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ppk ppk
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8 years ago
Enzymes are important determinants of chemical reaction rates in the body. Describe the mechanisms by which enzymes function to stimulate a reaction.
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bio_manbio_man
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Enzymes act as catalysts to increase the rate of a chemical reaction. Most enzymes are specific for a particular reaction through a two-step process. The enzyme must first bind to the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex. The substrate is then acted on by the enzyme to form a product. The initial step is referred to as the binding step, which is a reversible process. If the complex is around for long enough, the second step, or catalytic step, of the reaction will occur. Each enzyme has a specificity for a particular substrate or class of substrates. The site of substrate binding has been termed the active site, whose binding to the substrate has been modeled in two ways: lock-and-key or induced-fit models. Both of these models refer to the complementary nature of the substrate's conformation for an enzyme. Many of these enzyme reactions require a cofactor, either a trace metal or a coenzyme. Trace metals bind to an enzyme on a site other than the active site, and maintain the enzyme in a structure that will bind to the substrate. The coenzyme is a particular type of cofactor that does not have any catalytic activity of its own but does participate directly in the reaction catalyzed by its partner enzyme by transferring a chemical group with the substrate.
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