.
B) are synthesized only by animal cells.
C) always contain carbon.
D) can be synthesized only in a laboratory.
E) always contain oxygen.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.1
Skill:  Factual Recall


4) Which of the following statements regarding carbon is false?
A) Carbon has a tendency to form covalent bonds.
B) Carbon has the ability to bond with up to four other atoms.
C) Carbon has the capacity to form single and double bonds.
D) Carbon has the ability to bond together to form extensive, branched, or unbranched "carbon skeletons."
E) Carbon has the capacity to form polar bonds with hydrogen.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.1
Skill:  Factual Recall


5) You now know that the old cliché "oil and water don't mix" is true. Why?
A) Oil exhibits polarity and water does not.
B) Water exhibits polarity and oil does not.
C) Oil is hydrophilic.
D) Water is hydrophobic.
E) Oil is an organic compound and water is not.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.1
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


6) Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?
A) Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.
B) Hydrocarbons are composed of a linked chain of carbon atoms, called a carbon skeleton.
C) Hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
D) Hydrocarbons consist of atoms linked by single and double bonds.
E) Hydrocarbons can form straight, branched or ringed structures.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.1
Skill:  Factual Recall


7) Propanol and isopropanol are isomers. This means that they have
A) the same molecular formula, but different chemical properties.
B) different molecular formulas, but the same chemical properties.
C) the same molecular formula and the same chemical properties.
D) the same number of carbon atoms, but different numbers of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
E) the same molecular formula, but represent different states of the compound.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.1
Skill:  Factual Recall


8) A hydroxyl group is
A) also called a carbonyl group.
B) characteristic of proteins.
C) hydrophobic.
D) characteristic of alcohols.
E) basic.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Factual Recall
9) Which of the following is a carboxyl group?
A) ?C?O
B) ?OH
C) ?NH2
D) ?COOH
E) ?SH

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Factual Recall


10) Which of the following is an amino group?
A) ?OH
B) ?NH2
C) ?COOH
D) ?CO
E) ?CH3

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Factual Recall


11) Which of the following statements about the functional groups of organic compounds is false?
A) Functional groups help make organic compounds hydrophilic.
B) Many biological molecules have two or more functional groups.
C) Functional groups participate in chemical reactions.
D) All functional groups include a carbon atom of the organic compound's skeleton.
E) Functional groups help make organic compounds soluble in water.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


12) Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?
A) amino acids
B) fats
C) sugars
D) ATP
E) vinegar

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Factual Recall


13) Which of the following functional groups is capable of regulating gene expression?
A) ?OH
B) ?NH2
C) ?COOH
D) ?CO
E) ?CH3

Answer: 
Topic:  3.2
Skill:  Factual Recall


14) Which of the following statements about the monomers and polymers found in living organisms is false?
A) Cells typically make all of their macromolecules from a set of 40-50 common monomers and a few other ingredients
      that are rare.
B) The monomers used to make polymers are essentially universal.
C) Monomers serve as building blocks for polymers.
D) DNA is built from just four kinds of monomers.
E) Monomers are joined together by the process of hydrolysis.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.3
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


15) Which of the following statements about dehydration synthesis is false?
A) One monomer loses a hydrogen atom, and the other loses a hydroxyl group.
B) Electrons are shared between atoms of the joined monomers.
C) H2O is formed as the monomers are joined.
D) Covalent bonds are formed between the monomers.
E) Animal digestive systems utilize this process to break down food.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.3
Skill:  Factual Recall


16) The results of dehydration synthesis can be reversed by
A) condensation.
B) hydrolysis.
C) polymerization.
D) the addition of an amino group.
E) the addition of a phosphate group.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.3
Skill:  Factual Recall


17) Which list below consists of only polymers?
A) sugars, amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids
B) proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids
C) proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides
D) proteins, lipids, nucleotides, sugars
E) polysaccharides, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acids


Answer: 
Topic:  3.3
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


18) What is the general function of enzymes within a cell?
A) to promote the synthesis of monomers
B) to induce chemical reactions
C) to stop chemical reactions
D) to speed up chemical reactions
E) to reverse the direction of chemical reactions

Answer: 
Topic:  3.3
Skill:  Factual Recall


19) The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of
A) CH3O.
B) CH2O.
C) CHO.
D) CHO2.
E) CHO3.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.4
Skill:  Factual Recall


20) A molecule with the formula C55H110O55 is probably a(n)
A) oil.
B) steroid.
C) wax.
D) protein.
E) polysaccharide.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.4
Skill:  Application


21) Many names for sugars end in the suffix
A) -acid.
B) -ose.
C) -hyde.
D) -ase.
E) -ing.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.4
Skill:  Factual Recall

22) Sucrose is formed
A) from two glucose molecules.
B) from two monosaccharides through dehydration synthesis.
C) when ionic bonds link two monosaccharides.
D) when water molecules are added to two monosaccharides.
E) when glucose and lactose are combined.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


23) A disaccharide forms when
A) two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.
B) two starches join by dehydration synthesis.
C) two monosaccharides join by hydrolysis.
D) two starches join by hydrolysis.
E) a starch and a monosaccharide join by dehydration synthesis.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.5
Skill:  Factual Recall


24) High-fructose corn syrup is composed primarily of a polysaccharide called
A) sucrose.
B) starch.
C) hydrocarbon.
D) cellulose.
E) lactose.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.6
Skill:  Factual Recall


25) Which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?
A) sucrose, starch, and cellulose
B) starch, amino acids, and glycogen
C) cellulose, starch, and glycogen
D) nucleotides, glycogen, and cellulose
E) fructose, cellulose, and glucose

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


26) Cellulose differs from starch in that
A) the monomers of cellulose are held together by covalent bonds, whereas the monomers of starch are held together by
     hydrogen bonds.
B) glycogen is formed by plants and cellulose by animals.
C) most animals cannot break down cellulose, whereas starch is easily digested.
D) starch is made of glucose monomers, whereas cellulose is made of fructose monomers.
E) cellulose is highly branched, whereas starch is unbranched.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


27) Foods that are high in fiber are most likely derived from
A) plants.
B) dairy products.
C) red meats.
D) fish.
E) poultry.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


28) Cows can derive nutrients from cellulose because
A) they produce the enzymes that break down cellulose.
B) they chew their food so thoroughly that cellulose fibers are broken down.
C) their intestinal tract contains cellulose-hydrolyzing microorganisms.
D) they convert cellulose into starch, which is easily broken down in the intestinal tract.
E) their intestinal tract contains termites, which can break down cellulose.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


29) The storage form of carbohydrates is ________ in animals and ________ in plants.
A) starch . . . glycogen
B) glycogen . . . starch
C) cellulose . . . glycogen
D) glycogen . . . cellulose
E) chitin . . . glycogen

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Factual Recall


30) Which of the following organisms contain the polysaccharide chitin?
A) animals and plants
B) plants and bacteria
C) fungi and insects
D) insects and plants
E) crustaceans and bacteria

Answer: 
Topic:  3.7
Skill:  Factual Recall
31) An oil may be converted into a substance that is solid at room temperature by
A) adding hydrogens, decreasing the number of double bonds in the molecules.
B) removing water, causing a dehydration synthesis reaction to occur.
C) removing hydrogens, increasing the number of double bonds.
D) cooling it, so that double bonds form and the fats solidify.
E) adding water and shaking it vigorously.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Application


32) A diet high in animal products and hydrogenated vegetable margarine may increase the risk for atherosclerosis. This is because
A) most animal fats are unsaturated and most hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain high levels of steroids.
B) most hydrogenated vegetable margarines are hydrogenated oils and most animal products contain high levels of
     phospholipids.
C) most animal fats are used for energy storage and most hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain high levels of
     unsaturated fats.
D) most animal fats are saturated and many hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain high levels of trans fats.
E) most animal products contain high levels of unsaturated oils and most hydrogenated vegetable margarines contain
     anabolic steroids.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


33) Because water and oil don't mix, water is not very effective at washing away oily dirt. The ability of soap to mix with both water and oily dirt allows dirt to be washed away. Which statement provides the most logical chemical explanation for this phenomenon?
A) Soap molecules have both positively and negatively charged regions. The positively charged regions are attracted to
     water; the negatively charged regions are attracted to oil.
B) Soap molecules have both positively and negatively charged regions. The negatively charged regions are attracted to
     water; the positively charged regions are attracted to oil.
C) Soap molecules carry no charge. As a result, soap can form an effective bridge between charged water molecules and
     neutral oil molecules.
D) Soap molecules have charged regions and neutral regions. The charged regions are attracted to water molecules; the
     neutral regions are attracted to oils.
E) Soap molecules have charged regions and neutral regions. The neutral regions are attracted to water molecules; the
     charged regions are attracted to oils.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Application


34) Fatty acids are
A) composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
B) composed of carbon, hydrogen, glycerol, and a phosphate group.
C) hydrophobic.
D) composed of four linked rings.
E) components of DNA.
Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Conceptual Understanding


35) Which of the following statements regarding triglyceride molecules is false?
A) Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
B) Triglycerides are hydrophobic.
C) Triglycerides play a role in energy storage.
D) Triglycerides are a type of fat.
E) Triglycerides are part of a signal pathway.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


36) Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be
A) unsaturated.
B) saturated.
C) completely hydrogenated.
D) triglycerides.
E) monoglycerides.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Factual Recall


37) The development of atherosclerotic disease can result from a diet high in
A) fiber.
B) protein.
C) saturated fats.
D) sugars.
E) complex carbohydrates.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Application


38) If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that
A) is liquid at room temperature.
B) is hydrogenated.
C) is modified to be solid at room temperature.
D) has lard added to it.
E) contains high levels of trans fats.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8
Skill:  Application

39) Which of the following statements about animal cell lipids is false?
A) Fats are a form of lipid that function to store energy.
B) Phospholipids are important components of cell membranes.
C) Steroids are lipids that function as signaling molecules.
D) Many lipids function as enzymes.
E) Cholesterol is a type of lipid that is a component of cell membranes and steroid hormones.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.8, 3.9
Skill:  Factual Recall


40) A phospholipid is composed of
A) one glycerol molecule linked to three fatty acids.
B) one fatty acid molecule linked to three glycerol molecules.
C) one glycerol molecule linked to three phosphate groups.
D) one fatty acid molecule linked to one glycerol molecule and two phosphate groups.
E) one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.

Answer: 
Topic:  3.9
Skill:  Factual Recall

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