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wrote...
Posts: 812
A month ago
Starting 0:50, "The life-sustaining power of enzymes lies in the fact that they catalyze reaction in mild conditions of pH, temperature and atmospheric pressure"



Referring to above statement, I would like to know on how following factors affect enzymes' efficiency on catalyze reaction:

1) pH
2) temperature
3) atmospheric pressure
4) Electromagnetic radiation

Does anyone have any suggestions?
Thanks in advance for any suggestions
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wrote...
Educator
A month ago
Most enzymes run optimally at slightly above pH 7, low salt concentrations, and at body temperature. At the extremes, enzymes denature and stop functioning. In humans, I've never come across any relationships in terms of varying atmospheric pressure. Electromagnetic radiation (at the extremes) disrupts DNA mostly; damaged DNA leads to damaged enzymes.
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wrote...
A month ago
When human is diving, there is a big change in atmospheric pressure within body, is there any study on how atmospheric pressure affects enzymes' activity.

Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)
wrote...
Educator
A month ago Edited: A month ago, bio_man
Atmospheric pressure is physical pressure technically. Physical pressure doesn't affect enzymes, it affects the cell as a whole.

Hope that helps Slight Smile
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wrote...
A month ago
Body can maintain temperature at 37 degree very well, so temperature would not be the important factor to affect enzyme's activity.

Would pH be the important factor to affect enzyme's activity? if not what else can be the important factor to affect enzyme's activity during winter blue period?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thank you very much for any suggestions (^v^)
wrote...
A month ago
i think all the facrots you listed above;Ph, temperature,  atmospheric pressure and Electromagnetic radiation affect enzyme's activity during winter blue period.  People who experience SAD are often recommended to exercise and get expose to light  during daylight hours. Temperature which is a type of energy associated with motion such as exercise.  Light is made of electromagnetic radiation thus is made up of energy.  Human needs sunlight which is a form of energy to activate the sterion in the brain. so Each of these parameters must be considered and optimized in order for an enzymatic reaction to be accurate and reproducible.
wrote...
Educator
A month ago Edited: A month ago, bio_man
Body can maintain temperature at 37 degree very well, so temperature would not be the important factor to affect enzyme's activity.

Not during a flu though. It can reach 40 °C, and at that point could damage the enzymes found in brain cells.

 
Would pH be the important factor to affect enzyme's activity

pH is also very well-maintained, no matter what illness you have, so I don't think that'd be a factor pertaining to SAD.

SAD is not an 'enzymatic problem', even though enzymes control the production of serotonin. I'll need to research this further and get back to you on this matter.
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wrote...
A month ago
Human needs sunlight which is a form of energy to activate the sterion in the brain.

The main different between Summer and Winter is Day time period, which is directly related to light.  Biological pathway : Less sunlight > Less enzymes activity > Lower serotonin level > Winter Blue, would it be correct?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thanks, to everyone very much for any suggestions (^v^)
wrote...
Educator
A month ago
Less enzymes activity

Less enzyme expression is a better way to put it. The sunlight does NOT interact with the enzyme directly.

Here's a relationship that'll help you understand:

The level of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is low during daylight and peaks during the night. In some species, circadian changes in NAT activity are tightly correlated with transcription of the NAT messenger RNA, while in other species, post-transcriptional regulation of NAT activity is responsible.

The complete process to form serotonin is: Tryptophan (amino acid) is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan (via an enzyme), which is converted to serotonin (via another enzyme).

It could be that tryptophan hydroxylase is expressed LESS when there's less sunlight, hence less serotonin is made. That's my assumption.
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A month ago Edited: A month ago, oem7110
UVA radiation leads to an inhibition of N-acetyltransferase via a cutaneous pathway [41]. As a result the production of serotonin increases at the expense of melatonin.

circadian changes in NAT activity are tightly correlated with transcription of the NAT messenger RNA, while in other species, post-transcriptional regulation of NAT activity is responsible. The complete process to form serotonin is: Tryptophan (amino acid) is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan (via an enzyme), which is converted to serotonin (via another enzyme). It could be that tryptophan hydroxylase is expressed LESS when there's less sunlight, hence less serotonin is made. That's my assumption.

I would like to know on how many ways to generate serotonin as shown below:

More UVA >  Less N-acetyltransferase > (? enzyme) > serotonin
Less UVA > Tryptophan > 5-hydroxytryptophan (via another enzyme) > serotonin

Do you have any suggestions?
Thanks, to everyone very much for any suggestions (^v^)

wrote...
Educator
A month ago
I couldn't find any literature that indicates within the serotonin biosynthesis pathway that any of its enzymes are light sensitive. There is an enzyme in the serotonin to melotonin pathway that IS light sensitive called serotonin n-acetyltransferase. Therefore, for the sake of argument we can say in some other pathway leading to the formation of the enzymes responsible of the biosynthesis of serotonin are dictated by sunlight.

Also a good read: https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/evolutionary-psychiatry/201105/sunlight-sugar-and-serotonin

It explains that while serotonin is the culprit, it may be one's diet during the winter months that ultimately affects serotonin levels, NOT sunlight.
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A month ago
Winter blue is more likely related to weather (sunlight), not diet, because Summer blue is not common.  There is an interesting article about Navy and Sunlight, do you able to access this material online?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thanks, to everyone very much for any suggestions (^v^)

"Exposure to sunlight, work hours, and consumption of caffeinated beverages are important factors when planning watchstanding schedules at sea. Even though further research is needed, our results suggest that even brief exposure to sunlight may contribute to circadian misalignment that negatively affects sleep in the operational environment. Educating crewmembers about sleep hygiene, especially the important roles played by sunlight and caffeine, could potentially improve the sleep and fatigue levels of this population of maritime shiftworkers.Shattuck NL, Matsangas P. Sunlight exposure, work hours, caffeine consumption, and sleep duration in the naval environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):579-585."
Ref : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28539147
wrote...
Educator
A month ago
Quote
Winter blue is more likely related to weather (sunlight), not diet, because Summer blue is not common.

Good point

I did a search using our college's journal database, but this one was unavailable Frowning Face

Any other article you need, let me know
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wrote...
A month ago Edited: A month ago, oem7110


Starting at 5:00
specialized receptors in your retina in the back of the eye would kick off an avalanche of neurological activity. These receptors have a broadband connection to body clock circuitry buried deep inside the brain. These are circuits that regulate your sleep, and appetite and arousal, and hormone levels. And for millions of Americans and Europeans every winter, when the days turn cold and bleak, and short,  Sunlight deprivation causes all hell to break loose in the brain. And the result is an episode of debilitating, painful seasonal affective disorder and anyone of us can have a decrease, a drop in serotonin-basded signaling any time we are chronically sunlight deficient, Any time we are chronically deprived of sunlight

Important Q : Is there any research reference to describe the biosynthesis pathway as shown highlight above? What is going on how sunlight affect on body clock circuitry through eye receptors?

Starting 7:53
It is a therapeutic light box that simulates the effects of sunlight on the brain its effects, its benefits, typically kick in within five to seven days where medication takes about three to four weeks before it starts to work

Q : Is there any comparison on handling depression using therapeutic light box between normal and blind people?


Starting 8:56
What we think about also matters to the brain, rumination is the habit of dwelling on our negative thoughts repeatedly at length. It ramps up our brain's stress circuitry, and that, in turn, interferes with the whole process of memory consolidation. It is the big reason why memory tends to suffer whenever we are stressed and we get trapped inside our own heads.  The research shows that we are most likely to ruminate whenever we are completely alone

Q : Do you have any comments on above statements about the roots cause of depression during winter?

Do you have any suggestions?
Thanks, to everyone very much for any suggestions (^v^)

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