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A year ago
Discuss Walter K. Lindenmann's approach for measuring public relations effectiveness.
Textbook 

Integrated Marketing Communications: Strategic Planning Perspectives

Edition: 5th
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Outputs measure reach, frequency, visits, tone of message, prominence, and the inclusion of a recommendation or endorsement.
Outcomes measure attitude and behaviour change, and considers factors such as awareness, comprehension recognition, credibility, image change, and purchase intentions. Surveys may be required to collect data.
Business results are estimated by analytic techniques or from data collected in surveys. Typical measures include sales revenue, new clients secured, market share, purchase intentions, brand value, and reputation value.
Outputs are a measure of exposure, and companies like to know how much exposure was actually received as a result of its public relations activities. This is referred to as content analysis. There are organizations that keep track of content. They record what is being reported, where, to how many people, over what period of time, in which media, and how the coverage changes over time. For example, if an article appears in the front section of the Toronto Star, a newspaper with a weekday circulation of more than 360 000, how many impressions will be made? If there are 2.5 readers for every newspaper, the potential number of impressions is 900 000 (360 000 × 2.5). If a similar story appears in other newspapers, the total impressions accumulate.
There is an abundance of analytical information available on social media to measure results of a campaign. Such measures include visits, likes, followers, and the number of active advocates a brand or company may have. Going a step further, an organization can get a feel for the sentiments held by people based on their comments and the general degree of audience engagement.
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