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Chapter 1: World of Psychology, 7th

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Name _____________________________________________________________ Chapter 1 - Quick Quiz 1 1. Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology? a) the scientific study of behavior b) the scientific study of mental processes c) the scientific study of behavior and mental processes d) the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes 2. Psychologists who give potential employees tests that determine what kind of job those employees might best perform are interested in the goal of __________ a) prediction. b) explanation. c) description. d) control. 3. __________ is generally considered to be the “father of psychology.” a) Max Wertheimer b) Wilhelm Wundt c) William James d) Sigmund Freud 4. In the early part of the past century, psychologists who broke down thought processes into their basic elements and analyzed them were called structuralists. What term might we use to describe psychologists with similar interests today? a) Gestalt b) cognitive c) behavioral d) humanistic 5. __________ focuses on how humans have adapted the behaviors required for survival in the face of environmental challenges over time. a) Gestalt psychology b) Environmental psychology c) Cognitive psychology d) Evolutionary psychology 6. Dr. Ngaro feels that an individual’s behavior can best be understood if one understands the cultural influences surrounding that individual. This is an example of the __________ a) sociocultural perspective. b) biological perspective. c) humanist perspective. d) evolutionary perspective. 7. Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation? a) It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid. b) It involves observing behavior in its natural context. c) It is basically the same process as objective introspection. d) It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings. 8. You overhear psychology students preparing for a test. They note that one of the research methods often “fails to generalize.” Which method is the MOST likely topic of their discussion? a) correlation b) case study c) experiment d) surveys 9. A negative correlation means that __________ a) high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. b) high values of one variable are associated with high values of the other. c) low values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. d) there is no relationship between the two variables. 10. Professor Caine is running an experiment to determine if exercise affects memory retention. Two groups of participants are given the same list of 25 words and allowed 15 minutes to study them. Then one group sits idly in a classroom while the other participates in an hour-long aerobic work-out. After the work-out each group is tested in the classroom on the list of words. What is the independent variable in this study? a) the aerobic work-out b) the word list c) scores on the test d) time allowed to study Chapter 1 - Quick Quiz 1 Answer Key 1. c Explanation: This definition includes the most important descriptors of the field of psychology, but does not limit the definition to the study of only human behaviors. (Page 2, Factual, LO 1.1) 2. a Explanation: The employer is using a test to attempt to determine future behavior. This is consistent with the psychological goal of prediction.(Page 5, Applied, LO 1.2) 3. b Explanation: Wundt established the first laboratory of psychology in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. This is considered the beginning of the science of psychology. (Page 6, Factual, LO 1.3) 4. b Explanation: Attempting to understand the mind and how it works is the primary emphasis of the modern perspective called cognitive psychology. (Page 10, Conceptual, LO 1.9) 5. d Explanation: The main tenet of evolutionary theory is the survival of the species over time. The application of these principles to the study of psychology is called evolutionary psychology. (Page 12, Conceptual, LO 1.10) 6. a Explanation: Factors such as culture, religion, race, gender, and physical challenges are all examples of things that are of interest to a sociocultural psychologist. (Page 13, Applied, LO 1.12) 7. b Explanation: Naturalistic observation does involve observing behavior in its natural context. (Page 18, Factual, LO 1.16) 8. b Explanation: A case study focuses on one subject, and the information gained from it might not be generally true of other similar subjects. (Page 18, Applied, LO 1.17) 9. a Explanation: A negative correlation means that high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other. (Pages 21-22, Factual, LO 1.19) 10. a Explanation: The workout is the condition or situation that is manipulated by the experimenter, so it is the independent variable. (Page 24, Applied, LO 1.21)

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