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Chapter 25 and 26 Homework Review

Florida State University : FSU
Uploaded: 5 years ago
Contributor: bio_man
Category: Biology
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Chapter 25 The area at C will eventually drain urine into the __________. Ureter The ureter will carry the urine to the urinary bladder. Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys? to maintain the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases to regulate body fluid by controlling excretion from sweat glands to carry out gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting to metabolize vitamin D to its active form (The kidneys have no control over excretion at the level of sweat glands.) Efferent arterioles supply blood to the glomerulus. False (Afferent arterioles supply blood to the glomerulus.) Which of the following is the most likely to cause pyelonephritis? Infection of the urinary bladder (Pyelonephritis is an infection and/or inflammation of the entire kidney usually caused by fecal bacteria that spread from the anal area to the urinary tract. The bladder is directly connected to the kidney via the ureters.) Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system? helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones maintains blood osmolarity The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position The macula densa cells respond to ________. changes in Na+ content of the filtrate The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter. False The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal. True The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding. True What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)? monitoring the NaCl content of the filtrate (The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule.)   Match the following terms to their definitions. Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria? A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT. The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following? damage to the filtration membrane The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.Nephron Which of the following is NOT a cause of anuria? Vasodilation of afferent arterioles. Vasodilation of the afferent arterioles occurs during times of low systemic blood pressure. This reflexive response raises glomerular blood pressure and helps maintain normal glomerular filtration rates. Anuria is an abnormally low urine output (<50 ml/day). Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does not explain the high pressure within the glomerular capillaries. The volume of plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure) Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress. False A nonfasting urine sample from an individual who had previously ingested donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). Which of the following statements explains the presence of glucose in the urine? The individual exceeded the transport maximum. (When an individual exceeds the transport maximum for any filtered substance, that substance will end up in the urine.) Which of the following best describes the function of the urethra? transport of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body     Which of the following is NOT one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur? The extrusor muscle must relax. Ellen, a 47-year-old woman who has suffered kidney disease for several years, has been diagnosed with proteinuria. Her legs and feet are so swollen that she has difficulty walking. Her hands and her left arm are also swollen. What is proteinuria, and could this condition be playing a role in her swollen limbs? Proteinuria is a condition in which large amounts of plasma proteins pass into the glomerular filtrate and are excreted in the urine, decreasing the colloid osmotic pressure. This causes more fluid to leave the blood into the tissues in the body, resulting in edema. Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems. False Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets. Polycystic kidney disease always affects both kidneys instead of only the right or left kidney because ______.it is a genetic disease (Abnormal genes cause polycystic kidney disease, which means the disease runs in families. There are two types of polycystic kidney disease, caused by different genetic flaws.) Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)? Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy. Which organ(s) is/are highlighted? Kidneys Which structure is highlighted? ureter Which structure is highlighted? urethra Which structure is highlighted? urinary bladder Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur? proximal convoluted tubule The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is where most reabsorption takes place. An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.increase in the production of ADH The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.osmosis Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption. True Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.inhibits the release of ADH Since most patients with renal failure produce little or no urine, hemodialysis often involves removal of water from the blood. However, side-effects may develop if too much fluid is removed from the blood. Which of the following is NOT one of the potential side-effects? vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles (Vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles occurs during times of high systemic blood pressure. This reflexive response lowers glomerular blood pressure and helps maintain normal glomerular filtration rates.) An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is __.slightly higher than water A nonfasting urine sample from an individual who had previously ingested donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). Which of the following statements explains the presence of glucose in the urine? The individual exceeded the transport maximum. When an individual exceeds the transport maximum for any filtered substance, that substance will end up in the urine. CHAPTER 26 The majority of the fluid in the body is the __________. Intracellular fluid makes up about 40% of the body weight and comprises over half of the fluid in the body. The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium. False: The most abundant cation (or positively charged ion) in the intracellular fluid (ICF) is potassium (K+). The most abundant anion (or negatively charged ion) of the ICF is hydrogen phosphate (HPO4-). The most abundant cation (or positively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid (ECF) is sodium (Na+). The most abundant anion (or negatively charged ion) of the ECF is chloride (Cl-). Which of the following statements about fluid movement is NOT correct? Exchange between the plasma and the intracellular fluid occurs across the cell membrane. (Exchange between the plasma and the intracellular fluid would have to involve exchange through the interstitial fluid.) Under normal circumstances, what method does NOT lead to water intake? Osmisis: Osmosis only describes the conditions that dictate the water movement across membranes. Osmosis does not describe any measurable water intake during normal circumstances. The role of ADH is to __________. Increase water reabsorption. (ADH increases water reabsorption at the collecting ducts in the kidneys.) Which of the following would NOT be expected to lead to edema? Hyponatremia. (Hyponatremia is low levels of sodium in the blood. This can lead to dehydration, not edema.) Which of the following does NOT impact how much sodium is reabsorbed? Transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule. (The transport maximum only describes the max potential for sodium transport. This transport is regulated by hormones that influence transport, especially beyond the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT).) ADH secretion can be stimulated by either blood osmolarity changes or blood pressure changes in the heart or large vessels.True: Hypothalamic osmolarity receptors can trigger ADH secretion. Also, decreases in plasma volume, which affects blood pressure, are detected by receptors in the atria and large vessels and cause ADH secretion. Which of the following is NOT an effect of PTH? To decrease Ca+ absorption in the gut. (This would have the opposite effect of PTH. PTH works to increase Ca+ in the blood stream.) Which of the following does NOT serve as a source of acids in the body? Aerobic breakdown of glucose. (During the aerobic breakdown of glucose, a predictable amount of H+ ions are released in the mitochondria. O2 serves as the hydrogen acceptor at the end of that pathway producing water. Overall, this process does not contribute acidity to the body.) What is the primary buffer in the plasma? Bicarbonate buffer system. (Bicarbonate is the form that CO2 is transported in the blood stream. Using carbonic anhydrase to shift between bicarbonate and carbonic acid, the pH of the blood stream can be quickly regulated.) An increase in blood CO2 levels leads to __________.A drop in blood pH. An increase in CO2 results in the formation of more carbonic acid, which leads to an increase in acidity, or a drop in pH. The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance of the blood involves __________.maintaining HCO3- balance. Excretion of bicarbonate is a long-term mechanism that the kidneys contribute to acid-base regulation. Which of the following blood workups would most likely demonstrate metabolic acidosis? pH: 7.33; PCO2: 30 mmHg; HCO3-: 20 mEq/L (The pH indicates acidosis, but the PCO2 is low. The cause is not likely to be respiratory acidosis. The HCO3- concentration indicates that the cause here would be metabolic acidosis.) Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for dehydration? Increased muscle mass (Aerobic metabolism of glucose in muscle tissue would actually generate water for the body.)

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