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Ch10 Personality

Louisiana State University : LSU
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Category: Psychology and Mental Health
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Chapter 10 – Personality 1. __________ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that lend stability and consistency to an individual’s behavior and serve to differentiate one individual from another. a. Personality b. Temperament c. Character d. Any of these Answer: a Page: 258 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 2. Dr. Ainsworth believes that one’s personality largely reflects internal, unconscious forces. Dr. Ainsworth appears to take a(n) ___________ approach to personality. a. humanistic b. behavioral c. psychodynamic d. evolutionary Answer: c Page: 259 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 3. Which of the following psychologists is NOT associated with the psychodynamic perspective on personality? a. Jung b. Adler c. Horney d. All these are associated with the psychodynamic perspective. Answer: d Page: 259 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 4. The preconscious in Freud’s theory is most nearly analogous to ________ memory in the three-stage model of memory described in your text. a. short-term b. long-term c. working d. sensory Answer: b Page: 259 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 5. According to Freud, the key to personality lies in a. unconscious conflicts. b. preconscious processes. c. conscious experience. d. the subconscious mind. Answer: a Page: 259 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 6. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which Freud's personality structures develop during infancy and childhood, from first to last? a. superego ego id b. id superego ego c. id ego superego d. superego id ego Answer: c Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 7. Which of the following sequences best reflects the extent to which Freud's personality structures operate consciously, from LEAST conscious to MOST conscious? a. ego id superego b. ego superego id c. superego ego id d. id superego ego Answer: d Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 8. According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the id is matched with which of the following descriptive terms? a. conscience b. pleasure principle c. reality principle d. self-actualization Answer: b Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 9. According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the ego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms? a. conscience b. pleasure principle c. reality principle d. self-actualization Answer: c Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 10. According to Freud, the personality structure he labeled the superego is matched with which of the following descriptive terms? a. conscience b. pleasure principle c. reality principle d. self-actualization Answer: a Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 11. What do the id and the superego have in common? a. They both reflect society’s rules and constraints. b. They are both unrealistic. c. They are both motivated by primitive drives. d. Absolutely nothing—they are direct opposites. Answer: b Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 12. In Freud’s theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed a. fixations. b. defense mechanisms. c. complexes. d. conflicts. Answer: a Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 13. Which of the following sequences indicates the order of the first three stages in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, from first to last? a. oral phallic anal b. anal oral phallic c. anal phallic oral d. oral anal phallic Answer: d Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 14. The five stages that are identified by particular pleasures experienced by the individual are known as a. Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. b. Piaget’s cognitive stages of development. c. Kohlberg’s moral stages of development. d. Freud’s psychosexual stages of development. Answer: d Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 15. According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during which stage of psychosexual development? a. oralb. genitalc. anald. phallic Answer: d Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 16. During the phallic stage of Freud’s theory, children develop a sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent and hostility toward the same-sex parent. This complex psychological phenomenon is known as a. homosexual tendencies. b. an Oedipus complex. c. womb or penis envy. d. parental intellectualization. Answer: b Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 17. In Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, castration anxiety occurs in young boys because they fear that a. they might still turn into girls as they get older. b. their fathers might castrate them, because they are rivals for their mothers’ attention. c. they have masturbated too much. d. their sisters might castrate them because they have penis envy. Answer: b Page: 260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 18. In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a(n) a. self-actualization principle. b. fixation process. c. defense mechanism. d. psychosexual strategy. Answer: c Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 19. Probably the most basic or fundamental of the defense mechanisms is that of a. denial. b. repression. c. projection. d. sublimation. Answer: b Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 20. The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only with Sigmund Freud but also with a. Bertha Pappenheim. b. Alfred Adler. c. Karen Horney. d. Anna Freud. Answer: d Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 21. In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, while on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as a. repression. b. reaction formation. c. projection. d. rationalization. Answer: b Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 22. Liz yells at her dog after getting a test back that she failed. Which defense mechanism is she using? a. projection b. sublimation c. reaction formation d. displacement Answer: d Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 23. Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan pours himself into his studies. Which defense mechanism is he using? a. projection b. sublimation c. reaction formation d. displacement Answer: b Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 24. Shauntel tells people that her coworker Mary dislikes her; if she were honest, though, Shauntel would realize that it is actually she who dislikes Mary. Which defense mechanism is she using? a. projection b. sublimation c. reaction formation d. displacement Answer: a Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 25. “Ben’s nasty; he’s disgusting,” says Renee; really, Renee secretly finds Ben sexy. Which defense mechanism is she using? a. projection b. sublimation c. reaction formation d. displacement Answer: c Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 26. Which of the following statements identify criticisms leveled against the METHODOLOGICAL basis of Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality? a. Freud’s theory is built wholly on case study data.b. Many of the concepts in Freud’s theory are not operationalized.c. Freud does not offer specific mechanisms allowing one to predict the effects of fixation at a particular stage of psychosexual development.d. Both A and B Answer: d Pages: 262 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 27. Which of the following statements CORRECTLY identifies/identify potential shortcomings of Freud’s theory of psychosexual development? a. Freud assumed that personality continued to change dramatically during adolescence and adulthood; we now know that personality is essentially stable from puberty onward. b. Freud failed to account that personality may continue to develop after puberty. c. Freud failed to specify how exactly fixation at a particular stage would be displayed in adult personality. d. Both B and C Answer: d Pages: 262 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 28. How might we criticize Freud’s psychodynamic theory, given the values of contemporary psychological science? a. Freud’s theory seems to contain a bias against women. b. Freud fails to consider potential cultural influences on personality and personality development. c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B Answer: c Pages: 262–263 APA Goal: Goal 5: Values in Psychology 29. Which of the following Freudian notions appears to have been supported in subsequent empirical research? a. Unconscious processes contribute importantly to thought and behavior. b. Much of our behavior reflects an attempt to guard against unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses. c. Adult personality reflects fixation at particular childhood psychosexual development. d. None of these ideas have received much empirical support. Answer: a Page: 262–263 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 30. Which of the following is NOT one of the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts? a. Adler b. Cattell c. Jung d. Erikson Answer: b Pages: 262–264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 31. Which neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorist is CORRECTLY matched with a key concept? a. Rogers; inferiority complex psychology b. Adler; unconditional positive regard c. Horney; collective unconscious d. None of these is correctly matched. Answer: d Pages: 262–264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 32. In general, how does neo-Freudian thought differ from Freud’s original theory? a. The neo-Freudians placed even more emphasis on sex than did Freud. b. The neo-Freudians tended to emphasize the importance of the ego rather than that of the id. c. The neo-Freudians paid more attention to sociocultural influences on behavior. d. Both B and C Answer: d Page: 262-264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 33. In positing the collective unconscious, Jung may be seen as pursuing a goal similar to that of contemporary evolutionary psychologists. In what way? a. He was attempting to explain phenomena universal across cultures. b. He was attempting to suggest how consciousness aids our adaptation to our environment. c. He was attempting to specify the physiological bases of thought and behavior. d. He was attempting to describe the influence of an individual’s culture on her thought and behavior. Answer: a Page: 262 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 34. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimately, it stems from ________ theory. a. Freudian b. Jungian c. Adlerian d. Eriksonian Answer: b Page: 262–263 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 35. ___________ is often considered the first feminist psychologist. a. Karen Horney b. Mary Calkins c. Bertha Pappenheim d. Anna Freud Answer: a Page: 263 APA Goal: Goal 8: Sociocultural and International Awareness 36. Karen Horney believed that the strongest influence on an individual’s personality was that person’s a. birth order. b. relationship with his/her parents. c. Oedipus complex. d. use of defense mechanisms. Answer: b Page: 263 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 37. According to _______, parents can facilitate their children’s development by a. Freud; helping them overcome feelings of powerless and inferiority. b. Horney; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training. c. Horney; providing consistently and adequately for their needs. d. Adler; helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training. Answer: c Pages: 263 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 38. Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the key dimensions necessary to explain the consistencies in individuals’ behavior. Dr. Montgomery is a(n) _________ theorist. a. trait b. psychodynamic c. humanistic d. evolutionary Answer: a Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 39. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges Allport’s trait categories from the MOST SPECIFIC to the BROADEST? a. secondary central cardinal b. secondary cardinal central c. cardinal secondary central d. cardinal central secondary Answer: a Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 40. Which of the following is TRUE regarding Allport’s trait categories? a. Not everyone possesses central traits. b. Not everyone possesses cardinal traits. c. Not everyone possesses secondary traits. d. None of these are true. Answer: b Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 41. An all-consuming need for power is sometimes known as Machiavellianism. Because the trait is named in his honor, it would be reasonable to suppose that the need for power was a(n) ________ trait for the Italian prince. a. secondary b. primary c. central d. cardinal Answer: d Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 42. A graduate student is using a statistical software package to identify the basic patterns underlying the many relationships among a large number of variables. She is performing _________ analysis. a. trend b. matrix c. factor d. correlation Answer: c Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 43. ________ trait is to source trait as Allport is to _________. a. Central; Cattell b. Cardinal; Cattell c. Central; Eysenck d. Cardinal; Eysenck Answer: a Page: 264–265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 44. Which trait theorist suggested that there are three fundamental categories of traits that he called cardinal, central, and secondary? a. Allport b. Cattell c. Eysenck d. None of these. Answer: a Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 45. Which trait theorist suggested that there are sixteen pairs of source traits that represent the basic dimensions of personality? a. Allport b. Cattell c. Eysenck d. None of these. Answer: b Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 46. Which trait theorist used factor analysis to determine that there are three dimensions of personality that he called extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism? a. Allport b. Cattell c. Eysenck d. None of these. Answer: c Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 47. Which of the following is NOT one of Eysenck’s basic personality dimensions? a. extraversion b. agreeableness c. neuroticism d. psychoticism Answer: b Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 48. The “Big Five”: what am I talking about? a. a current promotion by a national pizza chain b. the world’s five biggest carmakers c. five key personality factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism d. the five most common defense mechanisms: repression, denial, sublimation, reaction formation, and projection Answer: c Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 49. Which of the following is NOT one of the “Big Five” personality dimensions? a. extraversion b. openness c. neuroticism d. psychoticism Answer: d Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 50. The “Big Five” personality dimensions demonstrate: a. consistency across various procedures to evaluate personality. b. cross-cultural consistency. c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B Answer: c Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 51. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the trait approach to personality? a. Trait approaches provide a clear, straightforward explanation of people’s behavioral consistencies. b. All trait approaches are basically the same. c. Trait approaches allow us to readily compare one person with another. d. All these are advantages. Answer: b Page: 266 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 52. Which of the following is NOT identified as a disadvantage of the trait approach to personality? a. Trait approaches are merely descriptions of personality, not explanations. b. The various trait approaches come to very different conclusions about which traits are the most fundamental and descriptive. c. Trait approaches do not allow us to compare one person with another. d. All these are disadvantages. Answer: c Page: 266 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 53. Dr. Plater believes that one’s personality is really just a collection of behaviors that have been reinforced in the past. Dr. Plater endorses the _________ approach to personality. a. trait b. learning c. cognitive d. psychodynamic Answer: b Page: 266 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 54. Dr. Robinson is a strict Skinnerian learning theorist. Most likely, she believes that the consistency in an individual’s behavior across situations is a. inexplicable. b. illusory. c. somewhat uninteresting. d. endlessly fascinating. Answer: c Page: 266 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 55. One of the main proponents of the social cognitive approach to personality is a. Allport. b. Skinner. c. Cattell. d. Bandura. Answer: d Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 56. What makes one person different from another? Which theorist below is CORRECTLY matched to a potential response to this question? a. Skinner: “People have different histories of reinforcement and punishment.” b. Bandura: “People develop different expectations of the effect their behavior is likely to have.” c. Cattell: “People differ in the extent to which their behavior reflects several fundamental dimensions. d. All these are correctly matched. Answer: d Pages: 265–267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 57. Which approach to personality emphasizes the role played by self-efficacy? a. Bandura’s social cognitive approachb. Skinner’s behaviorist approachc. Allport’s trait theoryd. Rogers’s humanistic theory Answer: a Pages: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 58. Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high self- a. esteem. b. efficacy. c. actualization. d. awareness. Answer: b Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 59. Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her students’ math assignments. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students’ self- a. awareness. b. esteem. c. efficacy. d. actualization. Answer: c Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 60. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding self-esteem? a. An individual’s sense of self-esteem may be multidimensional. b. Self-esteem may be based on different factors in different cultures. c. Self-esteem is pretty much the same concept in every culture. d. Both A and B are true. Answer: d Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 8: Sociocultural and International Awareness 61. As compared to a Skinnerian learning theory approach to personality, the social cognitive approach places __________ emphasis on ____________. a. less; the individual b. more; the environment c. more; the interaction between the individual and the environment d. less; the interaction between the individual and the environment Answer: c Page: 266–267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 62. The belief that your personality is the result of the influence of your unique thought, feelings, expectations, and values as well as your observations of others’ behavior is called the __________ approach to personality. a. interactionist b. cognitive-behavioral c. learning d. social-cognitive Answer: d Page: 266–267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 63. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect a contribution of the learning approach to personality? a. Such approaches have increased the objectivity of personality psychology. b. Such approaches have generated a range of successful treatments for psychological disorders. c. Such approaches have increased our appreciation of individuals’ complex inner lives. d. Actually, each of these statements reflects an important contribution of learning approaches to personality. Answer: c Page: 267–268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 64. Tellegen’s twin studies of the genetic basis of personality revealed that the trait of __________ has a larger genetic component than does the trait of achievement. a. social closeness b. leadership c. social potency d. Both A and C Answer: c Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 65. The degree to which a person assumes mastery and leadership roles in social situations is a trait known as __________. a. traditionalism b. need for achievement c. social closeness d. social potency Answer: d Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 66. The tendency to follow authority is a trait known as a. traditionalism. b. need for achievement. c. social closeness. d. social potency. Answer: a Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 67. Which theories suggest that important components of personality are inherited? a. biological and genealogical b. genealogical and evolutionary c. evolutionary and cognitive. d. biological and evolutionary Answer: d Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 68. Which of the following traits does not have a strong genetic component? a. social potency b. traditionalism c. achievement d. All of these have strong genetic components. Answer: c Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 69. Which of these is associated with both thrill-seeking and extroversion? a. adrenaline b. dopamine c. norepinephrine d. serotonin Answer: b Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology 70. According to your text, studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of a. impulsivity. b. conscientiousness. c. neuroticism. d. aggressiveness. Answer: a Page: 268 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 71. Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of human nature—that humans are essentially “good”? a. biologicalb. humanisticc. learningd. trait Answer: b Page: 269 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 72. ____________ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective. a. Bandura b. Maslow c. Rogers d. Both B and C Answer: d Page: 269 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 73. Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self- a. deception. b. esteem. c. actualization. d. efficacy. Answer: c Page: 270 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 74. According to Carl Rogers, people experience anxiety when a. they feel inferior in the face of a challenging task.b. they become conscious of unacceptable sexual urges.c. they cannot satisfy their basic needs. d. the self-concept is at odds with their experience. Answer: d Pages: 270 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 75. In what way does unconditional positive regard facilitate self-actualization? a. It motivates an individual to self-actualize. b. It provides the atmosphere of freedom necessary for self-actualization. c. It encourages the development of accurate self-concepts. d. None of these Answer: c Page: 270 APA Goal: Goal 9: Personal Development 76. Humanistic approaches in psychology have been most influential in a. business. b. academia. c. therapeutic settings. d. education. Answer: c Page: 271 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 77. Why is it likely that there will always be many different approaches to personality in psychology? a. The approaches focus on different aspects of personality. b. It would be extremely difficult to test one approach against another scientifically. c. Some of the approaches are difficult to test scientifically and thus difficult to reject once and for all. d. All of these Answer: d Page: 271 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 78. A psychological test is reliable when it a. measures what it is supposed to measure. b. has been normed using a sample representative of those for whom the test has been designed. c. yields consistent measurements. d. All of these Answer: c Page: 271 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 79. Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it actually is supposed to measure? a. reliabilityb. consistencyc. precision quotientd. validity Answer: d Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 80. Which of the following are important criteria for evaluating the usefulness of tests? a. reliability and validity b. consistency and correlation c. necessary and sufficient d. diagnosis and prediction Answer: a Page: 271-–72 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology 81. An online personality test yields different scores each time Jenny takes it. The test is a. reliable. b. not reliable. c. predictive. d. not predictive. Answer: b Page: 271–272 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 82. A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, two months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one of 2,000 college students, and one of 750 community-dwelling non-college adults. However, when you look at the sample questionnaire items she included in the article, it seems to you that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. You are questioning the __________ of the researcher’s questionnaire. a. reliability b. validity c. standardization d. reliability and the validity Answer: a Page: 271–272 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 83. Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the trait of hardiness and senior citizens’ compliance with medication regimes; however, the hardiness measure he used was normed only on college students. Based on this information, which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh’s study? a. the reliability of the resilience measure b. the norming of the resilience measure c. the validity of the resilience measure d. the operationalization of compliance Answer: b Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 84. The most widely used self-report personality test is the a. 16PF. b. Rorschach test. c. TAT. d. MMPI-2. Answer: d Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base in Psychology 85. According to your textbook, the original purpose of the MMPI-2 was to a. predict some everyday behaviors. b. assess a person’s propensity to lie or distort the truth. c. identify people with psychological difficulties. d. Both A and B. Answer: c Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 86. According to your textbook, in addition to the original purpose of the MMPI-2, this test has also been found to a. predict some everyday behaviors. b. assess a person’s propensity to lie or to distort the truth. c. identify people with psychological difficulties. d. Both A and B. Answer: a Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 87. A technique used to validate questions in personality tests by studying the responses of people with different diagnoses is called test __________. a. correlation b. standardization c. intellectualization d. structuralization Answer: b Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 88. Which of the following is NOT a self-report measure of personality? a. the TAT b. the NEO-PI-R c. the MMPI d. the 16 PF Answer: a Pages: 272;273 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 89. The MMPI-2 has been normed using a. samples of college students only. b. a single large representative sample of the U.S. population. c. psychiatric populations. d. Minnesotans only. Answer: c Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 90. The use of ambiguous, unstructured stimuli to assess personality is called __________ testing. a. subjective b. inductive c. objective d. projective Answer: d Page: 273 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 91. Liz has been given a card with an inkblot on it and is asked “What does this look like to you?” It is most likely that Liz is taking a(n) __________ personality test. a. Rorschach b. inkblot c. projective d. All of these Answer: d Page: 273 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 92. The TAT and the Rorschach are ________ tests of personality. a. objective b. reflective c. projective d. self-report Answer: c Pages: 273 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 93. The best-known projective test of personality is the a. MMPI-2. b. TAT. c. NEO-PI-R. d. Rorschach. Answer: d Page: 273 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 94. Inkblot is to picture as ________ is to _______. a. Rorschach; TAT b. TAT; Rorschach c. MMPI; TAT d. Rorschach; MMPI Answer: a Pages: 273 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 95. Critics of the Rorschach contend that it a. is invalid. b. resists standardization. c. requires too much inference on the part of the examiner. d. All of these Answer: d Page: 273–274 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 96. Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on a. the use of ambiguous stimuli. b. the careful operationalization of behavioral variables. c. the rigorous standardization of personality questionnaires. d. the interpretive skill of the examiner. Answer: d Page: 274 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 97. Which of the following is NOT one of the text’s recommended strategies for being an informed consumer of psychological test data? a. Remember that tests results are not always accurate.b. Keep appraised of data on test popularity.c. Base no decision only on the results of one test.d. Understand what the test claims to measure. Answer: b Page: 274 APA Goal: Goal 9: Personal Development 98. The notion that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces and conflicts is at the core of the _______ approach to personality. Answer: psychodynamic Page: 259 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 99. The id is to the pleasure principle as the ego is to the _________ principle. Answer: reality Page: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 100. __________ refers to wanting to be like another person as much as possible. Answer: Identification Page: 260–261 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 101. The most basic and direct defense mechanism is that of ________, in which unacceptable feelings or impulses and pushed back into the unconscious. Answer: repression Page: 261 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 102. Jung might suggest that the questing hero figure prominent in many legends, stories, epic poems, and so forth represents a(n) __________, a symbolic representation of a universal experience. Answer: archetype Page: 263 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 103. We constantly strive to improve and perfect ourselves, a motivation Adler termed the striving for _________. Answer: superiority Page: 263 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 104. Neo-Freudian theorist __________ is often termed the “first feminist psychologist.” Answer: Karen Horney Page: 263 APA Goal: Goal 8: Sociocultural and International Awareness 105. Consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations are known as __________. Answer: traits Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 106. Cardinal traits are ________ specific than are central traits. Answer: less Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 107. Anastasia is using a statistical procedure to detect the broader relationships among a large number of correlation coefficients. She is performing __________. Answer: factor analysis Page: 264 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 108. The acronym OCEAN is a way to help you remember the “Big Five” personality dimensions. The A stands for ____________. Answer: agreeableness Page: 265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 109. Albert Bandura is one of the leading proponents of a ___________ approach to personality. Answer: social cognitive Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 110. Task is to self as _________ is to esteem. Answer: efficacy Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 111. Bandura used the term __________ to describe viewing the actions of others and observing the consequences. Answer: observational learning Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 112. __________ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations. Answer: Self-esteem Page: 267 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 113. According to Carl Rogers, one’s _________ contains the set of beliefs an individual holds about what she is like as a person. Answer: self-concept Page: 270 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 114. John’s therapist strives to provide an atmosphere of acceptance and respect, no matter what comes up during the sessions. John’s therapist is providing __________. Answer: unconditional positive regard Page: 270 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 115. “Every time I take it, it comes up with something different!” remarks Rita, turning away from the online personality quiz she just completed. Rita is complaining about the test’s __________. Answer: reliability Page: 271 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 116. The ________________, or MMPI-2, may be the most widely used self-report measure of personality. Answer: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Page: 272 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 117. Barry is looking at an abstract collage of colors, lines, and shapes, trying to come up with an interpretation of it. Barry may be taking some sort of _________ personality test. Answer: projective Page: 273 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology 118. Direct measures of an individual’s behavior designed to describe characteristics is called __________. Answer: behavioral assessment Page: 274 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 119. Describe Freud’s three components of personality. Answer: Include these points: Id. Composed of innate, biological instincts and urges that is entirely in the unconscious. The id works on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of needs. The id is unrealistic in that it does not consider the practical realities imposed by society. Ego. Strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective, outside world. The ego operates on the reality principle, and makes decisions, controls actions, and allows thinking and problem solving of a higher order than the id’s capabilities. Superego. Represents the incorporation of parental and societal standards for morality and includes the conscience. The superego helps us control impulses coming from the id, making our behavior less selfish. However, the superego, like the ego, is unrealistic in that it does not consider practical realities imposed by society. Pages: 259–260 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 120. How have psychologists criticized (a) the methodological basis and (b) the sociocultural generality of Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality? Identify one or two of the major contributions of Freud’s work to psychology and to Western culture more generally. Answer: Include these points: Methodological criticisms. Freud’s theory contains many unobservable, unquantifiable constructs, such as “the id.” Moreover, it rests on a foundation of observational, case study data. Sociocultural generality. Freud developed his theory based on case studies of a narrow sample of well-heeled Jewish Viennese women seeking psychological treatment Whether Freudian theory generalizes beyond this narrow demographic is a matter of debate, Contributions. Freud developed a form of psychotherapy called psychoanalysis, which is still widely practiced today. Freud focused our attention on unconscious thought; modern cognitive psychology is finding increasing evidence that much of our thought and behavior is implicit or unconscious in origin. Freud contributed to Western society the ideas of unconscious processes and the childhood roots of adult psychological difficulties. Pages: 262–264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 121. How do the theories of the neo-Freudian psychodynamic theorists differ from Freud’s pioneering views? Identify two neo-Freudians, and describe some of their major contributions to psychological theory. Answer: The neo-Freudian theorists placed less emphasis on the id and on sex than did Freud; instead, they emphasized the ego and the sociocultural environment to a greater extent than did Freud. Two of the following neo-Freudian theorists should be described briefly, with some mention of these points: Carl Jung. Carl Jung provided a positive interpretation of unconscious urges, suggesting that they represented a positive life force, an urge toward creativity. Jung posited a universal collective unconscious, a common set of ideas, images, and feelings that we have inherited from our ancestors. The collective unconscious is revealed in universal experiences and behaviors. The collective unconscious contains archetypes, universal symbols of broadly shared experiences. One example is the “mother” archetype. Karen Horney. Often called the first feminist psychologist, Horney suggested that personality develops in familial and social contexts. She disagreed with the Freudian notion of penis envy, suggesting instead that what women envy is the freedom and autonomy that men enjoy. She suggested that society’s rigid gender roles cause women to feel ambivalent about success. Alfred Adler. Adler believed that our primary motive is the striving for superiority, namely, the desire to improve and perfect ourselves. Inferiority complexes may develop when we are unable to overcome the powerlessness we first experienced as children. Pages: 262–264 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 122. Describe trait approaches to personality. Briefly describe ONE OF Allport’s, Cattell’s, or Eysenck’s trait theory of personality. Identify the Big Five personality dimensions central to contemporary trait approaches. Outline several ways in which the validity of the Big Five theory is supported. Answer: The answer should define the trait approach to personality. Trait approaches seek to find the basic dimensions underlying the consistency in an individual’s behavior across situations. One of these trait theories should be described: Allport’s theory. Allport suggested that there are three types of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary. A cardinal trait is a single characteristic that directs most of an individual’s activities. Most people do not develop single, comprehensive cardinal traits. Central traits are the major traits that make up the personality of most individuals. Most people have, say, five to ten core central traits. Finally, secondary traits are those that are less influential than central traits; they may influence an individual’s behavior only in a few specific situations. Cattell’s theory. Cattell used a statistical procedure called factor analysis to isolate the basic dimensions of personality, which he called source traits. Cattell suggested there were 16 pairs of source traits. Eysenck’s theory. Eysenck also used factor analysis to isolate the basic dimensions of personality. Eysenck suggested that only three major dimensions were necessary to describe personality: extraversion (sociability), neuroticism (emotional stability), and psychoticism (reality distortion). The Big Five dimensions are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The Big Five appear general across age groups, languages, and cultures; moreover, brain imaging studies now relate the dimensions to the way people process information. Pages: 264–265 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 123. Distinguish between self-efficacy and self-esteem. How do these concepts reflect their origins in social learning theory? Suggest how self-esteem may vary across cultures. Answer: Include these points: Self-efficacy refers to one’s belief in one’s capability to complete a specific task. Self-esteem refers to our overall positive and negative evaluations of the self. These concepts stem from the idea that we observe others receiving reinforcement for completing tasks and that we can form expectations regarding our own ability to receive reinforcement from the environment for our behavior. In this way, the concepts of self-efficacy and self-esteem reflect the influence of social learning theory. The basis for self-esteem may differ from one culture to another. In Asian cultures, one’s ability to maintain harmonious relationships with others contributes more significantly to self-esteem than it does in the more individualistic societies of the West. Pages: 267 APA Goal: Goal 8: Sociocultural and International Awareness 124. Review contemporary evidence regarding the potential genetic and biological foundations of personality. Does this evidence contradict the notion that the environment is important in molding personality? Why or why not? Answer: The answer might mention these pieces of evidence: Twin studies. Studies of identical twins raised apart tend to reveal a substantial genetic component to personality: The twins are similar despite the different environments. Some traits, such as traditionalism, reveal a larger hereditary component than do others, such as the need for achievement. Specific genes. Specific genes affecting dopamine receptors have been found to relate to differences in extraversion, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and so on. The preceding evidence does not mitigate the importance of the environment in shaping personality. The biological factors described here do not account for all or even most of the variation between people in particular traits; the dopamine receptor gene, for example, accounts for only 10% of the variation in the personality traits to which it is related. In addition, genetics and the environment interact in complex ways during an individuals’ development; the environment may modulate the expression of one’s genetic makeup, and one’s genes may predispose one to particular environments. Genes and the environment are inextricably linked. Pages: 268–269 APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology 125. Define self-actualization. How is unconditional positive regard critical in supporting an individual’s self-actualization? Answer: Include these points:Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in which an individual has reached his or her highest potential. The humanistic theorists believed that we have an innate, fundamental drive toward self-actualization. Unconditional positive regard is an attitude of acceptance and respect toward another individual, no matter what the individual says or does. This acceptance ensures that the individual’s experiences are not at variance with his or her self-concept and provides an atmosphere in which the individual can grow and evolve without shame or anxiety. Pages: 270 APA Goal: Goal 9: Personal Development 126. Suppose you develop a new self-report measure of the broad personality trait of extraversion. Distinguish between reliability and validity. Describe how you would establish the reliability and validity of your new test. Outline how you would establish norms for the test. Answer: The answer should outline these points: Reliability vs. validity—Reliability refers to the consistency with which a test measures a construct such as intelligence. Validity refers to the degree that a test actually measures what it intends to measure. One way to establish reliability might be to give a sample test twice, weeks or months apart. If the test is reliable, an individual’s two scores should be very nearly identical. One could establish a new test’s validity by showing that scores on the test correlate at least moderately with scores on measures of personality traits related to extraversion, such as sociability, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and so on. The validity of a new test might also be established by showing that scores on the new test correlate well with scores on more well-established tests of extraversion. Norming—The test should be normed using a sample representative of the intended respondents. If the test is intended to assess the extraversion of adults generally, a sample representative of the American population should be used. The average score of the sample should be determined, as should some notion of the typical variability of the scores around the mean. Pages: 271–273 APA Goal: Goal 2: Research Methods in Psychology 127. Distinguish between self-report, projective, and behavioral assessment measures of personality. Provide an example of each. What are some criticisms of “projective” tests such as the Rorschach? Answer: Include these points: Self-report measures—these are objective, “paper-and-pencil” measures of personality. They usually include a large number of simple items asking about a relatively limited sample of their behavior. One example is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Projective measures—these tests tend to contain a small number of relatively ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots. The respondent is asked to interpret, describe, or tell a story about the stimuli. These measures require substantial care and skill in their interpretation. They are most common in clinical than in academic settings. Examples of projective tests include the Rorschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Criticisms of projective measures. Critics contend that projective tests require too much inference on the part of the examiner, that they resist standardization, and that they lack reliability and validity. Behavioral assessment measures—these are direct measures of an individual’s behavior designed to describe characteristics indicative of personality. Such measures may be obtained in naturalistic or in highly controlled laboratory settings. Ideally, behavioral assessment measures are highly objective and quantifiable. They are especially useful in observing and remedying specific behavioral difficulties, such as shyness in children. Pages: 272–274 APA Goal: Goal 4: Application of Psychology

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