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pickacu007 pickacu007
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12 years ago
Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
 
Chapter Quiz



1 .            At the beginning of the 19th century, it was thought that the substances that made up living things were special and could not be synthesized by ordinary chemical methods. This now-discarded theory was called the theory of _____. (Concept 4.1) [Hint]
    special creation
    spontaneous generation
    vitalism
    materialism
    mechanism



2 .            The first organic molecule to be synthesized from inorganic substances was _____. (Concept 4.1) [Hint]
    urea
    acetic acid
    ammonium cyanate
    insulin
    DNA



3 .            Stanley Miller's experiments were significant because he demonstrated that _____. (Concept 4.1) [Hint]
    the behavior of any molecule containing a carbon atom was fundamentally the same
    under certain circumstances the theory of vitalism was valid
    a variety of simple organic compounds could be spontaneously synthesized from components in Earth's primitive atmosphere
    lightning discharges could produce the molecules previously presumed to have originated in volcanic outgassings
    urea could be synthesized from entirely naturally occurring salts



4 .            Which is an organic molecule? (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    Ne
    O2
    CH4
    NaCl
    H2O



5 .            Which element is most particularly associated with organic chemistry? (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    carbon
    sulfur
    nitrogen
    hydrogen
    oxygen



6 .            What is the three-dimensional shape created by hybrid orbitals that are formed when a carbon atom is covalently bonded with four other atoms? (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    a flat sheet with carbon in the center
    a triangle with carbon in the center
    a cube with carbon in the center
    a tetrahedron with carbon in the center
    All of the above are possible.



7 .            A straight-chain carbon compound constructed from _____ must contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond. (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    6 hydrogen, 2 carbon
    6 hydrogen, 3 carbon
    6 hydrogen, 2 carbon, 1 oxygen
    8 hydrogen, 3 carbon, 3 oxygen
    14 hydrogen, 6 carbon



8 .            Carbon atoms are the most versatile building blocks of the molecules used by living organisms because _____. (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    carbon is the central atom of carbon dioxide, a necessary molecule for photosynthesis
    carbon is the central atom in urea, a molecule used by many living organisms to transport wastes from the body
    each carbon atom acts as an intersection point from which a molecule can branch off in up to four directions
    carbon can combine with hydrogen to form hydrocarbons
    all of the above



9 .            The carbon atom is tetravalent; this means that _____. (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    carbon readily forms ionic bonds
    carbon's first electron shell holds 4 electrons
    a carbon atom can complete its valence shell by forming four covalent bonds
    the bond angle between each bond is 90o, forming an arrangement like the points on a compass
    carbon has a total of 4 electrons



10 .            A molecule has one carbon-carbon double bond and four monovalent atoms or groups. How many different geometric isomers exist for this molecule? (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    none
    two
    four
    six
    eight



11 .            The two compounds


are related to each other by being _____. (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    hydrocarbons
    organic compounds
    isomers
    double-bonded compounds
    all of the above



12 .            Which of the following functional groups is present in all amino acids? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    -SH
    -COH
    -OH
    -NH2
    -OPO3-2



13 .            Which of these is found in all amino acids? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    -COOH
    -COH
    -OH
    -NH2
    Both -COOH and -NH2



14 .            Freon, CCl2F2, is _____ because _____. (Concept 4.2) [Hint]
    a structural isomer…there are several possible covalent arrangements
    a geometric isomer…free rotation about the bond axis is not possible
    an enantiomer…the carbon is asymmetric
    an enantiomer…the molecule exists in two mirror-image configurations
    not an isomer…there is only one structural configuration for the molecule



15 .            Glucose and hexanoic acid each contain six carbon atoms, but they have completely different properties. Glucose is a nutrient found in food; hexanoic acid is poisonous. Their differences must be due to different _____. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    monomers
    macromolecules
    isomers
    quaternary structures
    functional groups



16 .            Although the structures of the functional groups that are most important to life vary, they share one thing in common: They _____. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    all contain oxygen
    all have at least one double bond
    always cause the carbon to which they are attached to become an asymmetric carbon, thus they convert the molecule into an enantiomer
    all are hydrophilic and increase the organic compound's water solubility
    force straight chains of carbons into closed rings of carbon



17 .            Ethanol, propanol, and methanol are three simple alcohols. They can be grouped together because they _____. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    all share the same functional group: a hydroxyl
    are soluble in water
    are hydrophobic
    all contain a carbonyl group
    increase the acidity of solutions



18 .            Which one of the following molecules has a carboxyl functional group? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    R-NH2
    R-COH
    R-COOH
    R-OPO3-2
    R-SH



19 .            Which one of the following molecules is a weak base? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    R-NH2
    R-SH
    R-OH
    R-COOH
    none of the above



20 .            Which of the following molecules is a weak acid? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    R-NH2
    R-SH
    R-OH
    R-COOH
    none of the above



21 .            Which one of the following functional groups increases the solubility of organic compounds in water? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    -SH
    -COOH
    -COH
    -NH2
    all of the above



22 .            Which of the following examples describes a unique functional property of the carboxyl group? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    Its compounds may be structural isomers with different properties.
    Two groups can interact to help stabilize protein structure.
    It is polar as a result of the electronegative oxygen atom drawing electrons toward itself.
    The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that hydrogen ions tend to dissociate reversibly.
    It acts as a base.



23 .            Which of the following functional groups is associated with a release of energy that cells can harvest to perform many functions? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    amino
    phosphate
    sulfhydryl
    hydroxyl
    carboxyl



24 .            Which functional group would you predict is part of abscisic acid (ABA)? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    carboxyl
    hydroxyl
    carbonyl
    amino
    sulfhydryl



25 .            The ionized or dissociated carboxyl group may be written as _____. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    -COOH
    -OH
    -COO-
    NH4+
    -C=O



26 .            Which one of the following groups would not be capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional group? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    amino
    hydroxyl
    carboxylic acid
    sulfhydryl
    none of the above



27 .            Choose the pair of terms that complete this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to ______ as ______ is to base. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    acid…carbonyl
    sulfhydryl…carbonyl
    acid…amino
    hydroxyl…amino
    ketone…phosphate



28 .            Which of these is a thiol? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    -SH
    -COH
    -OH
    -NH2
    none of the above



   




©2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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wrote...
Staff Member
12 years ago
Do you need these answered?
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wrote...
Staff Member
Educator
9 years ago
27 .            Choose the pair of terms that complete this sentence about functional groups in organic chemistry: Carboxyl is to ______ as ______ is to base. (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    acid…carbonyl
    sulfhydryl…carbonyl
    acid…amino
    hydroxyl…amino
    ketone…phosphate

acid ... amino ; A carboxyl group has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions. The hydroxyl group acts as a base because it can pick up a proton from the surrounding solution.
Mastering in Nutritional Biology
Tralalalala Slight Smile
wrote...
Staff Member
Educator
9 years ago
26 .            Which one of the following groups would not be capable of hydrogen bonding with an oxygen atom on another functional group? (Concept 4.3) [Hint]
    amino
    hydroxyl
    carboxylic acid
    sulfhydryl
    none of the above

Methyl
Mastering in Nutritional Biology
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