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A year ago
Which is NOT true about the countercurrent multiplier system of the kidney?
 
  A. It creates a hyperosmolar medullary interstitium that allows the kidneys to form hypertonic urine.
  B. The descending loop of Henle is permeable to water.
  C. There is active transport of sodium and chloride out of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
  D. The ascending loop of Henle is not permeable to water.
  E. The fraction of filtered NaCl reabsorbed from the ascending limb equals the fraction of filtered water reabsorbed from the descending limb.



(Question 2) Compared to the normal plasma osmolarity, the tubular fluid is ________ as it enters Bowman's space, ________ at the beginning of the loop of Henle, ________ at the tip of the loop, and ________ at the beginning of the distal convoluted tubule.
 
  A. isosmotic; hyperosmotic; hyperosmotic; isosmotic
  B. isosmotic; isosmotic; hypoosmotic; hypoosmotic
  C. isosmotic; isosmotic; hyperosmotic; hypoosmotic
  D. isosmotic; isosmotic; hypoosmotic; hyperosmotic
  E. isosmotic; isosmotic; hyperosmotic; isosmotic



(Question 3) In what segment of the nephron is the greatest fraction of filtered water reabsorbed?
 
  A. the proximal tubule
  B. the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
  C. the distal convoluted tubule
  D. the collecting ducts
  E. the descending limb of the loop of Henle



(Question 4) Which of the following substances undergo renal tubular secretion?
 
  A. Ca2+
  B. Na+
  C. K+
  D. H20



(Question 5) Where do Na+/K+ ATPase pumps play an active role in reabsorbing Na+?
 
  A. in Bowman's capsule epithelial cells, facing the interior of Bowman's space
  B. in the basolateral membrane of cells of the cortical collecting duct
  C. in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of the proximal tubule
  D. in the luminal membrane of epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule
  E. in the basolateral membrane of endothelial cells of peritubular capillaries



(Question 6) Which is true for a man who is in balance for total body water?
 
  A. He must ingest more water than is lost in the urine.
  B. He must ingest more water than is lost by all output pathways combined.
  C. He must ingest less water than is lost in the urine.
  D. The water filtered into Bowman's capsule must be 100 reabsorbed.
  E. The amount ingested plus that metabolically produced must equal the amount of water in the urine.



(Question 7) Which of the following is TRUE about how water is handled by the nephron?
 
  A. Water is filtered out of glomerular capillaries by bulk flow.
  B. Water is actively reabsorbed from the proximal tubule, and Na+ follows down its diffusion gradient.
  C. Water is actively secreted into the descending loop of Henle.
  D. The permeability of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is modified by vasopressin.
  E. Vasopressin inserts pumps in the collecting duct membrane that move water against its concentration gradient.



(Question 8) Which of the following describes tubular reabsorption in the kidney?
 
  A. the movement of substances from the peritubular capillaries into the tubular fluid
  B. the movement of substances from the proximal tubule into the loop of Henle
  C. transepithelial transport from the lumen of the tubule into renal interstitial fluid
  D. movement of Na+, Cl-, and water from glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule
  E. transport of solutes from the renal medullary interstitium into the collecting duct



(Question 9) Which is NOT a transport mechanism typically seen in renal tubular epithelial cells?
 
  A. cotransport proteins in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule that move Na+ and glucose from the proximal tubule into epithelial cells
  B. transport proteins that move glucose by facilitated diffusion from inside of proximal tubule cells into the renal interstitial fluid
  C. ion channels that allow Na+ to move by diffusion from the lumen of the proximal tubule into epithelial cells
  D. Na+-K+ ATPase pumps in the luminal membrane of proximal tubule epithelial cells that move Na+ from inside the cell into the tubule and K+ from the tubule lumen into the cell
  E. countertransport proteins that move Na+ into proximal tubule epithelial cells while moving H+ from the cells into the lumen



(Question 10) Which equation is equal to the net glomerular filtration pressure?
 
  A. = hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries - hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule - osmotic pressure due to protein in Bowman's capsule
  B. = osmotic pressure due to protein in plasma - hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries - hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule
  C. = hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries + hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule + osmotic pressure due to protein in plasma
  D. = hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries + hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule - osmotic pressure due to protein in plasma
  E. = hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries - hydrostatic pressure in Bowman's capsule - osmotic force due to proteins in plasma
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A year ago
1) E

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2) C

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3) A

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4) C

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5) B

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6) A

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7) A

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8) C

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9) D

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10) E
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