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how_mendel how_mendel
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11 years ago Edited: 11 years ago, howard
Explain the consensus versus conflict debate.

Post Merge: 11 years ago
Locke believed that people were created by God to be free, equal, independent, and with inherent inalienable rights to life, liberty, and property—and the right of self-protection against those who would infringe on these liberties. In Locke’s view, although most people were good, some would be likely to prey on their fellows, who in turn would constantly have to be on guard against such evildoers. Therefore, people formed governments and surrendered their right of self-protection in exchange for government’s protection of their lives, property, and liberty. Governments thus give protection and receive loyalty and obedience in return. Under the social contract theory, Thomas Hobbes argued that all people were essentially irrational and selfish, with just enough rationality to recognize their situation and to come together to form governments for self-protection. Therefore, they existed in a state of consensus with their governments. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, conversely, argued that “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.” Rousseau associated this loss of freedom with the development of private property and the unequal distribution of resources, and described conflict between the ruling group and the other groups in society.  Thus, the primary difference between the consensus and conflict theorists concerns their evaluation of the legitimacy of the actions of ruling groups in contemporary societies. Locke saw those actions as consistent with natural law, describing societies as consensual and arguing that any conflict was illegitimate and could be repressed by force and other means. Rousseau evaluated the actions of ruling groups as irrational and selfish, creating conflicts among the various groups in society.  The consensus model assumes that all parts of the system work toward a common goal. The conflict model, holding that agency interests tend to make actors within the system self-serving, provides the other approach. This view notes the pressures for success, promotion, and general accountability, which together result in fragmented efforts of the system as a whole, leading to a criminal justice nonsystem.
Source  Justice Administration:
Police, Courts, and Corrections Management

Seventh Edition

Kenneth W. Peak
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Staff Member
3 months ago
The consensus versus conflict debate is a sociological debate about how the social world functions.
The debate concerns the perspectives which sociologists take when theorizing society. The consensus position believes that society is generally stable, apart from a few quirks in the system. On the other hand, the conflict position argues that many of the institutions in society partake in exploitation and oppression.

The consensus perspective is based on the idea that society is held together by shared values and norms. It assumes that people generally agree on what is right and wrong, and that social order is maintained through consensus. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social integration and cohesion, and it views social change as a gradual process.

In contrast, the conflict perspective is based on the idea that society is characterized by conflict and struggle between different groups. It assumes that people have different interests and that social order is maintained through power and coercion. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social inequality and conflict, and it views social change as a result of conflict between different groups.

In summary, the consensus versus conflict debate is a fundamental debate in sociology that concerns the perspectives which sociologists take when theorizing society. While the consensus perspective emphasizes social integration and cohesion, the conflict perspective emphasizes social inequality and conflict.
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