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What is initiative, as described by Erikson? How does it influence peer interactions and self-concept? Will children of all cultures and areas of the world acquire initiative?
Textbook 

Early Childhood Development: A Multicultural Perspective


Edition: 7th
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A month ago
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Suggested Responses: Students should define initiative as an emotional state in which children assert themselves, make creative attempts, take risks, and reach out to peers. Children develop a positive self-concept as they are allowed, without punishment or criticism to develop this initiative. Their self-concept will suffer - they will develop what Erikson terms guilt - if they are led to believe their efforts are wrong or bad. Children with a positive self-concept feel successful and optimistic and are more likely to take the initiative with peers and, thus, more likely to develop positive relationships. Children who are raised in cultures that place less value on initiative (such as China and Mexico), but place greater value on self-restraint, caution, obedience, restrained obedience, and even shyness, may not acquire the same level of initiative. Alternatively, children from these cultures may show initiative in certain contexts but not in others, and particularly not in the presence of authority figures. In these cultural contexts, high initiative does not have the same relationship to self-concept, and teachers in multicultural classrooms should be aware that not all children must develop high initiative in order to be happy and healthy.
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A month ago
Thank you, thank you, thank you!
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A month ago
You're welcome
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